Hangul was widely used by all the Korean classes but often treated as " amkeul " script for female and disregarded by privileged elites, whereas Hanja was regarded as " jinseo " true text. Consequently, official documents were always written in Hanja during the Joseon era. Since most people couldn't understand Hanja , Korean kings sometimes released public notices entirely written in Hangul as early as the 16th century for all Korean classes, including uneducated peasants and slaves. Neither South Korea or North Korea opposes the learning of Hanja , though they are not officially used in North Korea anymore, and their usage in South Korea is mainly reserved for specific circumstances, such as newspapers, scholarly papers, and disambiguation.
Since the Korean War , through 70 years of separation, the North—South differences have developed in standard Korean, including variations in pronunciation and vocabulary chosen, but these minor differences can be found in any of the Korean dialects and still largely mutually intelligible. The English word "Korean" is derived from Goryeo , which is thought to be the first Korean dynasty known to Western nations.
In North Korea and China , the language is most often called Joseon-mal , or more formally, Joseon-o. This is taken from the North Korean name for Korea Joseon , a name retained from the Joseon dynasty until the proclamation of the Korean Empire , which in turn was annexed by the Empire of Japan. In South Korea, the Korean language is referred to by many names including hanguk-eo "Korean language" , hanguk-mal "Korean speech" and uri-mal "our language". Korean is also simply referred to as guk-eo , literally "national language".
Some older English sources also use the spelling "Corea" to refer to the nation, and its inflected form for the language, culture and people, "Korea" becoming more popular in the late s according to Google's NGram English corpus of Korean is considered by most linguists to be a language isolate , though it is commonly included by proponents of the now generally rejected Altaic family. The hypothesis that Korean could be related to Japanese has had some supporters due to some overlap in vocabulary and similar grammatical features that have been elaborated upon by such researchers as Samuel E.
Martin  and Roy Andrew Miller. Also, the doublet wo meaning "hemp" is attested in Western Old Japanese and Southern Ryukyuan languages. It is thus plausible to assume a borrowed term. Another lesser-known theory is the Dravido-Korean languages theory which suggests a relation with Dravidian in India.
Some of the common features in the Korean and Dravidian languages are that they share some similar vocabulary, are agglutinative, and follow the SOV order; in both languages, nominals and adjectives follow the same syntax, particles are post-positional, and modifiers always precede modified words. The Khitan language has many vocabulary items similar to Korean that are not found in Mongolian or Tungusic languages. This suggests a strong Korean presence or influence on Khitan.
Korean shares about 10 cognates with Kra—Dai languages that are also found in some Turkic languages. The possibility of a genetic relation between Turkic languages and Korean, independently from Altaic, is suggested by some linguists. The linguist Choi  suggested already in a close relationship between Turkic and Korean regardless of any Altaic connections:.
In addition, the fact that the morphological elements are not easily borrowed between languages, added to the fact that the common morphological elements between Korean and Turkic are not less numerous than between Turkic and other Altaic languages, strengthens the possibility that there is a close genetic affinity between Korean and Turkic. As no theory has gained wide acceptance, Korean is either called a language isolate or classified as a member of the Koreanic languages language family consisting of the extinct Koguryoic-branch and the otherwise extinct Han-branch.
Modern Korean belongs, like Sillan , to the Han-branch. Currently, Korean is the fourth most popular foreign language in China, following English, Japanese, and Russian. Korean is the official language of North Korea and South Korea. In South Korea, the regulatory body for Korean is the Seoul -based National Institute of the Korean Language , which was created by presidential decree on January 23, Established pursuant to Article 9, Section 2, of the Framework Act on the National Language, the King Sejong Institute is a public institution set up to coordinate the government's project of propagating Korean language and culture; it also supports the King Sejong Institute, which is the institution's overseas branch.
The King Sejong Institute was established in response to:. The Topik Korea Institute is a lifelong educational center affiliated with a variety of Korean universities in Seoul, South Korea, whose aim is to promote Korean language and culture, support local Korean teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges. The institute is sometimes compared to language and culture promotion organizations such as the King Sejong Institute.
Unlike that organization, however, Topik Korea Institutes operate within established universities and colleges around the world, providing educational materials. All dialects of Korean are similar to each other and largely mutually intelligible with the exception of dialect-specific phrases or non-Standard vocabulary unique to dialects , though the dialect of Jeju Island is divergent enough to be sometimes classified as a separate language. There is substantial evidence for a history of extensive dialect levelling , or even convergent evolution or intermixture of two or more originally distinct linguistic stocks, within the Korean language and its dialects.
Download Korea's Online Gaming Empire
This suggests that the Korean Peninsula may have at one time been much more linguistically diverse than it is at present. Nonetheless, the separation of the two Korean states has resulted in increasing differences among the dialects that have emerged over time. Since the allies of the newly founded nations split the Korean peninsula in half after , the newly formed Korean nations have since borrowed vocabulary extensively from their respective allies.
As the Soviet Union helped industrialize North Korea and establish it as a communist state, the North Koreans therefore borrowed a number of Russian terms. Likewise, since the United States helped South Korea extensively to develop militarily, economically, and politically, South Koreans therefore borrowed extensively from English. The differences among northern and southern dialects have become so significant that many North Korean defectors reportedly have had great difficulty communicating with South Koreans after having initially settled into South Korea.
In response to the diverging vocabularies, an app called Univoca was designed to help North Korean defectors learn South Korean terms by translating them into North Korean ones. Aside from the standard language, there are few clear boundaries between Korean dialects, and they are typically partially grouped according to the regions of Korea. Its official use in the Extensions to the IPA is for 'strong' articulation, but is used in the literature for faucalized voice. The Korean consonants also have elements of stiff voice , but it is not yet known how typical this is of faucalized consonants.
They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngeal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx. This occurs with the tense fricative and all the affricates as well. Hangul spelling does not reflect these assimilatory pronunciation rules, but rather maintains the underlying, partly historical morphology. Given this, it is sometimes hard to tell which actual phonemes are present in a certain word.
For example,. Grammatical morphemes may change shape depending on the preceding sounds. Sometimes sounds may be inserted instead. Korean is an agglutinative language. The Korean language is traditionally considered to have nine parts of speech. For details, see Korean parts of speech.
Modifiers generally precede the modified words, and in the case of verb modifiers, can be serially appended. The basic form of a Korean sentence is subject—object—verb , but the verb is the only required and immovable element and word order is highly flexible, as in many other agglutinative languages.
The relationship between a speaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Korean grammar. When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. Nowadays, there are special endings which can be used on declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences; and both honorific or normal sentences.
Honorifics in traditional Korea were strictly hierarchical. The caste and estate systems possessed patterns and usages much more complex and stratified than those used today. The intricate structure of the Korean honorific system flourished in traditional culture and society. Honorifics in contemporary Korea are now used for people who are psychologically distant. Honorifics are also used for people who are superior in status. For example, older people, teachers, and employers. There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Korean , and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation.
The remaining two levels neutral formality with neutral politeness, high formality with neutral politeness are neither polite nor impolite. Nowadays, younger-generation speakers no longer feel obligated to lower their usual regard toward the referent. This is not out of disrespect, but instead it shows the intimacy and the closeness of the relationship between the two speakers. Transformations in social structures and attitudes in today's rapidly changing society have brought about change in the way people speak. In general, Korean lacks grammatical gender.
However, one can still find stronger contrasts between the sexes within Korean speech. Between two people of asymmetrical status in a Korean society, people tend to emphasize differences in status for the sake of solidarity. Koreans prefer to use kinship terms, rather than any other terms of reference. Korean social structure traditionally was a patriarchically dominated family system that emphasized the maintenance of family lines. This structure has tended to separate the roles of women from those of men. The core of the Korean vocabulary is made up of native Korean words. A significant proportion of the vocabulary, especially words that denote abstract ideas, are Sino-Korean words ,  either.
The exact proportion of Sino-Korean vocabulary is a matter of debate. He points out that Korean dictionaries compiled during the colonial period include many unused Sino-Korean words. Most of the vocabulary consists of two sets of words; native Korean and Sino Korean respectively. It is similar to that of English — native English words and Latinate equivalents such as water-aqua , fire-flame , sea-marine , two-dual , sun-solar , star-stellar.
Therefore just like other Korean words, Korean has two sets of numeral systems. However, unlike English and Latin which belong to the same Indo-European languages family and bear a certain resemblance, Korean and Chinese are genetically unrelated and the two sets of words differ completely. All Sino Korean morphemes are monosyllabic as in Chinese, whereas native Korean morphemes can be polysyllabic. The Sino Korean words were deliberately imported along with corresponding Chinese characters for a written language and everything was supposed to be written in Hanja, so the coexistence of Sino Korean would be more thorough and systematic than that of Latinate words in English.
To a much lesser extent, some words have also been borrowed from Mongolian and other languages. Most indirect Western borrowings are now written according to current "Hangulization" rules for the respective Western language, as if borrowed directly. In South Korean official use, a number of other Sino-Korean country names have been replaced with phonetically oriented "Hangeulizations" of the countries' endonyms or English names.
Because of such a prevalence of English in modern South Korean culture and society, lexical borrowing is inevitable. Korean uses words adapted from English in ways that may seem strange to native English speakers. Like other borrowings, many of these idiosyncrasies, including all the examples listed above, appear to be imported into Korean via Japanese, or influenced by Japanese. North Korean vocabulary shows a tendency to prefer native Korean over Sino-Korean or foreign borrowings, especially with recent political objectives aimed at eliminating foreign influences on the Korean language in the North.
In the early years, the North Korean government tried to eliminate Sino-Korean words. To assuage this problem, King Sejong r. The Korean alphabet was denounced and looked down upon by the yangban aristocracy, who deemed it too easy to learn,   but it gained widespread use among the common class,  and was widely used to print popular novels which were enjoyed by the common class.
Below is a chart of the Korean alphabet's symbols and their canonical IPA values:. The letters of the Korean alphabet are not written linearly like most alphabets, but instead arranged into blocks that represent syllables. The syllable blocks are then written left to right, top to bottom. Modern Korean is written with spaces between words, a feature not found in Chinese or Japanese except when Japanese is written exclusively in hiragana , as in children's books.
Korean punctuation marks are almost identical to Western ones. Traditionally, Korean was written in columns, from top to bottom, right to left, but it is now usually written in rows, from left to right, top to bottom.
The Korean language used in the North and the South exhibits differences in pronunciation, spelling, grammar and vocabulary. Words that are written the same way may be pronounced differently, such as the examples below. The pronunciations below are given in Revised Romanization , McCune—Reischauer and Hangul, the last of which represents what the Korean characters would be if one were to write the word as pronounced.
In the South, this rule only applies when it is attached to any single-character Sino-Korean word. Some words are spelled differently by the North and the South, but the pronunciations are the same. Some words have different spellings and pronunciations in the North and the South. Most of the official languages of North Korea are from the northwest Pyeongan dialect , and the standard language of South Korea is the standard language Seoul language close to Gyeonggi- dialect. In general, when transcribing place names, North Korea tends to use the pronunciation in the original language more than South Korea, which often uses the pronunciation in English.
[PDF] Korea's Online Gaming Empire - Semantic Scholar
Such changes were made after the Korean War and the ideological battle between the anti-Communist government in the South and North Korea's communism. For native English speakers, Korean is generally considered to be one of the most difficult languages to master despite the relative ease of learning Hangul. This means that 63 weeks of instruction as compared to just 25 weeks for Italian , French , Portuguese and Spanish are required to bring an English-speaking student to a limited working level of proficiency in which he or she has "sufficient capability to meet routine social demands and limited job requirements" and "can deal with concrete topics in past, present, and future tense.
The Korean Language Proficiency Test, an examination aimed at assessing non-native speakers' competence in Korean, was instituted in ; 17, people applied for the sitting of the examination. Since then the total number of people who have taken the TOPIK has surpassed 1 million, with more than , candidates taking the test in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Language spoken in Korea. Language family. Koreanic Han Sillan Korean. Pyojuneo South Korea. Writing system. Linguist List. Countries with native Korean-speaking populations established immigrant communities in green. Mythology and folklore.
Gamer is royalty in S. Korea
Made in the UK. You can use this widget-maker to generate a bit of HTML that can be embedded in your website to easily allow customers to purchase this game on Steam. Sign in. Home Discussions Workshop Market Broadcasts. Change language.
Install Steam. Your Store. Store Home. Games Games. Software Software. Software Hub. Hardware Hardware. Community Hub. Turn based 4X strategy game, recreating the civilizations of ancient China. Develop your land, build great cities, raise huge armies and fight epic battles, with hundreds of soldiers fighting right on the game map.
Recent Reviews:. All Reviews:. Shining Pixel Studios. Iceberg Interactive. Popular user-defined tags for this product:. Sign in or Open in Steam. Includes 60 Steam Achievements. Publisher: Iceberg Interactive. Share Embed. Read Critic Reviews. Add to Cart. Add all DLC to Cart. About This Game Step into the world of the ancient Orient.
- Korea's Online Gaming Empire.
- Dal Yong Jin.
- Lets Look: Farm!
- Radiologic Diagnosis of Chest Disease?
- Tensors and the Clifford algebra: application to the physics of bosons and fermions;
Control a city or tribe from the dawn of Chinese history, and turn it into a great empire. Develop your land, create great cities, raise huge armies and fight epic wars. All the action takes place on one spectacular game map that brings to life the mountains, forests, plains and deserts of China.
Zoom in close to review your troops and see your peasants toiling, or zoom out for a strategic overview. Plan your battles, end your turn, and then watch as your armies obey your orders, with hundreds of soldiers battling right on the game map. FEATURES Start out as a single nation or tribe, starting from humble beginnings with a single settlement and expand your empire and develop your culture with the aim of becoming the universally recognized Son of Heaven and ruler of the world. Persuade the other factions to recognize you as such by either military force, or by diplomatic persuasion.
Play as one of 24 different factions each with their own special bonuses or penalties. Vast beautifully rendered map featuring an attractive and authentic depiction of the landscape of China and Mongolia. Large scale battles with hundreds or thousands of soldiers, depicted in detail right on the game map.
Watch skilled armies and reinforcements go to battle, according to the battle orders and formations set by the player. Fully animated 3D models, with variations in face and clothing for each model, including infantry, cavalry, chariot and artillery units, as well as naval forces.