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Inside Tour of Combustion Chamber - Marine Engines

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Johnny Vernin. This method offers very little control over the injection parameters such as timing or spatial coordinates. For this reason, observed NOx reductions tend to be lower than those with emulsions or direct injection. If the fumigated water does not completely evaporate in the intake air, it will impinge on the cylinder walls causing disintegration of the lube oil film and engine damage.

A safer approach is to fumigate water vapor rather than liquid. Another possibility is to use steam, which may be available in certain stationary engine applications. Regardless of the method of water addition, consideration must be given to the logistics of providing the water supply. The use of emulsifying agents allows for preparing emulsions that can remain stable for a number of days or even weeks. In this case, vehicles may be simply fueled with emulsion in place of regular fuel.

Classifications

Such application of emulsions is obviously limited to vehicle fleets that are centrally fueled from one facility where the emulsion would be prepared. Other water addition methods would require that water tanks and handling systems are installed on the vehicle. The obvious drawback of such systems is the large quantity of water that is needed for NOx reduction, which would require large tanks and frequent replenishment.

This is likely the main reason why water addition technologies attract more attention in stationary and marine applications, where supplying large quantities of water is less problematic.

1st Edition

However, most systems for ocean going ships would work on fresh water only, thus requiring additional fresh water generation equipment. Revision Abstract : Addition of water to the diesel process decreases combustion temperatures and lowers NOx emissions. The most common methods of introducing water are direct injection into the cylinder, a process commercialized in certain marine and stationary diesel engines, and water-in-fuel emulsions.

With the exception of small, high-speed systems, diesel engines use direct injection. Diesel engine fuel-injection systems are typically designed to provide injection pressures in the range of 7 to 70 megapascals 1, to 10, pounds per square inch. There are, however, a few higher-pressure systems. Precise control of fuel injection is critical to the performance of a diesel engine. Since the entire combustion process is controlled by fuel injection, injection must begin at the correct piston position i.

At first the fuel is burned in a nearly constant-volume process while the piston is near top dead centre. As the piston moves away from this position, fuel injection is continued, and the combustion process then appears as a nearly constant-pressure process. The combustion process in a diesel engine is heterogeneous—that is, the fuel and air are not premixed prior to initiation of combustion.

Marine Combustion Practice

Consequently, rapid vaporization and mixing of fuel in air is very important to thorough burning of the injected fuel. This places much emphasis on injector nozzle design, especially in direct-injection engines. Engine work is obtained during the power stroke. The power stroke includes both the constant-pressure process during combustion and the expansion of the hot products of combustion after fuel injection ceases. Diesel engines are often turbocharged and aftercooled. Addition of a turbocharger and aftercooler can enhance the performance of a diesel engine in terms of both power and efficiency.

The most outstanding feature of the diesel engine is its efficiency. By compressing air rather than using an air-fuel mixture, the diesel engine is not limited by the preignition problems that plague high-compression spark-ignition engines. Thus, higher compression ratios can be achieved with diesel engines than with the spark-ignition variety; commensurately, higher theoretical cycle efficiencies , when compared with the latter, can often be realized.

It should be noted that for a given compression ratio the theoretical efficiency of the spark-ignition engine is greater than that of the compression-ignition engine; however, in practice it is possible to operate compression-ignition engines at compression ratios high enough to produce efficiencies greater than those attainable with spark-ignition systems.