This report should be of interest to policymakers interested in technology, counterterrorism, and intelligence and law enforcement issues, as well as for VC and cybersecurity researchers. Lillian Ablon , Martin C.
Libicki , Andrea M. Criminal activities in cyberspace are increasingly facilitated by burgeoning black markets. This report characterizes these markets and how they have grown into their current state to provide insight into how their existence can harm the information security environment. Understanding these markets lays the groundwork for exploring options to minimize their potentially harmful influence.
Isaac R. Navy analysts are struggling to keep pace with the growing flood of data collected by intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance sensors.
Theory, Prospects and Challenges
This challenge is sure to intensify as the Navy continues to field new and additional sensors. The authors explore options for solving the Navy's "big data" challenge, considering changes across four dimensions: people, tools and technology, data and data architectures, and demand and demand management. The chances are growing that the United States will find itself in a crisis in cyberspace — the escalation of tensions associated with a major cyberattack, suspicions that one has taken place, or fears that it might do so soon.
Such crises can be managed by taking steps to reduce the incentives for other states to step in, controlling the narrative, understanding the stability parameters of the crises, and recognizing escalation risks. Sollinger , Shawn McKay. It has become clear that Stuxnet-like worms pose a serious threat even to critical U.
However, defending against such attacks involves complex technological and legal issues. In particular, at the federal level, different organizations have different responsibilities and levels of authority when it comes to investigating or defending against intrusions. Discusses the vulnerability of the nation's information infrastructure to external attacks and other kinds of disruptions.
Lillian Ablon , Andrea M. Conventional wisdom says that technology innovates and disrupts, while public policy regulates and controls. What might a better integration of the commercial tech sector with the policy community look like?
Strategic Studies Institute
Susan S. Sohler Everingham , Lillian Ablon. Cybersecurity needs to become more of a priority for the government and private corporations. Whatever the solution, public and private officials need to do a better job of weighing the risk-benefit calculation of storing data on Internet-accessible computers and justifying data-handling protocols. Dan Gonzales gonzadan. The U. What remains vitally needed is legislation that would grant at least one capable government organization the authority to track cyber-intruders and -criminals with the same freedom and speed of maneuver that these adversaries enjoy, while protecting the civil liberties and freedoms that allowed the establishment of the Internet.
Innovative approaches are needed to break the current stalemate of information sharing and to build a solid and reliable evidence base on the state of cyber-security, writes Neil Robinson. The highly sophisticated Stuxnet computer worm suspected of sending Iran's nuclear centrifuges into self-destruction mode forces a difficult debate on whether longstanding firewalls in our country's democracy should be breached for the sake of national security, writes Isaac Porche.
David C. Gompert , Hans Binnendijk. Mounting costs, risks, and public misgivings of waging war are raising the importance of U. The best P2C options are financial sanctions, support for nonviolent political opposition to hostile regimes, and offensive cyber operations. The state against which coercion is most difficult and risky is China, which also happens to pose the strongest challenge to U. John S. Davis II , Martin C. Cybersecurity professionals are faced with the dilemma of selecting from a large set of cybersecurity defensive measures while operating with a limited set of resources with which to employ the measures.
This report explains the menu of actions for defending an organization against cyberattack and recommends an approach for organizing the range of actions and evaluating cybersecurity defensive activities. As the security on the iPhone better protects users from criminals, it also excels at keeping law enforcement from accessing the data. The dispute between the FBI and Apple over unlocking the iPhone of one of the San Bernardino attackers continues but the real debate is about whether society wants legislation that weakens iPhone security for law enforcement.
The human element is the most unpredictable factor in cybersecurity.
Power and Security in the Information Age
A social engineer aims to make people do what they want or give the social engineer information, often without the person considering the negative consequences. Late last month, Fiat Chrysler recalled 1. In essence, what was considered a huge threat was converted into a solved or at least solvable problem. Gompert , Martin C. Central Command on Jan. While the incident was embarrassing, it was not concerning in operational military terms.
It was, however, damaging to the counterinsurgency against ISIS. For American audiences and policymakers alike, cyber activities in Crimea provide a chilling reminder that cyberspace is emerging as a 21st-century global battlefield. Although spending on cybersecurity continues to grow, companies, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations are still being breached, and sensitive personal, financial, and health information is still being compromised.
This report sets out the results of a study of consumer attitudes toward data breaches, notifications that a breach has occurred, and company responses to such events. Martin C. Libicki , Lillian Ablon , Timothy Webb. Volume 17 , Issue 2 June Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. Cyberterrorism, in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources Parker As such, a simple propaganda piece on the Internet that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism.
There are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, blackmailing , etc. Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers.
These hackers demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to offer "protection". According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation , cybercrime extortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the public domain.
Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack. An example of cyberextortion was the attack on Sony Pictures of The U. Department of Defense DoD notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geostrategic significance. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia 's infrastructure in , allegedly by Russian hackers. The December Ukraine power grid cyberattack has also been attributed to Russia and is considered the first successful cyber attack on a power grid.
These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals.
Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool, these crimes require the technical knowledge of the perpetrators. As such, as technology evolves, so too does the nature of the crime. These crimes are relatively new, having been in existence for only as long as computers have—which explains how unprepared society and the world, in general, is towards combating these crimes.
There are numerous crimes of this nature committed daily on the internet. When the individual is the main target of cybercrime, the computer can be considered as the tool rather than the target. These crimes generally involve less technical expertise.
Human weaknesses are generally exploited. The damage dealt is largely psychological and intangible, making legal action against the variants more difficult. These are the crimes which have existed for centuries in the offline world.
Scams , theft, and the likes have existed even before the development in high-tech equipment. The same criminal has simply been given a tool which increases their potential pool of victims and makes them all the harder to trace and apprehend. The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes spam is unlawful in some jurisdictions. Phishing is mostly propagated via email. Phishing emails may contain links to other websites that are affected by malware. The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances, these communications may be illegal.
The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and even within nations. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs. One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography , which is illegal in most jurisdictions in the world. Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation.
This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties. Harassment on the internet also includes revenge porn. There are instances where committing a crime using a computer can lead to an enhanced sentence. For example, in the case of United States v. Neil Scott Kramer , Kramer was served an enhanced sentence according to the U. Although Kramer tried to argue this point, U. Sentencing Guidelines Manual states that the term computer "means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemically , or other high-speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device.
Connecticut was the U. Michigan , Arizona , and Virginia and South Carolina  have also passed laws banning harassment by electronic means. Harassment as defined in the U. Although freedom of speech is protected by law in most democratic societies in the US this is done by the First Amendment , it does not include all types of speech.
Darknet markets are used to buy and sell recreational drugs online. Some drug traffickers use encrypted messaging tools to communicate with drug mules. The dark web site Silk Road was a major online marketplace for drugs before it was shut down by law enforcement then reopened under new management, and then shut down by law enforcement again. After Silk Road 2. However, it was just an older marketplace named Diabolus Market , that used the name for more exposure from the brand's previous success. The broad diffusion of cybercriminal activities is an issue in computer crimes detection and prosecution.
According to Jean-Loup Richet Associate Professor at the Sorbonne Business School , technical expertise and accessibility no longer act as barriers to entry into cybercrime. Blogs and communities have hugely contributed to information sharing: beginners could benefit from older hackers' knowledge and advice.
Cybercrime - Wikipedia
Furthermore, hacking is cheaper than ever: before the cloud computing era, in order to spam or scam one needed a dedicated server, skills in server management, network configuration, and maintenance, knowledge of Internet service provider standards, etc. By comparison, a mail software-as-a-service is a scalable, inexpensive, bulk, and transactional e-mail-sending service for marketing purposes and could be easily set up for spam.
A computer can be a source of evidence see digital forensics. Even where a computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it may contain records of value to criminal investigators in the form of a logfile. In most countries  Internet Service Providers are required, by law, to keep their logfiles for a predetermined amount of time. For example; a European wide Data Retention Directive applicable to all EU member states states that all e-mail traffic should be retained for a minimum of 12 months.
There are many ways for cybercrime to take place, and investigations tend to start with an IP Address trace, however, that is not necessarily a factual basis upon which detectives can solve a case. Different types of high-tech crime may also include elements of low-tech crime, and vice versa, making cybercrime investigators an indispensable part of modern law enforcement.