Had his complicity in the plot been discovered it might have proved disastrous for the Vatican and for many thousands of German clergy. As it happened, leaders in London dragged their feet, and the plotters eventually fell silent. The episode demonstrates that, while Pacelli seemed weak to some, pusillanimity and indecisiveness were hardly in his nature. The victims were forced to dig their own graves before being hacked to death with axes. The local priest was forced to recite the prayers for the dying while his son was chopped to pieces before his eyes.
Then the priest was tortured. His hair and beard were torn off, his eyes were gouged out.
Finally he was skinned alive. Throughout the war, the Croat atrocities continued. By the most recent scholarly reckoning, , Orthodox Serbs and 27, Gypsies were massacred; in addition, approximately 30, out of a population of 45, Jews were killed. Despite a close relationship between the Ustashe regime and the Catholic bishops, and a constant flow of information about the massacres, Pacelli said and did nothing. In fact, he continued to extend warm wishes to the Ustashe leadership.
The Vatican and the local bishops approved of mass conversion in Croatia even though it was the result of fear rather than conviction , because they believed that this could spell the beginning of a return of the Orthodox Christians there to papal allegiance.
Pacelli was not a man to condone mass murder, but he evidently chose to turn a blind eye on Ustashe atrocities rather than hinder a unique opportunity to extend the power of the papacy. Pacelli came to learn of the Nazi plans to exterminate the Jews of Europe shortly after they were laid in January The deportations to the death camps had begun in December and would continue through All during , Pacelli received reliable information on the details of the Final Solution, much of it supplied by the British, French, and American representatives resident in the Vatican.
On March 17, , representatives of Jewish organizations assembled in Switzerland sent a memorandum to Pacelli via the papal nuncio in Bern, cataloguing violent anti-Semitic measures in Germany and in its allied and conquered territories. Apart from an intervention in the case of Slovakia, where the president was Monsignor Josef Tiso, a Catholic priest, no papal initiatives resulted. During the same month, a stream of dispatches describing the fate of some 90, Jews reached the Vatican from various sources in Eastern Europe.
On June 16, , Harold Tittmann, the U. In the following weeks the British, American, and Brazilian representatives to the Vatican tried to persuade Pacelli to speak out against the Nazi atrocities. But still he said nothing. In September , President Franklin Roosevelt sent his personal representative, the former head of U. Steel Myron Taylor, to plead with Pacelli to make a statement about the extermination of the Jews.
Taylor traveled hazardously through enemy territory to reach the Vatican. Still Pacelli refused to speak. On December 24, , having made draft after draft, Pacelli at last said something. It was not merely a paltry statement. The chasm between the enormity of the liquidation of the Jewish people and this form of evasive language was profoundly scandalous. He might have been referring to many categories of victims at the hands of various belligerents in the conflict.
Clearly the choice of ambiguous wording was intended to placate those who urged him to protest, while avoiding offense to the Nazi regime. But these considerations are overshadowed by the implicit denial and trivialization. Hitler himself could not have wished for a more convoluted and innocuous reaction from the Vicar of Christ to the greatest crime in history. In this there was clearly a degree of truth. But a recapitulation of new evidence I have gathered shows that Pacelli saw the Jews as alien and undeserving of his respect and compassion.
He felt no sense of moral outrage at their plight. The documents show that:. His denial and minimization of the Holocaust were all the more scandalous in that they were uttered from a seemingly impartial moral high ground. It occurred before the liberation of Rome, when he was the sole Italian authority in the city.
On October 16, , SS troops entered the Roman ghetto area and rounded up more than 1, Jews, imprisoning them in the very shadow of the Vatican. How did Pacelli acquit himself? On the morning of the roundup, which had been prompted by Adolf Eichmann, who was in charge of the organization of the Final Solution from his headquarters in Berlin, the German ambassador in Rome pleaded with the Vatican to issue a public protest. The German authorities in Rome, both diplomats and military commanders, fearing a backlash of the Italian populace, hoped that an immediate and vigorous papal denunciation might stop the SS in their tracks and prevent further arrests.
Pacelli refused. Meanwhile, the deportation of the imprisoned Jews went ahead on October When U. As a consequence, he was not inclined to lift a finger for the Jewish deportees, who were now traveling in cattle cars to the Austrian border, bound for Auschwitz. Church officials reported on the desperate plight of the deportees as they passed slowly through city after city. Still Pacelli refused to intervene. The text reveals that Hitler had asked Wolff in the fall of to prepare a plan to evacuate the Pope and the Vatican treasures to Liechtenstein.
After several weeks of investigation, Wolff concluded that an attempt to invade the Vatican and its properties, or to seize the Pope in response to a papal protest, would prompt a backlash throughout Italy that would seriously hinder the Nazi war effort. Hitler therefore dropped his plan to kidnap Pacelli, acknowledging what Pacelli appeared to ignore, that the strongest social and political force in Italy in late was the Catholic Church, and that its potential for thwarting the SS was immense.
Pacelli was concerned that a protest by him would benefit only the Communists. He wanted to maintain the Nazi-occupation status quo until such time as the city could be liberated by the Allies. But what of the deported Jews? Five days after the train had set off from the Tiburtina station in Rome, an estimated 1, had been gassed at Auschwitz and Birkenau; men and 47 women were detained for slave labor, but only 15 survived the war, and only one of those was a woman, Settimia Spizzichino, who had served as a human guinea pig of Dr.
Josef Mengele, the Nazi medical doctor who performed atrocious experiments on human victims. After the liberation, she was found alive in a heap of corpses. It was a stunning religious and ritualistic silence. To my knowledge, there is no record of a single public papal prayer, lit votive candle, psalm, lamentation, or Mass celebrated in solidarity with the Jews of Rome either during their terrible ordeal or after their deaths.
This spiritual silence in the face of an atrocity committed at the heart of Christendom, in the shadow of the shrine of the first apostle, persists to this day and implicates all Catholics. This silence proclaims that Pacelli had no genuine spiritual sympathy even for the Jews of Rome, who were members of the community of his birth.
There were nevertheless Jews who gave Pacelli the benefit of the doubt. By the same token, we must respect the voice of Settimia Spizzichino, the sole Roman Jewish woman survivor from the death camps. I lost my mother, two sisters, a niece, and one brother. Pius XII could have warned us about what was going to happen. We might have escaped from Rome and joined the partisans.
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It all happened right under his nose. But he was an anti-Semitic Pope, a pro-German Pope. And when they say the Pope is like Jesus Christ, it is not true. He did not save a single child. It gives a Catholic no satisfaction to accuse a Pope of acquiescing in the plans of Hitler. At the beginning of a promotional film he commissioned about himself during the war, called The Angelic Pastor , the camera frequently focuses on the statue of the Good Shepherd in the Vatican gardens. The parable of the good shepherd tells of the pastor who so loves each of his sheep that he will do all, risk all, go to any pains, to save one member of his flock that is lost or in danger.
To his everlasting shame, and to the shame of the Catholic Church, Pacelli disdained to recognize the Jews of Rome as members of his Roman flock, even though they had dwelled in the Eternal City since before the birth of Christ. And yet there was still something worse. After the liberation of Rome, when every perception of restraint on his freedom was lifted, he claimed retrospective moral superiority for having spoken and acted on behalf of the Jews.
But it could not hold. In old age he became increasingly narrow-minded, eccentric, and hypochondriacal. He experienced religious visions, suffered from chronic hiccups, and received monkey-brain-cell injections for longevity. He had no love for, or trust in, those who had to follow him. He failed to replace his secretary of state when he died, and for years he declined to appoint a full complement of cardinals.
He died at the age of 82 on October 9, His corpse decomposed rapidly in the autumnal Roman heat. At his lying-in-state, a guard fainted from the stench. Later, his nose turned black and fell off. Xu Lei currently lives in Hangzhou, China. Search for the Buried Bomber. Xu Lei. Pride sent them into the caves, but terror will drive them out. Ron brings up Crouch's appearance in Snape's office.
Sirius states that doesn't make sense since Crouch would have kept an eye on Snape as a tournament judge. When Ron and Hermione bicker about whether Snape can be trusted, Sirius partly agrees with Ron, as it is questionable why Dumbledore would trust Snape. Snape was interested in the Dark Arts as a child and hung out with some Slytherin students that became Death Eaters, though he also knows Snape is smart enough to not get caught by the Ministry.
Harry then remembers Karkaroff's sudden appearance in their class, though Sirius can't figure out what that was about. Sirius then brings all the questions of these mysterious circumstances together, including why Moody was also searching Snape's office. He asks Ron to send a letter to Percy to find out if there is any news about Crouch.
Before they leave, Sirius reminds them not to wander outside of Hogwarts at all for safety reasons. On the way back, the trio conclude that the scandal involving his son is the reason Crouch overreacted to seeing Winky being accused of conjuring the Dark Mark. Ron voices how he and Percy are similar. Hermione states Percy would never do what his boss did but Ron is unconvinced. After sending Hedwig with the letter to Percy, the trio heads to the kitchen to give Dobby the socks Harry bought for him. They find that Winky has become intoxicated from consuming a large amount of butterbeer which works like alcohol on house-elves.
It doesn't help when Harry mentions that Mr Crouch has disappeared. Hate mail soon starts popping up for Hermione in regards to Rita Skeeter's article. She has to go to the Hospital Wing due to a curse and doesn't turn up until a Care of Magical Creatures lesson, where Hagrid is having them use Nifflers to find gold coins which is actually Leprechaun gold he buried. Hagrid encourages Hermione to ignore the hate mail, citing the hate mail he received after Skeeter released the article about him.
Hermione decides to discover how Skeeter has been getting her information when she is already banned from school grounds. His irradiated response doesn't help. Their job is to head to the centre of the maze and touch the Triwizard Cup. Harry assures Krum that he and Hermione are just friends. Moments later, a rather crazy-looking Barty Crouch emerges from the forest asking for Dumbledore.
He mentions that Voldemort is getting stronger and that he himself was responsible for something bad. He also mentions his son, as well as Bertha Jorkins, who is now dead. Harry goes to retrieve Dumbledore, but when he returns, they find that Krum has been stunned and Crouch has disappeared. Karkaroff accuses Mr Crouch's apparent attack on his student as a secret conspiracy by Dumbledore.
Hagrid angrily demands that he apologise but Dumbledore restrains him. Dumbledore has Hagrid take Harry back to Gryffindor Tower to rest. He hints in his message not to contact Sirius until the next morning. On the way back, Hagrid scolds Harry for being out alone with Viktor Krum.
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The trio debates last night's events the following morning. Harry thinks the strange things Mr Crouch said were important, especially if Voldemort is getting stronger. The group goes to the owlery to send a letter to Sirius Black and overhears Fred and George, who are talking about blackmailing someone that they've tried to reason with.
Ron asks who they are blackmailing, but they make it look like they are joking. After they leave, Ron points out that it is obvious Fred and George are serious about starting a Joke Shop. They are close to graduating, with only one full year left, and they have to make enough money on their own to start one. Hermione suggests telling Percy but Ron refuses both because of what Sirius said about Barty Crouch Snr and Percy's similarities to him. Later, they meet up with Moody.
Moody reveals that he couldn't find him. He also tells them that there's nothing they can do about Couch and that the Ministry is investigating the matter and urges Harry to instead prepare for the final task. Sirius's response arrives the following day: He scolds Harry for being out with Krum alone and late at night and says he is lucky he wasn't attacked, since it is clear to him that someone did not want Barty Crouch to reach Dumbledore and he was probably feet away from them in the dark. He instructs Harry to stay safe and practise defensive spells for the Third Task, and demands that Harry give him his word that he won't go out of bounds again, especially not after hours.
At Hermione's urging, he sends an owl back doing so.
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Not long later, during Divination , Harry passes out and has a vision. He sees Voldemort being informed of someone's death and torturing Wormtail for failing to prevent that person from escaping. Harry awakens with his scar hurting badly and pretends he has to go to the hospital wing.
Harry actually goes to see Dumbledore. Fudge refuses to believe the words that Crouch said about Bertha Jorkins being dead, and while debating what happened to Crouch, Fudge suggests that Madame Maxime is the likely culprit given her half-giant physiology. Dumbledore accuses Fudge of acting on personal prejudice, which Fudge ignores due to Dumbledore's friendship with Hagrid.
Moody interrupts the debate to explain that Harry Potter has arrived. Dumbledore, Fudge, and Moody leave to examine the school grounds, and Harry is alone in Dumbledore's office. While looking around, notices Dumbledore's Pensieve , a device that stores memories. Through curiosity, Harry peers in and ends up looking into three of Dumbledore's memories. The first is the trial of Igor Karkaroff, in which he renounces his support of the Death Eaters and gives the names of existing Death Eaters, including Snape.
Dumbledore in the memory states that Snape is a spy against Voldemort and is no longer a threat.
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The second memory shows the trial of Ludo Bagman , who was accused of passing information to Voldemort, even though he wasn't aware the person he gave the information to was a Death Eater; his popularity quickly clears him. Crouch sentences them all to a lifetime in Azkaban. By then Dumbledore from the present arrives and brings Harry back. After Dumbledore explains what happened and shows Harry another of his memories regarding a teenage Bertha Jorkins during her Hogwarts years, Harry explains what happened in Divination. Dumbledore finds Harry's scar pains to be an odd concept and brings up that this is the second time it has hurt, the first being during the summer.
This shows Harry that Dumbledore has been talking to Sirius Black, and Dumbledore reveals that it was his idea for Black to hide in the cave outside Hogsmeade. Dumbledore suspects that the reason why Harry's scar hurts is due to the connection that Voldemort's failed curse had created with him.
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He believes the scar would only hurt when Voldemort were close or was feeling a strong emotion. Dumbledore also explains to Harry that, unlike the Ministry, he believes that the disappearances of Bertha Jorkins, Barty Crouch, and a Muggle by the name of Frank Bryce may be connected to Voldemort. Dumbledore also explains that Frank and Alice Longbottom are Neville's parents and they went insane due to the Lestranges' attack and that this is the reason why Neville was brought up by his grandmother and why he has such an aversion to the Cruciatus Curse.
Dumbledore doesn't know if Crouch Jr was involved, but he personally requests that Harry does not disclose this information to anyone, saying that Neville himself will share it when he is ready. Harry passes off the information he learned from the Pensieve to Ron and Hermione, excluding the details about Neville's parents. That same night, Harry's hatred of Voldemort reaches a new height because of what he learned from the Pensieve. As the task approaches, Ron and Hermione find time when they are not studying for their final exams to help Harry.
Even McGonagall helps by allowing him to practise in her empty classroom during lunch time. During one practise session, Ron notices Malfoy outside the castle sitting by a tree and doing something odd. Harry and Hermione also see him before they return to practise. Sirius sends Harry messages by owl each day, reminding Harry to focus on what is ahead.
On the day of the third task, Rita Skeeter releases an article claiming Harry is demented and dangerous. She uses a quote from Draco Malfoy in the article. This raises some questions between the trio, since the article mentions Harry's scar hurting during Divination. The class takes place in the North Tower and Skeeter is not allowed inside Hogwarts, so she shouldn't have had that information. Hermione finally figures out how Skeeter may be getting her information and leaves to put her theory to the test.
McGonagall tells the champions that their families have come to watch them complete. Harry doesn't want to meet them, expecting the Dursleys, but instead finds Molly and Bill Weasley. While they give Harry a tour of their knowledge of Hogwarts, Mrs Weasley gets into an argument with Amos Diggory regarding Harry's popularity in the tournament before Mrs Diggory asks him to stop.
They then mention to Harry that Percy will not be coming this time. After the Barty Crouch incident, which is being kept secret, Percy was hauled in for questioning regarding that the instructions he was receiving, which may not have actually been sent by Barty Crouch.
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Instead, Cornelius Fudge will be serving as the fifth Triwizard judge in his place. After the rest of the Weasley children and Hermione show up, Harry tells Mrs Weasley that everything Skeeter wrote on Hermione was a lie. After dinner, Mr Bagman takes the champions to the maze and Harry and Cedric, who are tied for first place, are sent in first. Harry successfully navigates the maze with the aid of the Four-Point Spell. Harry rescues Cedric, who has been attacked by a cursed Krum; Harry manages to stun Krum and sends out a signal for Krum to be rescued before he and Cedric move on.
Aided by Cedric, he defeats it, though one of Harry's legs is injured in the process. After taking the monster out, they decide to grab the Cup simultaneously.
Just as Harry and Cedric are trying to figure out what happened, a stranger appears and Harry's scar begins hurting again. A second voice orders the stranger to kill Cedric, which he does, leaving Harry frozen with shock and horror. Harry is then dragged to a large marble tombstone with the name Tom Riddle engraved upon it. The stranger then tightly bound Harry tightly with thick black cords from arm, wrists, legs, neck to ankle to it and has him gagged.
Unable to escape, Harry recognises the stranger as Peter Pettigrew due to the missing finger on his right hand.