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The following sections describe the type ontology that we have devised. Starting from the following example expressed in current recommendations of the TEI Guidelines, we show in this section a better representation of etymons in etymological description:. Therefore we suggest that such references be considered a single process of referring to other lexical entries at large, whether within the same entry, within the same dictionary, or potentially to a lexical entry from another dictionary.

In the latter case, the dictionary may or may not exist for the corresponding language, and thus the reference may be used as a placeholder for a potential construction. This is typically the case for etymons that refer to other languages or ancient forms thereof, even if such forms are not yet part of a real lexical description. Clearly, this distinction is correlated with etymological types, borrowing being more likely to be related to lexical entries whereas metaphors would more often correspond to new senses.

For instance, in an entry denoting changes to the morphological and phonological form of a given Bavarian word inherited from Middle High German, rather than doing the following for every instance of inheritance: They are indeed objects that are very close to etymons but cover a wider variety of linguistic segments such as morphemes. Thus, the XML structure mirrors that of attestation, with the only differences being the value of type and xml:lang. We will not go into detail here about the possible limits of this recommendation; instead, we need to explain some of the choices that are applied in our paper.

This is neither a conceptually accurate as an orthographic system is of course not a language , nor a functionally pragmatic means of representing this information. Functionally, there is no difference between orthography and phonetic notation with various degrees of nuance and exceptions for logographic, logosyllabic, and other such systems ; they are both representations of the language information at some level. With regards to phonetic information at least in the dictionary module , in any linguistic data there is an obvious need to distinguish between the various phonetic transcription systems, and the TEI already has a solution in notation.

Whereas BCP 47 at times introduces ways of dealing with such variations or even allows one to define its private subtags to do so, we found it cumbersome to overload xml:lang , the main disadvantage being the loss of systematicity in the way a given language is marked in an encoded text.

With this double mechanism, we intend to describe content expressed in the same language by means of the same language tag, thus allowing more reliable management, access, and search procedures over our lexical content.

Lexical and structural etymology : beyond word histories - Semantic Scholar

We have actually identified several cases in the sole context of lexical representations e. In such cases it is up to the encoder to decide whether maintaining the format of the source is of any benefit to the data quality. The combination of these within the data structure encodes relative occurrence of the given etymon within the diachrony of any example. This is perhaps noteworthy in its own right, and sampling an entire lexicon in which such information is included could be useful in measuring how much a language has changed over a given period of time.

Example 3. Phonetic and phonological changes often occur in stages and have their own set of classifications and terminology that require their own level of encoding separate from those occurring on the higher levels of language such as morphosyntax and semantics. The etymon clusters begin with the Vulgar Latin form top and end with the Middle French form bottom. Example 4. Phonological stages in inherited form These differences are evident when contrasting a large sample of synchronic and diachronic phonological and phonotactic forms with respect to a given historical or contemporary morphological or morphosyntactic feature.

For example, where the source form has a specific case and the entry in question does not have any case information, the general phenomenon that is the loss of grammatical case is implicitly present. Whereas in Latin, the etymon had the neuter gender, the inherited form in Sicilian is of the masculine gender. Additionally, Sicilian no longer has a neuter gender.

This means that, in a Sicilian TEI dictionary of sufficient size containing such synchronic and diachronic information, a search for all entries containing all of the following facets would enable the conclusion that there is no more neuter gender:. This could be for reasons connected with a separate origin from the lemma, or, more commonly, with the fact that the phonological composition of the lemma and inflected forms were and are distinct and they each underwent unique changes.

In particular, it shows that the etymon originates from the Latin past tense, perfective aspect: perdidi. In Standard Italian and many mainly northern dialects, descendants of the Latin perfective past have come to be used as the remote past tense i. Material borrowing pertains to the borrowing of sound—meaning pairs e. There are often historical, sociological, and practical explanations for how and why the process occurred and thus such information encoded by a linguist or lexicographer may be relevant to those studying other fields such as history, anthropology, and sociology.

Cultural borrowings are when a lexical item is borrowed for a new concept; these can appear over a very short period of time. Core borrowings duplicate existing items and are introduced over a longer period of time by bilinguals Myers-Scotton ; Haspelmath Our examples will demonstrate encodings for each of these different types of adaptation.

Example 7. In contrast to the previous example biryani , the presence of a phonetic form in both the source and borrowing languages implicitly shows the difference in the pronunciation between the English source:. Example 9. On the cognitive level, metaphor can be roughly defined as the process of understanding one concept from one domain of experience in terms of another concept from a separate domain of experience.

Examples of conceptual primitive domains are space, temperature, olfaction, location, motion, quantity, body, food, and water. Where this is true, the potential for mapping is activated, or is rendered salient on the conceptual level, which in turn enables the linguistic encoding of these structures for communicative purposes. Thus, metaphor in language is a surface level reflection or by-product of operations that occur at the cognitive level.

Given the fundamental implication of such ideas, not paying attention to metaphor when documenting language change is missing out on an enormous source of incredibly fascinating information.


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Figure 3. While both terms refer to concrete physical concepts, the source, which is a primary food source for the speakers of the language, is more conceptually primitive than its target, which is an internal organ and thus seen much less frequently, if at all, by most speakers. Example In order to do this, it is necessary to make use of one or more ontologies, which could be locally defined within a project, and of external linked open data sources such as DBpedia and Wikidata , or some combination thereof.

Again like metaphor, metonymy is often central to linguistic etymological analyses, but is also not commonly mentioned as a primary category for language change in lexicographical sources such as etymological dictionaries. One of the least theoretically controversial reasons for this is that novel compounds can be formed, used, and understood by speakers instantaneously. However, there is significant discord in the linguistics literature as to how compound lexical items and the process of compounding should be analyzed.

This is most distinctly evident in the contrasting approaches between linguistic theories that make strict divisions between lexicon and grammar traditional generative grammar and those that do not make such distinctions cognitive linguistic theories Langacker , , ; Jackendoff Studies by authors adhering to more formal, generative theoretical frameworks often focus on analyzing the morphosyntactic makeup of compound forms in the context of rule patterning: e.

Many of these differences are attributable to problems with the classification criteria, the types of compounds examined, and the languages analyzed Scalise and Guevara ; Benczes a. Compounding synchronic encoding : French merle noir. Exocentric compounding synchronic encoding : Mixtepec-Mixtec utsi uni. The French example below is a type of bird whose name is usually spelled with a hyphen but is also occasionally written as a continuous word without whitespace or a hyphen:. Compounding synchronic encoding : French rouge-gorge , rouge gorge.


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The comprehensive model is depicted in figure 5 below. Compounding and metaphor: 40 German Handschuh. An item corresponding to a single conceptual entity that was derived through compounding in a source can be borrowed by another language and the fact that it was a compound is not relevant to the meaning in the target lexicon. In such cases it is up to the encoder whether or not to include the etymological details that occurred in the source language.

Below is the full encoding of the earlier example of pamplemousse from Salmon-Alt Borrowing and compounding: pamplemousse Salmon-Alt When they do, the process may occur over an extended period of time, during which the original meaning of part or all of the components may become oblique to speakers 41 to the degree that the item is not recognized as the sum of its parts; this phenomenon is called lexicalization Jackendoff While lexicalization is indeed a lexico-cognitive process with etymological implications, it is not a process that can be summarized and represented in a dictionary, as there are often different degrees of lexicalization between different speakers.

Antoine Meillet , who coined the term, described it as follows:. The development of grammatical forms by progressive deterioration of previously autonomous words is made possible by … a weakening of the pronunciation, of the concrete sense of the words, and of the expressive value of words and groupings of words. The ancillary word can end up as an element lacking independent meaning as such, linked to a principal word to mark its grammatical role.

On the semantic level, the most generic characterization of the tendency is for the profile to undergo changes from concrete to abstract ibid. On the syntactic and morphological levels, these higher-level changes are manifested in reanalysis 44 and analogy. As a consequence, encoding such etymologies may require the use of any number of the strategies discussed above. It is up to the editor to determine what aspects and features of the etymology they want to emphasize within an encoding of grammaticalization e. However, the constants which can always be included in a grammaticalization etymology are as follows:.

If the grammaticalized item is one of multiple senses of a polysemous form: We have attempted to represent the linguistic information, terminology, and etymological processes as accurately as possible without adding or subtracting from the original based on our own interpretation or external data. Grammaticalization of Old English sidan Within this first etymon, the noun is inflected in the dative case.

In This Article

Grammaticalization of Middle-English bisiden a Grammaticalization of Middle-English bisiden b Grammaticalization of Early Modern English beside — Grammaticalization of Early Modern English besides Grammaticalization of Early Modern English beside Moreover, to our knowledge, there have not been any attempts to encode such processes within XML, or any other digital markup standards. Grammaticalization is thus a major untapped resource of highly advanced etymological data. Establishing a practice in which this kind of markup is done may help linguists and lexicographers begin to more regularly make maximum use and reuse of the research being done.

While this work represents a large step in the right direction for those looking for means of representing etymological information, there are still a number of unresolved issues that will need to be addressed.

Lexical and Structural Etymology

These remaining issues pertain to: i expanding the types of etymological information and refining the representation of the processes and features which are covered; and ii the need for continued progress in a number of issues within the body of international standards on which lexical markup relies. Our examples have shown a number of cases in which, in order to represent the lexical data as accurately as possible, it has been necessary to alter the content models of certain elements and attributes in ways we think should actually be considered necessary evolutions for the TEI Guidelines in the future.

Relevant to both etymological and synchronic lexical markup, we have also touched upon how encoders can make use of linked open data URIs as a means of linking the sense and semantic domain s of an item to multilingual knowledge bases. Future work that remains to be undertaken is the encoding of onomasiological lexical data such as that found in dialectal and traditional etymological dictionaries. Amsler, Robert A. Bazin-Tacchella, Sylvie. Bazin-Tacchella, D. Samama, — Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. Bisetto, Antonietta, and Sergio Scalise.

Botne, Robert. Brinton, Laurel J. Lexicalization and Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crist, Sean. Accessed April 16, Croft, William. Typology and Universals , 2nd ed. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Fauconnier, Gilles. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fauconnier, Gilles, and Mark B. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information. Basic Books. Fomin, Maxim, and Gregory Toner. Geeraerts, Dirk. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Good, Jeff, and Ronald Sprouse.

Goossens, Louis. Guevara, Emiliano, and Sergio Scalise. Harris, Alice C. Historical Syntax in Cross-linguistic Perspective. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics Haspelmath, Martin. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Haspelmath, Martin, and Uri Tadmor, eds. World Loanword Database. Accessed April 6, Haugen, Einar. Hopper, Paul J. Ide, Nancy. Edited by Addison Phillips and Mark Davis.

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