The literature abounds with examples of task-focused leadership styles that place an emphasis on the accomplishment of assigned tasks, rather than on the development of productive relationships within the workplace. Task-oriented styles, such as transactional leadership —wherein the leaders tend to explain expectations and reward good performance, correct departures from expectations, and finally attempt to prevent future problems Xirasagar, —can prove useful in fast-paced and high-stress environments, such as the emergency department.
The effectiveness of different task-oriented leadership styles depends on the needs of the organization. Essential Learning Activity 1. Then answer the following questions: Why is it important for the nurse manager to walk through the nursing unit? Relationally Focused Leadership Styles Situational and contingency — based leadership theories , most popular from to , suggest that no one leadership style is ideal for every situation.
Task-Focused Leadership Styles The literature abounds with examples of task-focused leadership styles that place an emphasis on the accomplishment of assigned tasks, rather than on the development of productive relationships within the workplace. Trimble tells a story about Diane, an Indigenous woman from a small Alaskan village who was invited to take on a leadership role in her organization. She said no.
Leadership for the Twenty-First Century
When she was asked a second time, she went home to her village and spoke with her family, Elders, and spiritual leaders, before eventually accepting the offer. Her leadership brought about changes to the organization. Most people, many academicians and scholars argue that contemporary leadership practices will not be able to solve these problems.
Contemporary leadership practices are either preserving the status quo or not making the necessary changes to solve them. This paper argues that the courageous leadership practices could make such changes for solving the current problems in the twenty-first century. The courageous leaders are brave, and they have heart, spirit and exceptional intellectual and emotional capacity to make drastic changes.
They take risks to face and deal with difficult problems instead of overtaking them to move organizations and nations forward. They are creative so that they can make objective analysis, select the most effective strategies, motivate people at their maximum capacities and act under high uncertainties. They solved many difficult problems through utilizing again some of those courage-related characteristics.
Also, business leaders like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Jorma Ollila and others used some of those courage-related characteristics for building new and successful business organizations. The analysis is made within the framework of strategic management process. The insights are gathered from their leadership experiences that may provide some perspectives for the leaders of the twenty-first century to solve current problems and satisfy people's needs.
Today's the biggest problems such as hunger, poverty, unemployment, inequality, corruption, terrorism and wars, lack of liberty and justice, unfair globalization, and environmental destruction are threatening the lives of many people throughout the world and putting future generations under a great risk.
In this study, we analyze the courage characteristics of these leaders including intellectual knowledge courage, moral courage, creativity courage, biological courage, and followers' courage. E-mail address: asimsen beykent. Today's major problems such as hunger, poverty, unemployment, inequality, corruption, terrorism, wars, lack of liberty, justice, unfair globalization and environmental destruction are generating crises, distress and anxieties in the societies. Such problems threaten the lives of many people throughout the world and put next generations under a great risk. The contemporary leadership practices failed to solve these problems.
Most people, many academicians and scholars argue that current political and economic policies of contemporary leadership practices will not be able to solve the current problems; and they should be changed Toffler, ; Drucker, ; Senge, ; Gibson, ; Sachs, ; Marber, ; Collis, ; Sharp, ; Kellerman, ; Ross, ; Stiglitz, Many leaders around the world mostly protect their own interests, and the interests of the political and economic groups that brought them into these positions. The leaders elected by the board of trustees of the stockholders, or the leaders appointed by the owners in many organizations favour the interests of their supporters Derber, ; Estes, ; Galbraith, ; Thurow, ; Reich, Also, many government leaders support their own interests, the interests of the corporations and political groups that supported them financially and politically for their elections Batra, ; Blair, Their political and economic policies focused mainly on the short-term objectives for quick results and neglected to address difficult problems that may even be more harmful for the society in the long-term Sacks, ; Marber, ; Collis, In addition, the political policies provided disproportionate voice to those at the top.
Many people express dissatisfactions with their leaders throughout the world due to unfair and inappropriate contemporary leadership practices. They march and chant on the streets of New York, Madrid, Athens, London, Moscow, and in many other cities of the world. The protesters in Spain were outraged at the high rate of unemployment. The "Occupy Wall Street" movements in the United States were even louder in expressing their anger and dismayed with the economic and political policies of the current leaders.
People in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Iran, Jordan, Bahrain and some other countries resisted and even risked their lives for opposing the policies of dictatorial leaders. In some other countries, many writers, academicians, soldiers, students, and others were suppressed, terrorized and even jailed for their criticisms of the current leadership practices and demands for the change of those policies. Some scientists argue that contemporary leadership practices were changed and they came to an end as the leadership shifted from individual leaders to followers Ross, ; Rifkin, ; Kellerman, ; Stiglitz, It seems that the process of contemporary leadership practices becomes ineffective and starts a new paradigm shift which requires radical changes of political, economic and social policies of an organization and a nation Adzies, ; Barker, Although strong demand of followers and the scale of problems were developed enough for radical changes, courageous leadership is necessary to accomplish such transformations.
The aim of this study is to analyze the courageous leadership practices of great leaders that took place in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and focus on major courage characteristics that play an important role for successful leadership practices. Also, it aims to investigate the nature and the sources of the courage characteristics and determine how, where, and when they were used in their leadership. According to the authors' knowledge, this paper is the first study which examines the impact of courage in leadership practices exclusively and systematically within the strategic management framework Thompson, Strickland and Gamble, Within this framework, this study determines how courage characteristics influence the leaders' successes and it presents some insights from their leadership experiences.
The paper is organized as follows. The concept of courage, courage characteristics and strategic leadership practices are introduced in Section 2. Method of analysis which is made within the framework of strategic leadership process is given in Section 3. Utilization of courage characteristics is presented with the examples from experiences of great courageous leaders in Section 4.
Finally, the paper is ended with conclusions and discussions. Courage appears in every aspect of leadership practices through a wide variety of physical and nonphysical courage characteristics aspects. Courage is the crucial quality of leaders for determining the impressive vision and achieving the exceptional outcomes. Typically, the courage characteristics are rooted in science and the liberal arts domain.
There are a variety of courage characteristics that play an important role in effective leadership practices. This study focuses on courage-related characteristics including intellectual, moral, creativity, biological, and followers' courage characteristics. In most leadership studies, leadership is defined as a process of influencing relationship among leaders and followers Rost, In this study, strategic leadership is defined as a process of developing shared vision, analyzing the internal and external environment, designing and implementing strategies for solving problems and satisfying followers' needs.
Most successful leaders used some or most of the elements of this process Thompson Jr. However, most of the leadership studies indicate that successful leadership outcomes mainly depend on the styles and qualities of leaders, and followers, and the environmental conditions of the organization and the nation Daft, ; Robbins, ; Chemers, ; Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, The leadership styles play a crucial role in making drastic changes and solving difficult problems for satisfying followers' needs and demands.
These leadership styles include transformational leadership Burns, ; Tichy and Devenna, , charismatic leadership Conger and Kanungo, , participative leadership including stewardship Block, ; Fallet, , servant leadership Greenleaf, ; Sendjaya and Sarros, , visionary leadership Nanus, , and democratic leadership Halal, ; Ackoff, ; Sen, Qualities of a leader include a broad and deep intellectual intelligence, skills and values such as honesty, integrity, drive, equality, liberty, collectivity, justice, courage, fairness and these play the key role for a successful leadership Stogdill, and ; Locke, Recent studies pointed out that the emotional intelligence of a leaders' ability to perceive, identify, understand, and manage emotions such as anger, fear, and love in self and followers are important for leadership success Goleman, The other studies argued that the qualities of followers such as intelligence, knowledge, skills as well as values including dedication, perception, participation, awareness, courage, independence, dependability, responsibility and cooperativeness are important for effective leadership DeVader and Alliger, ; Chaleff, ; Hegarty, , Kauzes and Posner, Most recently, some leadership experts argue.
According to Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary , courage is defined as mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty. Courage is the ability to act in spite of doubt or fear. Courage means accepting responsibility, being able to go against the grain, breaking traditions, reducing boundaries, and initiating change.
In addition, it means pushing beyond the comfort zone, asking for what you want and saying what you think, and fighting what you believe Daft, Effective leaders must have courage to see difficult situations and accept responsibility for the outcomes of decisions and actions.
It is not hopefulness and not stubbornness. Leaders will work with others, but if they do not have courage to express their own ideas and feelings they would do injustice to themselves and their followers. Courage is not a value like a love or loyalty for others, but it is the foundation of all the values May, Courage is the foundation of physical and nonphysical values which increase capacity of humans for reaching their maximum limits to do things under risky and difficult conditions.
Courage is often considered as the foundation of human values which influence all other values positively to increase their effectiveness. Courage is the core of leadership see Fig.
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That is, it is a critical component of the major activities of effective strategic leadership. Courage enables all the values to work up to their maximum capacity like a heart in human body that pumps blood to all other parts and enable the whole body to function effectively May, Courage characteristics provide the maximum strength for leaders to use every part of the strategic leadership process effectively. The courage characteristics are like a motor force at the centre of the values as presented in Fig. They provide strength for leaders to take risks under uncertain and difficult conditions; think wisely, and see future better for difficult and big visions, and decide optimally, analyze objectively, select and create appropriate strategies accurately, and motivate followers fully to achieve extra ordinary results.
The amount of the courage characteristics and their depth determine the degree of courage of a leader. Leaders who have more of the courage characteristics are relatively more courageous than the others that have less of these characteristics. Apart from the impact on the leadership process, courage characteristics affect values such as honesty, integrity, equality, liberty, collectivity, justice, fairness and others. However, leaders like Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and others who have negative values such as selfishness, arrogance, dishonesty, prejudice and who are associated in people's minds with acts of violence harm the followers and their environments Lutwig, In this study, only the impact of courage characteristics are considered on the positive values utilized for successful leadership practices for making positive changes and solving the current difficult problems.
They were the founders, liberators, and builders of a nation. Arnold M. Ludwig listed them the most successful visionary and innovative leaders among leaders of countries. Business leaders like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Jorma Ollila, Howard Schultz and others also demonstrated great courage characteristics and made drastic changes for building the most successful business O'Neil, There is a continuous change and development in leadership practices Rost, The main thesis of this study is grounded on what happened in the past which provides guidance for the present and the future.
During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, some successful leadership practices affected political and economic practices of many people. Within this period, there were some drastic changes that played an important role in solving huge problems and achieving great developments for human life. Analyzing the successful leadership practices of the past may provide some useful lessons for the current and future leaders in solving similar problems.
The successful leadership studies were analyzed within the strategic management process as shown in Fig. In this process, the main tasks of courageous leaders include the activities of developing extraordinary visions, missions, and objectives; making the environmental analysis objectively and wisely within their limits; selecting the superior strategies; motivating followers fully and taking high risks to execute strategies for achieving exceptional results Thompson, Strickland and Gamble, This study includes many leadership practices covering the most successful leaders selected from wider geographic areas.
The studies including the books, articles, biographies and other related materials about the successful leadership practices are given in the text and listed in the references see References. Particularly, this study takes the book by Arnold Ludwig - King of the Mountain - as a basis for the most successful political leaders of nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The successful courageous leadership practices of these leaders changed peoples' economic, social, political and business lives drastically.
Some of these changes ended up with the establishment of new nations e. The Republic of Turkey and India. In the business area, the most successful business leaders listed according to O'Neil are Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Jorma Ollila and Howard Schultz and the others who also utilized courage characteristics for their successful leadership practices for building the best business corporations of the twenty first-century see Section 4. Courageous leaders use courage characteristics to generate comparative advantages relative to others. This section analyzes the core courage characteristics such as knowledge courage, moral courage, creativity courage, biological courage and followers' courage see Fig.
Intellectual knowledge IK provides leaders with the capability of understanding the physical aspects of what to do, how to do it, and why. The capability of understanding what to do provides confidence for leaders to select and develop things like products and services. The capability of understanding how to do it includes all kinds of technologies, capital equipment, process, rules and principles, and activities Cooper and Sawaf, Emotional knowledge EK provides the understanding why aspect of the reasons and means for doing things Cooper and Sawaf, ; Goleman, It influences every aspect.
EK includes social values, ideas, intuition, imagination and beliefs. Both IK and EK determine the whole body of knowledge which constitutes the knowledge of courageous leaders. Knowledge courage is at the centre of every decision and action of a leader. The visions, missions, and objectives of leaders are rooted from this knowledge see Fig. The actions of leaders start and end with this knowledge. Courage knowledge is the source of the highest quality of power, and it influences all other parts of strategic leadership. Knowledge courage generates the most important competitive advantage for leaders Quin, ; Stewart, Ataturk said "knowledge is the best guide for life" and used it in every aspect of his leadership activities Sen, Moral values such as honesty, integrity, care, humility, beliefs, liberty, equality, quality and others are the main sources of human decisions, behaviours and actions in an organization or a government.
The quantity of moral values and its effective use for the welfare of people depend mainly on the moral courage of leaders. Leaders who have these values and use them for the welfare of the people in organizations and nations are called moral leaders Gini, Moral leaders distinguish right from wrong, do right things, have honesty and integrity, seek justice, take responsibility, fulfil commitments, possess humility, show respect and serve, show courage to stand up for what is right, encourage and develop others Zauderer, Gandhi and Martin Luther King Junior demonstrated moral courage for gaining independence, liberty and equality for their followers.
All courageous leaders including Ataturk, Lenin, Mao, Castro demonstrated moral courage for solving difficult problems and satisfying the needs of followers Ludwig, Business leaders such as Henry Ford Ford Co. On the other hand, immoral leaders are arrogant, dishonest and self-serving, practice deception, deal unfairly, blame others, diminish others' dignity, ignore the interests of the society, focus on their self-interest excessively, and exploit others in order to enhance themselves Zauderer, ; Kouzes and Posner, Some leaders who harm others, such as Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini are examples for immoral leaders Kunich and Lester, Most people believe that many contemporary business leaders are involved in immoral leadership practices, and less than only one-third of leaders are honest Wallington, Creative inventive courage is a process of finding new ways, ideas, symbols, models, methods, techniques, discoveries to make radical changes and solve difficult problems.
Some creations are destructive in nature. They generate radical changes and destruction of the status quo and lead to demise of old products, technologies, political, economic and social conditions Schumpeter, When a creative process results in radical and destructive change of an entire organization or nation, it is called a paradigm shift or revolution Adzies, ; Barker, ; Howie, It means the birth of a new ideology, the birth of a new political, economic, and social system. What is happening is more than the direct results that are being achieved.
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Instead, the people in the relationship — both the leader and the follower — grow and become more than they were. Not only does leadership transform the objective reality through results, but, more importantly for the long term, the people involved transform. It ebbs and flows, and it is very situationally-dependent. Morality is its own sticky mess. The Righteous Mind places morality on six foundations that have differing ratios — but not real levels.
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Moral Disengagement wanders through the ways that we lose our moral bearings without indicating ways that we transform into more moral creatures. I tend to think of the transformation of leadership in terms of increasing our capacity. This carefully side-steps our direct results and acknowledges that someone who has been through transformational leadership has a greater ability to do things in the future.
However, I was able to pull quotes from my notes for several. In the end, manager see what is and leaders see what can be. Managers see today and the current reality. Those in a leadership relationship see what can be. Perhaps seeing what can be is what Leadership for the Twenty-First Century should be.
Myths and Legends Great leadership is the stuff of legends. Persuasion and Coercion Persuasion is getting someone to do something that you want — or that your group collectively wants — without the use of force or threat. Four Essential Elements Rost summarizes his perspective on leadership with four essential elements: A relationship based on influence Leaders and followers are the people in this relationship Leaders and followers intend real changes Leaders and followers develop mutual purposes Effectively this describes the parties in the relationship, the structure, and the purpose.
Direct and Indirect Effectiveness Being a leader means expending energy in the development and maintenance of the leadership relationship. Leadership as a Transformational Process If leadership is different than management, then what makes it different? Leadership is about transforming reality into your vision for a better tomorrow. Those leaders go forward believing that they have figured out the key to building a thriving company.
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