Being fairly new, modern control theory has many areas yet to be explored. Scholars like Rudolf E. Kalman and Aleksandr Lyapunov are well-known among the people who have shaped modern control theory. Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems e.
Although such controllers need not be electrical, many are and hence control engineering is often viewed as a subfield of electrical engineering. However, the falling price of microprocessors is making the actual implementation of a control system essentially trivial [ citation needed ]. As a result, focus is shifting back to the mechanical and process engineering discipline, as intimate knowledge of the physical system being controlled is often desired. Electrical circuits , digital signal processors and microcontrollers can all be used to implement control systems.
Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners to the cruise control present in many modern automobiles. In most cases, control engineers utilize feedback when designing control systems. This is often accomplished using a PID controller system. For example, in an automobile with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system, which adjusts the motor's torque accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.
In practically all such systems stability is important and control theory can help ensure stability is achieved. Although feedback is an important aspect of control engineering, control engineers may also work on the control of systems without feedback. This is known as open loop control. A classic example of open loop control is a washing machine that runs through a pre-determined cycle without the use of sensors.
At many universities around the world, control engineering courses are taught primarily in electrical engineering and mechanical engineering , but some courses can be instructed in mechatronics engineering , and aerospace engineering. In others, control engineering is connected to computer science , as most control techniques today are implemented through computers, often as embedded systems as in the automotive field.
The field of control within chemical engineering is often known as process control. It deals primarily with the control of variables in a chemical process in a plant. It is taught as part of the undergraduate curriculum of any chemical engineering program and employs many of the same principles in control engineering. Other engineering disciplines also overlap with control engineering as it can be applied to any system for which a suitable model can be derived.
Control engineering has diversified applications that include science, finance management, and even human behavior. Students of control engineering may start with a linear control system course dealing with the time and complex-s domain, which requires a thorough background in elementary mathematics and Laplace transform , called classical control theory.
In linear control, the student does frequency and time domain analysis.
Control Engineering Modern Approach by Belanger Pierre - AbeBooks
Digital control and nonlinear control courses require Z transformation and algebra respectively, and could be said to complete a basic control education. Originally, control engineering was all about continuous systems. Development of computer control tools posed a requirement of discrete control system engineering because the communications between the computer-based digital controller and the physical system are governed by a computer clock.
The equivalent to Laplace transform in the discrete domain is the Z-transform. Today, many of the control systems are computer controlled and they consist of both digital and analog components. Therefore, at the design stage either digital components are mapped into the continuous domain and the design is carried out in the continuous domain, or analog components are mapped into discrete domain and design is carried out there.
Control engineering : a modern approach /
The first of these two methods is more commonly encountered in practice because many industrial systems have many continuous systems components, including mechanical, fluid, biological and analog electrical components, with a few digital controllers. Similarly, the design technique has progressed from paper-and-ruler based manual design to computer-aided design and now to computer-automated design or CAutoD which has been made possible by evolutionary computation.
CAutoD can be applied not just to tuning a predefined control scheme, but also to controller structure optimisation, system identification and invention of novel control systems, based purely upon a performance requirement, independent of any specific control scheme. Resilient control systems extend the traditional focus of addressing only planned disturbances to frameworks and attempt to address multiple types of unexpected disturbance; in particular, adapting and transforming behaviors of the control system in response to malicious actors, abnormal failure modes, undesirable human action, etc.
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Main article: Control theory. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 19 November Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 14 4. International Journal of Automation and Computing, 1 1. Rieger, D. Gertman and M. Systems engineering. Aerospace engineering Biological systems engineering Configuration management Earth systems engineering and management Electrical engineering Enterprise systems engineering Performance engineering Reliability engineering Safety engineering.
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