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Such friction piles drilled or excavated adjacent to each other will form a foam sheet piling system. The foam piles can also be re-enforced using nylon, polypropylene, fiberglass, other synthetic or non-synthetic materials or combinations of these materials. The polymeric resin typically would comprise a high density closed cell, water resistant expanding two component polyurethane foam system.

The construction of typical friction piles for use in foundation construction or the construction of structural slabs and in the construction of vertical support members have certain inherent problems or negative characteristics such as: A In the case of friction piles which are drilled and the drilled hole is filled with concrete, the very heavy weight of the concrete must also be taken into account in calculating the load relative to the anticipated holding strength of the friction pile.

Typically the piles have to be drilled deeper to take into account the fairly considerable additional weight of the pile itself. B Maximum friction or holding strength is achieved when as much of the surface of the concrete pile comes into contact with the wall of the drilled hole. C Concrete as a cementitious material is made with water and as such is susceptible to shrinkage as the concrete cures and any shrinkage of the concrete will lessen the skin friction of the pile.

Curing time can also be a mitigating factor in slowing up the next stage of construction after the friction piles have been poured in place.


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D It is not atypical for piles to have to permeate a number of different strata of base soils and wherever the pile goes through a weak strata, the skin friction in this area will be significantly less thereby reducing the overall holding capacity of the pile and requiring a deeper pile to overcome this condition. An injection probe 22 is inserted into the agitated soils 23 and an expanding polymer resin 24 is injected into the agitated base soils 23 permeating same in-total and binding them to give a contiguous mass of material strong enough to support the load of the structure designed to be constructed on this type of piling system FIG.

A method of construction, comprising the steps of: forming a volume of loose granular material in a base soil;.


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The method of claim 1 in which forming a volume of loose granular material comprises: forming a hole in the base soil; and. The method of claim 2 in which injecting a polymeric resin into the volume of loose granular material comprises: inserting a probe into the hole and injecting polymeric resin into the bottom of the hole using the probe. The method of claim 3 in which injecting polymeric resin into the hole comprises removing the probe from the hole while injecting polymeric resin.

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The method of claim 1 in which forming a volume of loose granular material comprises: agitating a granular base soil. The method of claim 5 in which injecting a polymeric resin into the volume of loose granular material comprises: inserting a probe into the volume of agitated granular base soil and injecting polymeric resin through the probe.

The method of claim 6 in which injecting polymeric resin into the hole comprises removing the probe from the volume of agitated granular base soil while injecting polymeric resin. The method of claim 1 in which the base soil is a permafrost soil. The method of claim 1 in which the polymeric resin expands upon injection into the loose granular material to encapsulate the loose granular material.

The method of claim 1 in which the granular material comprises one or more of silt, sand, gravel, rock fragments or construction rubble.

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The method of claim 1 in which the granular material comprises a synthetic material. The method of claim 1 in which the polymeric resin is a two part hydro-insensitive expanding polymeric resin. A construction pile formed by the method of claim 1. A construction barrier formed by application of the method of claim 1 at plural locations adjacent to each other in a base soil.

A method of construction, comprising the steps of: excavating to predetermined depth an excavation by drilling or other conventional excavation techniques; and placing an injection probe or probes into the excavation; and back-filling the excavation with granular material formed of pre-determined sized crushed rock or gravel; and injecting the back-filled material with a polymeric resin, the polymeric resin being an expanding polymeric resin, whereby upon curing, the polymeric resin and granular material forms a structural friction pile.

The method of claim 15 in which the friction pile supports a foundation be it pile and beam construction or concrete slab-on-grade.

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The method of claim 15 in which vertical support structures are constructed in perma frost or ice lenses. The method of claim 15 in which the polymeric resin is a two part hydro-insensitive expanding polymeric resin. The method of claim 15 repeated to form a predetermined and patterned array of friction piles that forms a structural barrier similar to sheet piles. A method of construction, comprising the steps of agitating a base soil; placing an injection probe or probes into the agitated base soil; and injecting the agitated soils with a polymeric resin, the polymeric resin being an expanding polymeric resin, whereby upon curing, the expanding polymeric resin and agitated granular material forms a structural friction pile.

A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels

The method of claim 20 in which the expanding polymeric resin is a closed cell, hydro-insensitive two part polymer resin injected into the agitated base soils. CA CAC en USB2 en. CAC en. A process for the saturation of the cavity 'present in a mass of soil or in a body in general. USB1 en. Open-bottom extensible shells and related methods for constructing a support pier. USA en. Structure for protecting and insulating frozen substrates and method for producing such structures.

CAA en. Select All. Table of Contents. Contents and Preliminary Pages.

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PART 1 Summary. PART 2 Summary. PART 3 Summary. Recommended list of units, unit abbreviations, quantity symbols and conversion factors for use in soil and rock mechanics. References and bibliography.

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This presentation clarifies that negative skin friction is more a pile material stress or a pile settlement problem. The phenomena and causes of negative skin friction are first presented. The research findings on single piles and pile groups subject to negative skin friction using centrifuge modelling technique from the National University of Singapore are then highlighted. The advantages of using selected soil constitute models in better model the load transfer along the pile in vicinity of the neutral point using commercially available pile program and finite element program are deliberated.

Deep excavations for the construction of subway stations are often carried out close to existing buildings. It has been reported that adjacent buildings suffer serious damages due to excavation carried out in soft clay.


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Research studies using centrifuge modelling technique have been carried out to examine the effects of excavation on adjacent single piles and pile groups in sand and in soft clay at the National University of Singapore. This presentation first highlights the findings of the centrifuge model studies. This is followed by the deliberation of practical implications of the findings.

By back analyzing the centrifuge model test results using numerical methods, recommendations for the analysis of behaviour of single piles and pile groups in sand and in clay are then put forward. Professor Ng has published about journal and conference papers. Also he has co-edited five conference proceedings and delivered many keynotes, special lectures and general reports at various major conferences and symposia.

His research interests include onshore, marine and offshore geotechnics. Prof Leung serves on the editorial board of several international journals.