Get e-book Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 51

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 51 file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 51 book. Happy reading Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 51 Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 51 at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 51 Pocket Guide.

It is important to note that as a direct result of the person-to-person transmission route, the enhanced disinfection of surfaces is not sufficient to control these outbreaks CDC, a,b; Vivancos et al. This distinguishes them from outbreaks transmitted via point source fomite contamination, which are discussed in Section IV. For outbreaks spread directly between individuals, limiting interaction between infected and uninfected persons is critical. Cohorting of patients within medical facilities, exclusion of staff for up to 72 h following an attack of gastroenteritis, and cancellation of social events have all been recommended CDC, a; Rao et al.

Die neue Pflegelinie von Eslabondexx!

The use of personal protective equipment when working with patients or patient samples has been identified as a factor affecting outbreak spread CDC, b; Ebihara et al. In addition, hand hygiene has been particularly well studied as a method of interrupting transmission of NoV during outbreaks Gilbride et al. Some studies indicate that washing with soap and water is required to eliminate NoV transmission Bidawid et al. All authors agree that the use of hand rubs is indicated where soap and water are not available CDC, a; Steinmann et al.

The pronounced environmental stability of NoV particles also contributes to the spread of outbreaks from point sources of surface contamination. All stability studies have made use of surrogate organisms to model NoV response to conditions, since the human virus is not easily grown in cell culture Duizer et al. Efforts have been made to develop methods to quantify human NoV persistence and disinfection by detection of genetic material Lamhoujeb et al.

Other more complex inanimate surfaces, such as telephone buttons and computer keyboards, support the survival of infectious FCV for 0. The particular resistance of NoV to disinfection is an additional factor in the spread of NoV infections from contaminated fomites. Table 1. Data from disinfection studies must be interpreted with care, as many demonstrate efficacy in suspension tests Beekes et al. Contact time also plays an important role, with some disinfectants exhibiting efficacy after 10 min that cannot be demonstrated after 1 min Jimenez and Chiang, ; Whitehead and McCue, These should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, using a protocol based on their proposed use i.

More complex surfaces, such as woven fabrics, carpets, or porous materials, can be more difficult to disinfect Malik et al.

Customer Reviews

UV disinfection overcomes some of the issues with soft fabrics, but the light must reach all crevices to be effective Lee et al. The use of gas disinfection in sealed rooms is an interesting alternative to reach all areas, but this requires long incubation times and the ability to seal an area Hudson et al. There is not always a clear distinction between outbreaks transmitted via inanimate surfaces as compared to those that are linked to direct TABLE 1. The role of fomites in NoV transmission in closed settings can never be completely separated from other risk factors Wu et al. However, contaminated surfaces are associated with outbreaks in closed facilities Gallimore et al.

Outbreaks that have been linked to a point source fomite contamination are characterized by infected populations that have few or no other epidemiological links. For example, an outbreak linked to a certain seating area in a concert hall the day after a vomiting episode Evans et al. Two coach tours visiting the same hotel at different times are also linked mainly by common surfaces at the hotel Visser et al. Although school outbreaks are frequently associated with person-to-person transmission, one investigation indicated shared computers as a possible fomite source of infection CDC, The implementation of environmental swabs as a part of routine outbreak investigation would serve to highlight this potential transmission Boxman et al.

In theory, the interruption of NoV transmission after fomite contamination is straightforward: the affected objects must be disinfected. In practice, disinfection can become a complex problem. The school described above had implemented a rigorous cleaning protocol with an appropriate bleach solution but failed to consider the computer mice and keyboards for disinfection CDC, Vomiting events are particularly difficult to clean, as the contaminated area can be large, and infectious aerosols are postulated to persist in the environment Evans et al.

For NoV outbreaks, there is a strong association with food handlers and poor personal hygiene practices Baert et al. This, together with the higher incidence of secondary spread during outbreaks Martinez et al. Some characteristics of NoVs are important when considering food handlers as a transmission route. These viruses are stable in the environment and have been shown to be transmitted between surfaces, hands, and foods Bidawid et al.

Outbreaks in a variety of settings, such as 16 Kirsten Mattison hospitals, schools, catered events, and restaurants, have all been associated with infected food handlers as the source of contamination Anderson et al. Additional outbreaks have been associated with food handlers based on an indication that multiple food products were involved in a single outbreak Dominguez et al.

In addition, NoV infections result in a higher number of vomiting incidents than other foodborne pathogens Kaplan et al. Vomiting events can be difficult to manage in a food service environment, and outbreaks where food service workers have vomited may be particularly large de Wit et al. Finally, food handlers may harbor asymptomatic NoV infections Okabayashi et al. Outbreaks have been associated with foods handled by workers with no symptoms, although they may have had evidence of recent exposure to NoV Godoy et al.

Control of transmission from infected food handlers relies on an understanding and compliance with food safety procedures Clayton and Griffith, Restaurant inspections and recommendations are only effective up to a point Dominguez et al. Food safety training programs and on-site management committed to food safety can have an impact in reducing NoV outbreaks Hedberg et al.

This could limit noncompliance with policies, a possible cause of outbreaks transmitted during food preparation Anderson et al. Additional measures to prevent NoV transmission are more difficult to implement. The exclusion of asymptomatic workers known to have been exposed to NoV or after recovery from gastrointestinal illness is not always realistic when they would lose their pay Moe, There are still reports of food handlers working while symptomatic for fear of job loss Schmid et al.

Compared to surfaces, water has a protective effect for calicivirus survival, with 5. Food products provide varying degrees of protection or antiviral activity, depending on their properties. FCV has Norovirus as a Foodborne Disease Hazard 17 been shown to survive for 7 days on ham, 3—5 days on lettuce, 1—5 days on cantaloupe, 3—4 days on bell peppers, and 1 day on strawberries Mattison et al.

Temperature control is a key parameter for control of bacterial pathogens in food but less relevant for eliminating NoV Baert et al. Freezing is not suitable for control of NoV contamination, rather long-term frozen storage preserves the infectious virus. Studies have shown that there is less than a 1-log reduction of MNV after 6 months of storage on frozen onions or spinach Baert et al. Similar findings were obtained for FCV on blueberries and frozen herbs after 2 days Butot et al. FCV was inactivated after frozen storage on raspberries 1 log and strawberries 3 logs Butot et al.

Physical inactivation can also be achieved by nonthermal processing such as high pressure treatment or ultraviolet UV and gamma irradiation Baert et al. High hydrostatic pressure from — MPa can quickly reduce infectious FCV by over 5 logs in liquid media, although temperature and pH must be monitored for optimum results Buckow et al.

Food may provide some protection from high pressure treatment, but inactivation can still be achieved by a 5-min treatment Kingsley et al. UV irradiation is less useful for decontaminating foods. Food surfaces may provide some protection from UV light, as higher doses are required for inactivation of FCV, and the light must equally reach all sides of a food product Fino and Kniel, Chemical treatment of drinking water and food wash waters can also be used to reduce the presence of infectious NoV.

Although disinfection of wash water does not significantly increase the removal of viruses from produce, it can prevent cross-contamination of the next product washed Baert et al. Effective decontamination of water typically requires more disinfectant than for equivalent bacterial reductions. The concentration of chlorine is important for inactivation in short time periods.

MNV is typically inactivated by 0. FCV is sensitive to chlorine within the same concentration range Thurston-Enriquez et al. MNV inactivation has been demonstrated at 0. Ozone effectively inactivates 4 logs of FCV at less than 0. There are many peer-review publications reporting NoV outbreaks due to food and water. In spite of a recognized publication bias toward these outbreaks, there is a consensus that the scientific literature underestimates the contribution of NoV to food and waterborne disease Hall et al.

Source contamination of food and water is clearly implicated in NoV outbreaks around the world. Waterborne outbreaks have been identified in both drinking and recreational waters, although the route of entry is clearly via consumption of the contaminated water. As detection methods improve, more waterrelated outbreaks have been associated with NoV contamination Bosch et al. Recreational water outbreaks have been associated with lakes Sartorius et al.

Flood water has also been contaminated with NoV and infections resulted from direct exposure to the water Schmid et al. Drinking water has been shown to become contaminated with NoV through a variety of means. Individual wells can become contaminated and contribute to local outbreaks Nygard et al. These local outbreaks have the potential to seed secondary cases of infection in the community Beller et al. Similarly, local hotel or Norovirus as a Foodborne Disease Hazard 19 resort water distribution systems have been identified as the source of NoV outbreaks Hewitt et al. These are easily traced epidemiologically because the affected populations are infected at the same time and have no other common food intake or personal contacts.

Outbreaks in community water supplies and groundwater have only been recognized when they reach massive proportions Gallay et al. It is possible that lower levels of contamination could go undetected in the background of community acquired NoV cases throughout the year. Shellfish are the most commonly implicated food category in NoV outbreaks. These filter feeders accumulate virus if grown in contaminated waters McLeod et al.

It has been suggested that NoVs interact specifically with carbohydrate structures in the bivalve digestive diverticula Le Guyader et al. NoVs have been detected in shellfish grown around the world Boxman et al. In addition, there are numerous reports of outbreaks where viruses identified in contaminated shellfish share the same sequence as those isolated from outbreak patients David et al. In many other cases, epidemiological evidence points to oyster consumption as the cause of the outbreak, although virus cannot be detected in oyster samples Gallimore et al.

The epidemiology can be strengthened by the association of multiple viruses or genotypes with the same outbreak, a common indicator for sewage contamination in shellfish-associated outbreaks Gallimore et al. Control measures for shellfish-associated outbreaks rely on high quality growing waters. Although bacterial indicators may return to baseline levels after a contamination event, opening a shellfish harvest area too soon can lead to an NoV outbreak Huppatz et al. Frozen shellfish from contaminated waters should be clearly labeled to ensure that they are not served raw Ng et al.

If waters are known to be contaminated, additional virus-specific relaying or depuration conditions can be implemented to manage the associated risk of NoV gastroenteritis Dore et al. Consumer education is useful to reduce 20 Kirsten Mattison consumption of illegally harvested shellfish Le Guyader et al. Fresh fruits and vegetables may also be contaminated with NoV during production or processing prior to distribution. Contaminated irrigation water or wash water can transfer NoV to fresh products Bassett and McClure, ; Cheong et al. NoV has been implicated as the cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis from salads Allwood et al.

Cooking is an effective control measure for NoV contamination but is not applicable to the fresh fruit and produce category. Washing in clean water can reduce levels of NoV contamination from 1 to 3 logs Baert et al. The most effective intervention is to prevent contamination from occurring. Appropriate treatment of irrigation and wash water can inactivate NoV Baert et al. Surveillance networks may detect point source foodborne outbreaks, and this information can be used to prevent or limit the spread of disease Koopmans et al. The difference between person-to-person and foodborne NoV transmission during outbreaks is not always clear and should not need to be defined.


  • A Comprehensive Treatise Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry!
  • Subjects List!
  • IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:.
  • The Responsible Contract Manager: Protecting the Public Interest in an Outsourced World (Public Management and Change)!
  • Highlights?
  • Snatched;

Many outbreaks that begin with contaminated food can later spread person to person and vice versa. Instead of focusing on a label for the source of NoV outbreaks, it is more important to increase overall awareness and understanding of this emerging pathogen. NoV outbreaks are spread in many different ways, including ingestion of contaminated food products. This information can be used to develop strategies for integrating public health and food safety surveillance networks that will provide alerts and interrupt transmission for all categories of NoV outbreaks.

Emergence of a new norovirus variant in Scotland in Ajami, N. Alain, S. Epidemiology of infectious acute diarrhoea in France and Europe. Allwood, P. Occurrence of Escherichia coli, noroviruses, and F-specific coliphages in fresh market-ready produce. Food Prot. Amar, C. Detection by PCR of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4, faecal samples: Reexamination of the English case-control Infectious Intestinal Disease Study — Anderson, A. Multistate outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis associated with a common caterer.

Asanaka, M. Replication and packaging of Norwalk virus RNA in cultured mammalian cells. Natl Acad. USA , — Bae, J. Evaluation of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, poliovirus, and MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus in a model of viral persistence in surface water and groundwater. Baert, L. The reduction of murine norovirus 1, B.


  • About This Item?
  • Principles of Ethics: Anthology.
  • Dataspace: The Final Frontier: 26th British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 26, Birmingham, UK, July 7-9, 2009. Proceedings;
  • Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design.

Food Microbiol. Survival and transfer of murine norovirus 1, a surrogate for human noroviruses, during the production process of deep-frozen onions and spinach. Detection of murine norovirus 1 by using plaque assay, transfection assay, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR before and after heat exposure.

Episode #53: Nutrition Research, Guidelines, and Public Health with Alan Flanagan

The efficacy of preservation methods to inactivate foodborne viruses. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to noroviruses in Belgium: The link between food and patient investigations in an international context. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxyacetic acid to reduce murine norovirus 1, B, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli OH7 on shredded iceberg lettuce and in residual wash water.

Bailey, M. Gastroenteritis outbreak in British troops, Iraq. Barreira, D. Viral load and genotypes of noroviruses in symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Southeastern Brazil. A risk assessment approach for fresh fruits. Beekes, M. Fast, broad-range disinfection of bacteria, fungi, viruses and prions. Beller, M. Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to a contaminated well. International consequences. JAMA , — Belliot, G. Use of murine norovirus as a surrogate to evaluate resistance of human norovirus to disinfectants.

Bertolotti-Ciarlet, A. Structural requirements for the assembly of Norwalk virus-like particles. Bidawid, S. Norovirus cross-contamination during food handling and interruption of virus transfer by hand antisepsis: Experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate. Blanton, L. Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, — Bloomfield, S.

The effectiveness of hand hygiene procedures in reducing the risks of infections in home and community settings including handwashing and alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Control 35, S27—S Bok, K. Evolutionary dynamics of GII. Bon, F. Prevalence of group A rotavirus, human calicivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus type 40 and 41 infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in Dijon, France.

Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses detected in sporadic and outbreak cases of gastroenteritis in France from December to February Bosch, A. New tools for the study and direct surveillance of viral pathogens in water. Bowen, A. Infections associated with cantaloupe consumption: A public health concern. Boxman, I. Detection of noroviruses in shellfish in the Netherlands. Norovirus on swabs taken from hands illustrate route of transmission: A case study. Environmental swabs as a tool in norovirus outbreak investigation, including outbreaks on cruise ships.

Bruggink, L. Molecular changes in the norovirus polymerase gene and their association with incidence of GII. Norovirus epidemics are linked to two distinct sets of controlling factors. Molecular and epidemiological characteristics of norovirus associated with community-based sporadic gastroenteritis incidents and norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, Australia, — Intervirology 53, — Buckow, R.

Predictive model for inactivation of feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate, by heat and high hydrostatic pressure. Buesa, J. Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in Spain. Bull, R. Rapid evolution of pandemic noroviruses of the GII. PLoS Pathog. Butot, S. Effects of sanitation, freezing and frozen storage on enteric viruses in berries and herbs.

Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs. Calderon-Margalit, R. A large-scale gastroenteritis outbreak associated with Norovirus in nursing homes. Cannon, J. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: A comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus.

Herd immunity to GII. Cao, S. Structural basis for the recognition of blood group trisaccharides by norovirus. Carling, P. Cruise ship environmental hygiene and the risk of norovirus infection outbreaks: An objective assessment of 56 vessels over 3 years.

Carlsson, B. CDC Norovirus outbreak in an elementary school—District of Columbia, February MMWR Morb. CDC a. Norovirus outbreaks on three college campuses—California, Michigan, and Wisconsin, CDC b. Recurring norovirus outbreaks in a long-term residential treatment facility— Oregon, Chadwick, P. Management of hospital outbreaks of gastro-enteritis due to small roundstructured viruses. Chan, M. Fecal viral load and norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. Chen, H.

Temperature and treatment time influence high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Cheng, P. Norovirus contamination found in oysters worldwide. Cheng, V. Successful control of norovirus outbreak in an infirmary with the use of alcohol-based hand rub.

Cheong, S. Enteric viruses in raw vegetables and groundwater used for irrigation in South Korea. Chimonas, M. Passenger behaviors associated with norovirus infection on board a cruise ship—Alaska, May to June Travel Med. Clay, S. Survival on uncommon fomites of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of noroviruses. Control 34, 41— Clayton, D. Observation of food safety practices in catering using notational analysis.

Food J. Cooper, D. Tracking the spatial diffusion of influenza and norovirus using telehealth data: A spatiotemporal analysis of syndromic data. BMC Med. Costantini, V. Human and animal enteric caliciviruses in oysters from different coastal regions of the United States.

Costas, L. Outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis among staff at a hospital in Barcelona, Spain, September Euro Surveill. Cramer, E. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis on cruise ships, — Croci, L. Assessment of human enteric viruses in shellfish from the northern Adriatic sea. Cromeans, T. Inactivation of adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and murine norovirus in water by free chlorine and monochloramine. Cunliffe, N. Healthcare-associated viral gastroenteritis among children in a large pediatric hospital, United Kingdom. Evaluation of removal of noroviruses during wastewater treatment, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR: Different behaviors of genogroups I and II.

Dancer, S. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. David, S. An outbreak of Norovirus as a Foodborne Disease Hazard 25 norovirus caused by consumption of oysters from geographically dispersed harvest sites, British Columbia, Canada, Foodborne Pathog. De Roda Husman, A. Calicivirus inactivation by nonionizing Gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices, The Netherlands. A comparison of gastroenteritis in a general practicebased study and a community-based study.

Large outbreak of norovirus: The baker who should have known better. Dedman, D. DePaola, A. Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: United States market survey. Dey, S. Seasonal pattern and genotype distribution of norovirus infection in Japan. Dingle, K. Mutation in a Lordsdale norovirus epidemic strain as a potential indicator of transmission routes.

Dominguez, A. Aetiology and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Catalonia Spain in — Utility of clinicalepidemiological profiles in outbreaks of foodborne disease, Catalonia, through Donaldson, E. Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Dore, B. Management of health risks associated with oysters harvested from a norovirus contaminated area, Ireland, FebruaryMarch Doultree, J. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. Doyle, A. Norovirus foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of oysters from the Etang de Thau, France, December Doyle, T.

Outbreaks of noroviral gastroenteritis in Florida, — Dreyfuss, M. Is norovirus a foodborne or pandemic pathogen? An analysis of the transmission of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis and the roles of food and food handlers. Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental surfaces and their transfer to food.

Efficacy of chemical treatments against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and MS2 bacteriophage. High-pressure homogenization for the inactivation of human enteric virus surrogates. Duizer, E. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses. Ebihara, S. Infection and its control in group homes for the elderly in Japan. Elamri, D. Detection of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected in Tunisia.

Estes, M. Noroviruses everywhere: Has something changed? Ethelberg, S. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January Evans, M. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis following environmental contamination at a concert hall. Fauquet, C. Elsevier Inc. Fino, V. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce. Ford, T. Emerging issues in water and health research. Water Health 4 Suppl. Formiga-Cruz, M. Distribution of human virus contamination in shellfish from different growing areas in Greece, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

Friedman, D. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with wedding cakes. Friesema, I. Norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes: The evaluation of infection control measures. Differences in clinical presentation between norovirus genotypes in nursing homes. Gallay, A. A large multi-pathogen waterborne community outbreak linked to faecal contamination of a groundwater system, France, Gallimore, C. Multiple norovirus genotypes characterised from an oyster-associated outbreak of gastroenteritis.

Detection of multiple enteric virus Norovirus as a Foodborne Disease Hazard 27 strains within a foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: An indication of the source of contamination. Environmental monitoring for gastroenteric viruses in a pediatric primary immunodeficiency unit. Contamination of the hospital environment with gastroenteric viruses: Comparison of two pediatric wards over a winter season. Gil, M. Fresh-cut product sanitation and wash water disinfection: Problems and solutions.

Gilbride, S. Successful containment of a norovirus outreak in an acute adult psychiatric area. Control Hosp. Girard, M. Attachment of noroviruses to stainless steel and their inactivation, using household disinfectants. Godoy, P. Outbreak of food-borne Norovirus associated with the consumption of sandwiches. Barc , — High incidence of outbreaks of norovirus GGII.

Green, K. Caliciviridae: The noroviruses. Knipe and P. Howley, Eds , Vol. A predominant role for Norwalk-like viruses as agents of epidemic gastroenteritis in Maryland nursing homes for the elderly. Greer, A. Seasonality, hydrology, and Norovirus epidemiology in Toronto, Canada. EcoHealth 6, — Greig, J. Enteric outbreaks in long-term care facilities and recommendations for prevention: A review.

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 1. Description of the problem, methods, and agents involved. Grima, A. Outbreak of norovirus infection in a nursing home for the elderly in Malta, November - December Grmek Kosnik, I. Outbreak of norovirus infection in a nursing home in northern Slovenia, July Grove, S. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus, poliovirus and a norovirus surrogate by high pressure processing.

Food Sci. Gulati, B. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a foodcontact surface. Hall, G. Estimating foodborne gastroenteritis, Australia. Hansen, S. Closure of medical departments during nosocomial outbreaks: data from a systematic analysis of the literature.

Consortium Publisher Canada

Detection of human enteric viruses in Japanese clams. Harris, J. Infection control measures for norovirus: A systematic review of outbreaks in semi-enclosed settings. Haustein, T. Hospital admissions due to norovirus in adult and elderly patients in England. Hedberg, C. Systematic environmental evaluations to identify food safety differences between outbreak and nonoutbreak restaurants. The use of clinical profiles in the investigation of foodborne outbreaks in restaurants: United States, — Heijne, J. Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.

Hewitt, J. Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. Gastroenteritis outbreak caused by waterborne norovirus at a New Zealand ski resort. Evaluation of murine norovirus as a surrogate for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus in heat inactivation studies. Hirneisen, K. Viral inactivation in foods: A review of traditional and novel food-processing technologies.

Food Saf. Hjertqvist, M. Four outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis after consuming raspberries, Sweden, June-August Ho, E. Correlation of norovirus variants with epidemics of acute viral gastroenteritis in Hong Kong. Hoffmann, S. Using expert elicitation to link foodborne illnesses in the United States to foods. Holmes, J. Gastrointestinal illness associated with a long-haul flight. Honish, L. Outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis at a university student residence—Edmonton, Alberta, Hudson, J.

Inactivation of Norovirus by ozone gas in conditions relevant to healthcare. Huppatz, C. A norovirus outbreak associated with consumption of NSW oysters: Implications for quality assurance systems. Hutson, A. Norwalk virus infection associates with secretor status genotyped from sera. Iizuka, S. Detection of sapoviruses and noroviruses in an outbreak of gastroenteritis linked genetically to shellfish.

Ike, A. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in southwest Germany from to Norovirus transmission on cruise ship. Jiang, X. Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology , 51— Jimenez, L. Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: A surrogate for norovirus. Control 34, — Johansen, K.

Norovirus strains belonging to the GII. Arrival of new variants is associated with large nation-wide epidemics. Johnson, P. Multiplechallenge study of host susceptibility to Norwalk gastroenteritis in US adults. Johnston, C. Outbreak management and implications of a nosocomial norovirus outbreak. Jones, E. Role of fomite contamination during an outbreak of norovirus on houseboats.

Health Res. Kageyama, T. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Coexistence of multiple genotypes, including newly identified genotypes, in outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in Japan. Kamel, A. Evidence of the co-circulation of enteric viruses in sewage and in the population of Greater Cairo.

Kaplan, J. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Karsten, C. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in north-west Germany in Kearney, K. Carlow virus, a GII. Kelly, S. Establishment of a national database to link epidemiological and molecular data from norovirus outbreaks in Ireland. Kim, S. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred during school excursions in Korea were associated with several waterborne strains of norovirus. Aqueous matrix compositions and pH influence feline calicivirus inactivation by high pressure processing.

Kingsley, D. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a calicivirus by high hydrostatic pressure. Inactivation of a norovirus by high-pressure processing. Kirking, H. Likely transmission of norovirus on an airplane, October Kirkwood, C. Calicivirus shedding in children after recovery from diarrhoeal disease.

Kitajima, M. Chlorine inactivation of human norovirus, murine norovirus and poliovirus in drinking water. Kittigul, L. Norovirus GII-4 b variant circulating in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand during a — study. Koek, A. Additional value of typing Noroviruses in gastroenteritis outbreaks in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Koopmans, M. Progress in understanding norovirus epidemiology. Noroviruses in healthcare settings: A challenging problem. Early identification of common-source foodborne virus outbreaks in Europe. European investigation into recent norovirus outbreaks on cruise ships: Update.

Kornylo, K. Risk of norovirus transmission during air travel. Korsager, B. Two outbreaks of norovirus infections associated with the consumption of imported frozen raspberries, Denmark, May-June Kuo, H. A foodborne outbreak due to norovirus in Austria, A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, La Rosa, G.

Download Advances In Food And Nutrition Research 51 2006

Molecular identification and genetic analysis of Norovirus genogroups I and II in water environments: Comparative analysis of different reverse transcription-PCR assays. Detection and molecular characterization of noroviruses from five sewage treatment plants in central Italy. Water Res. Lages, S. In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: A surrogate for norovirus. Virus Genes 10, — Lamhoujeb, S.

Evaluation of the persistence of infectious human noroviruses on food surfaces by using real-time nucleic acid sequencebased amplification. Le Guyader, F. Norwalk virus-specific binding to oyster digestive tissues. Detection of multiple noroviruses associated with an international gastroenteritis outbreak linked to oyster consumption. Comprehensive analysis of a norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreak, from the environment to the consumer.

Lee, N. Fecal viral concentration and diarrhea in norovirus gastroenteritis. Lee, J. Inactivation and UV disinfection of murine norovirus with TiO2 under various environmental conditions. Lim, M. Disinfection kinetics of murine norovirus using chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Characterization of ozone disinfection of murine norovirus. Lindell, A. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in Stockholm, Sweden, during the years to Association of the GGIIb genetic cluster with infection in children.

Lindesmith, L. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Mechanisms of GII. PLoS Med. Heterotypic humoral and cellular immune responses following Norwalk virus infection. Liu, P. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Lopman, B. Noroviruses: Simple detection for complex epidemiology. Two epidemiologic patterns of norovirus outbreaks: Surveillance in England and Wales, — Increase in viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe and epidemic spread of new norovirus variant.

Lancet , — Host, weather and virological factors drive norovirus epidemiology: Time-series analysis of laboratory surveillance data in England and Wales. Lowther, J. Comparison between quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR results for norovirus in oysters and self-reported gastroenteric illness in restaurant customers. Leuenberger, S. Norovirus outbreak in a district general hospital - new strain identified. Swiss Med. Lysen, M. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. Macinga, D. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Magulski, T. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel. BMC Infect. Malik, Y. Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Disinfection of fabrics and carpets artificially contaminated with calicivirus: Elevance in institutional and healthcare centres. Comparative efficacy of ethanol and isopropanol against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate.

Control 34, 31— Mara, D. Estimation of norovirus infection risks to consumers of wastewater-irrigated food crops eaten raw. Water Health 8, 39— Marionneau, S. Marks, P. A school outbreak of Norwalk-like virus: Evidence for airborne transmission. Martin, A. Vol 61 Vol 60 Vol 59 Vol 58 Vol 57 Vol 56 Vol 55 Vol 54 Vol 53 Vol 52 Vol 49, No 4 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition.

Vol 49, No 3 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 49, No 2 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 49, No 1 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 48 No 4 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 48, No 3 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 48, No 2 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 48, No 1 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. Vol 47, No 4 - Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition.