Manual FLOW-3D V9.3 User Manual, Volume 1

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Click OK to extend your time for an additional 30 minutes. This item has been successfully added to your list. Contact Us. Learn About. Request Quote. Search Search. Filter by Press enter to collapse or expand the menu. Instrument Type Instrument Type. Facet Value. Process Wetted Material. Nominal Pipe Size. Verification using Experimental Data In order to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the model, Experimental data of Azhdary Moghaddam , which was performed in hydraulic Laboratory University of Ottawa, was considered.

For the comparison propose, free Fig. Comparison between Free Surface Height for Numerical surface level of model and experimental data was taken. Generally, the results indicated that good agreement between 5 SSL: This configuration means that small step in top and the computed and measured profiles can be concluded at the middle part and large step in bottom part, and crest and toe portions of the spillway surface for the two passing 6 SSS: This configuration means that small step in top, mid- discharges.

In order to find the relative energy dissipation rate, energy at 3. It should be noted that the spillway was put on zero point for investigation of the amount of energy dissipation rate and the of horizontal axis. It includes the three- design head. The height of The discharge coefficients for 96 stepped spillway models and spillways was 30 m.

This shape continues down to the point 16 smooth spillway models were determined. For the mentioned where the slope of the curve meets the terminal spillway slope. Also, four is the discharge coefficient for the smooth spillways, L is the passing discharge were considered. Based on the literature review Sorensen, , where, h is the step height, l is the step length and yc Onset is the Christodoulou, , Bindo, , Rice and Kadavy, two characteristic critical depth.

Effect of Relative Head on Energy Dissipation The criterion was revised by Chanson by re-analyzing experimental data as follows: Fig. The results of the numerical analysis were illustrated in Figs. As it can be seen in Fig. Comparison of Ratio of Discharge Coefficients and Passing Discharge: a Spillway 15o, b Spillway 30o, c Spillway increased by decreasing spillway's slopes. In Fig. SLL configuration rate decreased by decreasing spillway's slopes.

Therefore, for the showed higher energy dissipation rate in Fig. At 60o downstream slope almost for maximum discharge coefficient rate. On the other hand, it was all discharges, LLL configuration showed maximum energy observed that, among all configurations, SSL generally has dissipation. So, for the design purpose, it should be noticed that maximum passing flow. The discharge coefficient increased for the case of a stepped spillway in comparison with an equivalent smooth spillway. This issue provides more flood conveying capacity to the downstream channel in a given time period.

On the other hand, it was previously proved that a stepped spillway increase energy dissipation rate than a smooth spillway. Therefore, an optimum relative head and spillway's slopes must be considered to reach the best Fig. Comparison of Percent of Energy Dissipation and Ratio of possible energy dissipation rate and discharge coefficient.

This dissipation rate decreased with increasing slope of spillways, issue can consider for the optimum design. These results are consistent with the previous results in Figs. On the other hand, energy dissipation rate comments. Akbari, G. Conclusions Arndt, R.

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Azhdary Moghaddam, M. The hydraulics of ogee-stepped spillway However, in the present study, the discharge coefficient rate as profile, PhD Thesis, Ottawa, Canada. Barati, R. Engineering, Vol. At the first of the nonlinear Muskingum models. Then, the numerical experiments were designed to Barati, R. The stepped models were designed Applied Sciences Research, Vol. Based on the results of the numerical experiments, the main Baylar, A. January , pp.

Baylar, A. Felder, S. Flow Science Inc. Science Inc. Frizell, K. Tennessee, pp. Chanson, H. The hydraulics of stepped chutes and spillways, Engineering p. Gomes, J. Air-water flows down stepped inception on steeply sloping stepped spillways. To prevent any user interaction during installation, default values can be defined. A file vboxconf can contain the following debconf settings:.

The first line enables compilation of the vboxdrv kernel module if no module was found for the current kernel. The second line enables the package to delete any old vboxdrv kernel modules compiled by previous installations. These default settings can be applied prior to the installation of the Oracle VM VirtualBox Debian package, as follows:. In addition there are some common configuration options that can be set prior to the installation. The RPM format does not provide a configuration system comparable to the debconf system.

To configure the installation process for. The automatic generation of the udev rule can be prevented with the following setting:. If the following line is specified, the package installer will not try to build the vboxdrv kernel module if no module fitting the current kernel was found. The Linux installers create the system user group vboxusers during installation. These are symbolic links to VBox. The following detailed instructions should only be of interest if you wish to execute Oracle VM VirtualBox without installing it first. You should start by compiling the vboxdrv kernel module and inserting it into the Linux kernel.

The daemon is automatically started if necessary. There can be multiple daemon instances under different user accounts and applications can only communicate with the daemon running under the user account as the application. The local domain socket resides in a subdirectory of your system's directory for temporary files called. In case of communication problems or server startup problems, you may try to remove this directory. If you have a previously installed instance of Oracle VM VirtualBox on your Oracle Solaris host, please uninstall it first before installing a new instance.

The installation must be performed as root and from the global zone as the Oracle VM VirtualBox installer loads kernel drivers which cannot be done from non-global zones. To verify which zone you are currently in, execute the zonename command. Execute the following commands:. The Oracle VM VirtualBox kernel package is no longer a separate package and has been integrated into the main package.

The installer will then prompt you to enter the package you wish to install. Choose 1 or all and proceed. Next the installer will ask you if you want to allow the postinstall script to be executed. Choose y and proceed, as it is essential to execute this script which installs the Oracle VM VirtualBox kernel module. Following this confirmation the installer will install Oracle VM VirtualBox and execute the postinstall setup script. Once the postinstall script has been executed your installation is now complete. You may now safely delete the uncompressed package and autoresponse files from your system.

Note that adding an active user to that group will require that user to log out and back in again. This should be done manually after successful installation of the package. Using the links provided is easier as you do not have to enter the full path. To perform the uninstallation, start a root terminal session and run the following command:. To perform a non-interactive installation of Oracle VM VirtualBox there is a response file named autoresponse , that the installer will use for responses to inputs rather than ask them from you. Extract the tar.

Then open a root terminal session and run the following command:. To perform a non-interactive uninstallation, open a root terminal session and run the following command:. This is done by performing the following steps. Start a root terminal and run the following command:. Use zonecfg to add the device resource and match properties to the zone, as follows:. This is specified below using the dir attribute and the special attribute.

Reboot the zone using zoneadm and you should be able to run Oracle VM VirtualBox from within the configured zone. You have considerable latitude when deciding what virtual hardware to provide to the guest. Use virtual hardware to communicate with the host system or with other guests. For example, you can use virtual hardware in the following ways:.

Provide a guest system access to the physical network through its virtual network card. Provide the host system, other guests, and computers on the Internet access to the guest system. Because Oracle VM VirtualBox is designed to provide a generic virtualization environment for x86 systems, it can run operating systems OSes of any kind. Fully supports all versions, editions, and service packs. Note that you might encounter issues with some older service packs, so install at least service pack 6a.

Fully supports all versions, editions, and service packs, including bit versions. Note that you must enable hardware virtualization when running at least Windows 8. Certain Linux kernel releases have bugs that prevent them from executing in a virtual environment. Oracle Solaris 10 and Oracle Solaris Note that you must enable hardware virtualization when running FreeBSD.

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Note that you must enable hardware virtualization when running OpenBSD. Guest Additions are available with a limited feature set. Oracle VM VirtualBox 3. Note that this feature is experimental and thus unsupported. Oracle VM VirtualBox is the first product to provide the modern PC architecture expected by OS X without requiring any of the modifications used by competing virtualization solutions.

For example, some competing solutions perform modifications to the Mac OS X install DVDs, such as a different boot loader and replaced files. Be aware of the following important issues before you attempt to install a Mac OS X guest:. Mac OS X is commercial, licensed software and contains both license and technical restrictions that limit its use to certain hardware and usage scenarios. You must understand and comply with these restrictions. These license restrictions are also enforced on a technical level.

Mac OS X verifies that it is running on Apple hardware. Most DVDs that accompany Apple hardware check for the exact model. Only CPUs that are known and tested by Apple are supported. The Mac OS X installer expects the hard disk to be partitioned. So, the installer will not offer a partition selection to you. Before you can install the software successfully, start the Disk Utility from the Tools menu and partition the hard disk.

Close the Disk Utility and proceed with the installation. To run a bit guest OS on a bit host system, ensure that you meet the following conditions:. You need a bit processor that has hardware virtualization support. You must enable hardware virtualization for the particular VM that requires bit support.

Software virtualization is not supported for bit VMs. Since supporting 64 bits on bit hosts incurs additional overhead, Oracle VM VirtualBox only enables this support only upon explicit request. So, you can install a bit guest OS in the guest regardless of the settings. This is especially true for bit Windows VMs. You only need to provide the installation medium and a few other parameters, such as the name of the default user. Create a new VM.

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Use one of the following methods:. The following sections in this chapter describe how to change the settings for a VM. Prepare the VM for unattended guest installation. Start the VM. When you start the VM, the unattended installation is performed automatically. The installation operation changes the boot device order to boot the virtual hard disk first and then the virtual DVD drive. If the virtual hard disk is empty prior to the automatic installation, the VM boots from the virtual DVD drive and begins the installation.

If the virtual hard disk contains a bootable OS, the installation operation exits. The following example shows how to perform an unattended guest installation for an Oracle Linux VM. Create a SATA storage controller and attach the virtual hard disk. Specifies a login name, full name, and login password for a default user on the guest OS. Note that the specified password is also used for the root user account on the guest.

Oracle VM VirtualBox virtualizes nearly all hardware of the host. Depending on a VM's configuration, the guest will see the following virtual hardware:. Input devices. These devices are supported by almost all past and present OSes. This is unlike nearly all other emulated devices. Whereas providing one of these would be enough for Oracle VM VirtualBox by itself, this multitude of storage adapters is required for compatibility with other hypervisors.

Windows is particularly picky about its boot devices, and migrating VMs between hypervisors is very difficult or impossible if the storage controllers are different. Note that for Windows 7 guests, 3rd party drivers must be installed for xHCI support. In the Settings window, under General , you can configure the most fundamental aspects of the virtual machine such as memory and essential hardware. The following tabs are available. In the Basic tab of the General settings category, you can find these settings:.

As a result, you can only use characters which are allowed in your host OS's file names. You can display these with VBoxManage. This is the same setting that is specified in the New Virtual Machine wizard. Whereas the default settings of a newly created VM depend on the selected OS type, changing the type later has no effect on VM settings. This value is purely informational and decorative.

The following settings are available in the Advanced tab:. With this setting, you can specify any other folder for each VM. Shared Clipboard: You can select here whether the clipboard of the guest OS should be shared with that of your host. If you select Bidirectional , then Oracle VM VirtualBox will always make sure that both clipboards contain the same data. In such a case, this setting has no effect. For security reasons, the shared clipboard is disabled by default.

This setting can be changed at any time using the Shared Clipboard menu item in the Devices menu of the virtual machine. Drag and Drop: This setting enables support for drag and drop. Select an object, such as a file, from the host or guest and directly copy or open it on the guest or host. Multiple per-VM drag and drop modes allow restricting access in either direction. For drag and drop to work the Guest Additions need to be installed on the guest. Drag and drop is disabled by default. This setting can be changed at any time using the Drag and Drop menu item in the Devices menu of the virtual machine.

On the Description tab you can enter a description for your virtual machine. This has no effect on the functionality of the machine, but you may find this space useful to note down things such as the configuration of a virtual machine and the software that has been installed into it. The Disk Encryption tab enables you to encrypt disks that are attached to the virtual machine. To enable disk encryption, select the Enable Disk Encryption check box.

Settings are available to configure the cipher used for encryption and the encryption password. The System category groups various settings that are related to the basic hardware that is presented to the virtual machine. As the activation mechanism of Microsoft Windows is sensitive to hardware changes, if you are changing hardware settings for a Windows guest, some of these changes may trigger a request for another activation with Microsoft. On the Motherboard tab, you can configure virtual hardware that would normally be on the motherboard of a real computer. The specified amount of memory will be requested from the host OS, so it must be available or made available as free memory on the host when attempting to start the VM and will not be available to the host while the VM is running.

Generally, it is possible to change the memory size after installing the guest OS. But you must not reduce the memory to an amount where the OS would no longer boot. Boot Order: Determines the order in which the guest OS will attempt to boot from the various virtual boot devices. This needs to be configured in detail on the command line. Chipset: You can select which chipset will be presented to the virtual machine.

Note that the ICH9 support is experimental and not recommended for guest OSes which do not require it. Using the virtual USB tablet has the advantage that movements are reported in absolute coordinates, instead of as relative position changes. This makes using the VM less tedious even if Guest Additions are not installed. It is also required if you want to use more than one virtual CPU in a virtual machine.

Turning it on after installation will have no effect however. ACPI is the current industry standard to allow OSes to recognize hardware, configure motherboards and other devices and manage power. ACPI can only be turned off using the command line. However, turning it on after installation will have no effect. On the Processor tab, you can configure settings for the CPU used by the virtual machine. You should not configure virtual machines to use more CPU cores than are available physically.

This includes real cores, with no hyperthreads. Note that limiting the execution time of the virtual CPUs may cause guest timing problems. A warning is displayed at the bottom of the Processor tab if an Execution Cap setting is made that may affect system performance. This is made possible by adding another 4 bits to memory addresses, so that with 36 bits, up to 64 GB can be addressed. For Intel CPUs, the option is grayed out. Paravirtualization Interface: Oracle VM VirtualBox provides paravirtualization interfaces to improve time-keeping accuracy and performance of guest OSes.

Hardware Virtualization: You can select for each virtual machine individually whether Oracle VM VirtualBox should use software or hardware virtualization. Advanced users may be interested in technical details about software versus hardware virtualization.

In most cases, the default settings on the Acceleration tab will work well. Oracle VM VirtualBox selects sensible defaults, depending on the OS that you selected when you created the virtual machine. In certain situations, however, you may want to change the preconfigured defaults. Video Memory: Sets the size of the memory provided by the virtual graphics card available to the guest, in MB. As with the main memory, the specified amount will be allocated from the host's resident memory.

Based on the amount of video memory, higher resolutions and color depths may be available. The GUI will show a warning if the amount of video memory is too small to be able to switch the VM into full screen mode. The minimum value depends on the number of virtual monitors, the screen resolution and the color depth of the host display as well as on the use of 3D acceleration and 2D video acceleration.

Extra memory may be required if display acceleration is used. Up to eight such virtual monitors are supported. The output of the multiple monitors are displayed on the host in multiple VM windows which are running side by side. However, in full screen and seamless mode, they use the available physical monitors attached to the host. As a result, for full screen and seamless modes to work with multiple monitors, you will need at least as many physical monitors as you have virtual monitors configured, or Oracle VM VirtualBox will report an error.

Scale Factor: Enables scaling of the display size. For multiple monitor displays, you can set the scale factor for individual monitors, or globally for all of the monitors. You can set a default scale factor for all VMs. Use the Display tab in the Global Settings dialogs. Enable 3D Acceleration: If a virtual machine has Guest Additions installed, you can select here whether the guest should support accelerated 3D graphics.

Enable 2D Video Acceleration: If a virtual machine with Microsoft Windows has Guest Additions installed, you can select here whether the guest should support accelerated 2D video graphics. Graphics Controller: Specifies the graphics adapter type used by the guest VM. The following options are available:. This is the default graphics controller for Windows versions before Windows 7 and for Oracle Solaris.


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This is the default graphics controller for Linux guests. None: Does not emulate a graphics adapter type. This enables you to connect to the console of the virtual machine remotely with any standard RDP viewer, such as mstsc. On Linux and Oracle Solaris systems you can use the standard open source rdesktop program. Enable Server: Select this check box and configure settings for the remote display connection. On the Recording tab you can enable video and audio recording for a virtual machine and change related settings.

Note that these features can be enabled and disabled while a VM is running. Enable Recording: Select this check box and select a Recording Mode option. Recording Mode: You can choose to record video, audio, or both video and audio. Some settings on the Recording tab may be grayed out, depending on the Recording Mode setting. File Path: The file where the recording is saved. Frame Size: The video resolution of the recorded video, in pixels. The drop-down list enables you to select from common frame sizes.

Frames that have a higher frequency are skipped.

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Increasing this value reduces the number of skipped frames and increases the file size. Quality: Use the slider to set the the bit rate of the video in kilobits per second. Increasing this value improves the appearance of the video at the cost of an increased file size. Audio Quality: Use the slider to set the quality of the audio recording.

Increasing this value improves the audio quality at the cost of an increased file size. Screens: For a multiple monitor display, you can select which screens to record video from. As you adjust the video and audio recording settings, the approximate output file size for a five minute video is shown. In a real PC, so-called storage controllers connect physical disk drives to the rest of the computer. If you have used the Create VM wizard to create a machine, you will normally see something like the following:. Depending on the guest OS type that you selected when you created the VM, a new VM includes the following storage devices:.

IDE controller. SATA controller. This is a modern type of storage controller for higher hard disk data throughput, to which the virtual hard disks are attached. Initially you will normally have one such virtual disk, but as shown in the previous screenshot, you can have more than one. Each is represented by a disk image file, such as a VDI file in this example.

This might also apply if you selected an older OS type when you created the VM. Oracle VM VirtualBox also provides a floppy controller. You cannot add devices other than floppy drives to this controller. You can modify these media attachments freely. For example, if you wish to copy some files from another virtual disk that you created, you can connect that disk as a second hard disk, as in the above screenshot.

If you clicked on a floppy controller, you can add a floppy drive instead. Alternatively, right-click on the storage controller and select a menu item there. The device slot of the controller that the virtual disk is connected to. IDE controllers have four slots which have traditionally been called primary master, primary slave, secondary master, and secondary slave.

For virtual hard disks, a button with a drop-down list appears on the right, offering you to either select a virtual hard disk file using a standard file dialog or to create a new hard disk image file. For virtual floppy drives, a dialog enables you to create and format a new floppy disk image automatically. Most commonly, you will select this option when installing an OS from an ISO file that you have obtained from the Internet. For example, most Linux distributions are available in this way. If you select Host Drive from the list, then the physical device of the host computer is connected to the VM, so that the guest OS can read from and write to your physical device.

This is, for instance, useful if you want to install Windows from a real installation CD. In this case, select your host drive from the drop-down list presented. To remove an attachment , either select it and click on the Remove icon at the bottom, or right-click on it and select the menu item. Since the Settings dialog is not available at that time, you can also access these settings from the Devices menu of your virtual machine window.

The Audio section in a virtual machine's Settings window determines whether the VM will detect a connected sound card, and if the audio output should be played on the host system. To enable audio for a guest, select the Enable Audio check box. The following settings are available:. On newer Linux distributions, the PulseAudio subsystem is preferred. The Network section in a virtual machine's Settings window enables you to configure how Oracle VM VirtualBox presents virtual network cards to your VM, and how they operate.

This way the guest can connect to the outside world using the host's networking and the outside world can connect to services on the guest which you choose to make visible outside of the virtual machine. It supports many virtual network cards per virtual machine. The first four virtual network cards can be configured in detail in the VirtualBox Manager window.

Additional network cards can be configured using the VBoxManage command. Many networking options are available. Serial ports were commonly used with modems, and some computer mice used to be connected to serial ports before USB became commonplace. While serial ports are no longer as common as they used to be, there are still some important uses left for them.

For example, serial ports can be used to set up a primitive network over a null-modem cable, in case Ethernet is not available. Also, serial ports are indispensable for system programmers needing to do kernel debugging, since kernel debugging software usually interacts with developers over a serial port. With virtual serial ports, system programmers can do kernel debugging on a virtual machine instead of needing a real computer to connect to. Both receiving and transmitting data is supported. How this virtual serial port is then connected to the host is configurable, and the details depend on your host OS.

You can use either the Settings tabs or the VBoxManage command to set up virtual serial ports. You can configure up to four virtual serial ports per virtual machine. For each device, you must set the following:. Port Number: This determines the serial port that the virtual machine should see. For best results, use the traditional values as follows:. You can also configure a user-defined serial port. Port Mode: What the virtual port is connected to. For each virtual serial port, you have the following options:. Disconnected: The guest will see the device, but it will behave as if no cable had been connected to it.

Host Device: Connects the virtual serial port to a physical serial port on your host. On a Windows host, this will be a name like COM1. Oracle VM VirtualBox will then simply redirect all data received from and sent to the virtual serial port to the physical device. This depends on your host OS, as follows:. On a Windows host, data will be sent and received through a named pipe. On a Mac, Linux, or Oracle Solaris host, a local domain socket is used instead. The socket filename must be chosen such that the user running Oracle VM VirtualBox has sufficient privileges to create and write to it.

On Linux there are various tools which can connect to a local domain socket or create one in server mode. The most flexible tool is socat and is available as part of many distributions.

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In this case, you can configure whether Oracle VM VirtualBox should create the named pipe, or the local domain socket non-Windows hosts, itself or whether Oracle VM VirtualBox should assume that the pipe or socket exists already. With the VBoxManage command-line options, this is referred to as server mode or client mode, respectively. For a direct connection between two virtual machines, corresponding to a null-modem cable, simply configure one VM to create a pipe or socket and another to attach to it. Raw File: Send the virtual serial port output to a file. This option is very useful for capturing diagnostic output from a guest.

Any file may be used for this purpose, as long as the user running Oracle VM VirtualBox has sufficient privileges to create and write to the file. This option enables a remote machine to directly connect to the guest's serial port using TCP. This is typically 23 or Note that on UNIX-like systems you will have to use a port a number greater than for regular users. Up to four serial ports can be configured per virtual machine, but you can pick any port numbers out of the above.

However, serial ports cannot reliably share interrupts. As soon as the guest system starts using a USB device, it will appear as unavailable on the host. Be careful with USB devices that are currently in use on the host. For example, if you allow your guest to connect to your USB hard disk that is currently mounted on the host, when the guest is activated, it will be disconnected from the host without a proper shutdown.

This may cause data loss. Oracle Solaris hosts have a few known limitations regarding USB support. For this, you can create filters by specifying certain properties of the USB device. USB devices with a matching filter will be automatically passed to the guest once they are attached to the host. USB devices without a matching filter can be passed manually to the guest, for example by using the Devices , USB menu. You can give the filter a name, for later reference, and specify the filter criteria. The more criteria you specify, the more precisely devices will be selected.

For instance, if you specify only a vendor ID of d, all devices produced by Logitech will be available to the guest. If you fill in all fields, on the other hand, the filter will only apply to a particular device model from a particular vendor, and not even to other devices of the same type with a different revision and serial number. Vendor and Product ID. Similarly, each line of products is assigned a product ID number. Both numbers are commonly written in hexadecimal, and a colon separates the vendor from the product ID.

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Alternatively, you can also specify Manufacturer and Product by name. To list all the USB devices that are connected to your host machine with their respective vendor IDs and product IDs, use the following command:. On Linux, you can use the lsusb command. Serial Number. While vendor ID and product ID are quite specific to identify USB devices, if you have two identical devices of the same brand and product line, you will also need their serial numbers to filter them out correctly.

This setting specifies whether the device will be local only, remote only, such as over VRDP, or either. On a Windows host, you will need to unplug and reconnect a USB device to use it after creating a filter for it. As an example, you could create a new USB filter and specify a vendor ID of d for Logitech, Inc, a manufacturer index of 1, and "not remote". Then any USB devices on the host system produced by Logitech, Inc with a manufacturer index of 1 will be visible to the guest system.

Several filters can select a single device. For example, a filter which selects all Logitech devices, and one which selects a particular webcam. You can deactivate filters without deleting them by deselecting the check box next to the filter name. On Windows hosts, a kernel mode device driver provides USB proxy support.

When Oracle VM VirtualBox is installed, these are made available to all users in the vboxusers system group. In order to be able to access USB from guest systems, make sure that you are a member of this group. On older Linux hosts, USB devices are accessed using the usbfs file system. Most distributions provide a group, such as usbusers , which the Oracle VM VirtualBox user needs to be added to. Shared folders enable you to easily exchange data between a virtual machine and your host.

The User Interface section enables you to change certain aspects of the user interface of this VM. Menu Bar: This widget enables you to disable menus by clicking on the menu to release it, menu entries by deselecting the check box of the entry to disable it and the complete menu bar by deselecting the rightmost check box.

Mini ToolBar: In full screen or seamless mode, Oracle VM VirtualBox can display a small toolbar that contains some of the items that are normally available from the virtual machine's menu bar. This toolbar reduces itself to a small gray line unless you move the mouse over it. With the toolbar, you can return from full screen or seamless mode, control machine execution or enable certain devices. If you do not want to see the toolbar, disable this setting. The second setting enables you to show the toolbar at the top of the screen, instead of showing it at the bottom.

Status Bar: This widget enables you to disable icons on the status bar by deselecting the check box of an icon to disable it, to rearrange icons by dragging and dropping the icon, and to disable the complete status bar by deselecting the leftmost check box.


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Oracle VM VirtualBox includes experimental support for the Extensible Firmware Interface EFI , which is a new industry standard intended to eventually replace the legacy BIOS as the primary interface for bootstrapping computers and certain system services later. Alternatively, use the VBoxManage command line interface as follows:.

More recent Linux versions and Windows releases, starting with Vista, also offer special versions that can be booted using EFI. Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a configuration option to control the graphics resolution for both interfaces, making the difference mostly irrelevant for users. The default resolution is x Determine the horizontal resolution H and the vertical resolution V from the following list of default resolutions:. Note that the color depth value specified in a custom video mode must be specified.

Color depths of 8, 16, 24, and 32 are accepted. EFI assumes a color depth of 32 by default. It is currently not possible to manipulate EFI variables from within a running guest. For example, setting the "boot-args" variable by running the nvram tool in a Mac OS X guest will not work. To change the "boot-args" EFI variable, use the following command:. The previous chapter covered getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox and installing operating systems in a virtual machine.

For any serious and interactive use, the Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions will make your life much easier by providing closer integration between host and guest and improving the interactive performance of guest systems. This chapter describes the Guest Additions in detail. They consist of device drivers and system applications that optimize the guest operating system for better performance and usability.

Mouse pointer integration. You will only have one mouse pointer and pressing the Host key is no longer required to "free" the mouse from being captured by the guest OS. To make this work, a special mouse driver is installed in the guest that communicates with the "real" mouse driver on your host and moves the guest mouse pointer accordingly.

Shared folders. These provide an easy way to exchange files between the host and the guest. Much like ordinary Windows network shares, you can tell Oracle VM VirtualBox to treat a certain host directory as a shared folder, and Oracle VM VirtualBox will make it available to the guest operating system as a network share, irrespective of whether guest actually has a network.