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At some point, many NGOs will face a hard choice between sticking to their principles globally on one hand, and continuing to operate in China on the other. Will it be a milestone in cross-strait relations? The answer is in the history. The four men work for Sage Communications, a publisher and bookshop famed for producing sensational and salacious tomes on the private lives of top Chinese leaders.
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Challenging the Myth of Chinese Land Grabs in Africa: A China in Africa Podcast November 10, , China File Among the most durable myths surrounding the China-Africa relationship is the fear that the Chinese government and private enterprises are buying vast tracts of African farm land and have plans to transplant millions of Chinese peasants to live and work on the continent. Chinese migrants convert to Christianity November 4, , DW. Most of those who are religious identify as Buddhist - but recently, an increasing number of Chinese migrants have started to convert to Christianity.
In this episode they discuss what it means to be effective in ministry in the context of a changing China. They also explore the cultural complexities that should be noted when mentoring in China. Being a famous public intellectual, the topic became a point of discussion to many Christians and non-Christians.
Many Christians thanked God for His grace, while non-Christians were shocked. In this first part of the interview, he focuses on the need for Chinese churches to be more socially engaged, and for more theological reflection. But the vast improvement in the health and longevity of its people—despite appalling levels of pollution—is less so. Our map displays life expectancy at birth for each of the 33 provincial-level regions, matched with the country that is most similar by this measure.
Islam was also well-established throughout China, with a history said to have begun with Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas during the Tang dynasty and strong official support during the Yuan. The advent of the Ming was initially devastating to Christianity: in his first year, the Hongwu Emperor declared the eighty-year-old Franciscan missions among the Yuan heterodox and illegal. During the later Ming a new wave of Christian missionaries arrived — particularly Jesuits — who employed new western science and technology in their arguments for conversion.
They were educated in Chinese language and culture at St. Paul's College on Macau after its founding in The most influential was Matteo Ricci , whose " Map of the Myriad Countries of the World " upended traditional geography throughout East Asia, and whose work with the convert Xu Guangqi led to the first Chinese translation of Euclid 's Elements in The discovery of a Nestorian stele at Xi'an in also permitted Christianity to be treated as an old and established faith, rather than as a new and dangerous cult.
However, there were strong disagreements about the extent to which converts could continue to perform rituals to the emperor , Confucius , or their ancestors : Ricci had been very accommodating and an attempt by his successors to backtrack from this policy led to the Nanjing Incident of , which exiled four Jesuits to Macau and forced the others out of public life for six years. However, by the end of the Ming the Dominicans had begun the Chinese Rites controversy in Rome that would eventually lead to a full ban of Christianity under the Qing dynasty.
During his mission, Ricci was also contacted in Beijing by one of the approximately 5, Kaifeng Jews and introduced them and their long history in China to Europe. During the Ming dynasty, the Neo-Confucian doctrines of the Song scholar Zhu Xi were embraced by the court and the Chinese literati at large, although the direct line of his school was destroyed by the Yongle Emperor 's extermination of the ten degrees of kinship of Fang Xiaoru in The Ming scholar most influential upon subsequent generations, however, was Wang Yangming — , whose teachings were attacked in his own time for their similarity to Chan Buddhism.
Other scholar-bureaucrats were wary of Wang's heterodoxy, the increasing number of his disciples while he was still in office, and his overall socially rebellious message. To curb his influence, he was often sent out to deal with military affairs and rebellions far away from the capital. Yet his ideas penetrated mainstream Chinese thought and spurred new interest in Taoism and Buddhism. The liberal views of Wang Yangming were opposed by the Censorate and by the Donglin Academy , re-established in These conservatives wanted a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics.
Conservatives such as Gu Xiancheng — argued against Wang's idea of innate moral knowledge, stating that this was simply a legitimization for unscrupulous behavior such as greedy pursuits and personal gain. These two strands of Confucian thought, hardened by Chinese scholars' notions of obligation towards their mentors, developed into pervasive factionalism among the ministers of state, who used any opportunity to impeach members of the other faction from court. Wang Gen was able to give philosophical lectures to many commoners from different regions because — following the trend already apparent in the Song dynasty — communities in Ming society were becoming less isolated as the distance between market towns was shrinking.
Schools, descent groups, religious associations, and other local voluntary organizations were increasing in number and allowing more contact between educated men and local villagers. A variety of occupations could be chosen or inherited from a father's line of work. This would include — but was not limited to — coffinmakers, ironworkers and blacksmiths, tailors, cooks and noodle-makers, retail merchants, tavern, teahouse, or winehouse managers, shoemakers, seal cutters, pawnshop owners, brothel heads, and merchant bankers engaging in a proto-banking system involving notes of exchange.
A small township also provided a place for simple schooling, news and gossip, matchmaking, religious festivals, traveling theater groups, tax collection, and bases of famine relief distribution. Farming villagers in the north spent their days harvesting crops like wheat and millet, while farmers south of the Huai River engaged in intensive rice cultivation and had lakes and ponds where ducks and fish could be raised. The cultivation of mulberry trees for silkworms and tea bushes could be found mostly south of the Yangzi River ; even further south sugarcane and citrus were grown as basic crops.
Besides cutting down trees to sell wood, the poor also made a living by turning wood into charcoal, and by burning oyster shells to make lime and fired pots, and weaving mats and baskets. Although the south had the characteristic of the wealthy landlord and tenant farmers, there were on average many more owner-cultivators north of the Huai River due to harsher climate, living not far above subsistence level. Early Ming dynasty saw the strictest sumptuary laws in Chinese history.
It was illegal for commoners to wear fine silk or dress in bright red, dark green or yellow colors; nor could they wear boots or guan hats. Women could not use ornaments made from gold, jade, pearl or emerald. Merchants and their families were further banned from using silk. However, these laws were no longer enforced from the middle Ming period onwards. Compared to the flourishing of science and technology in the Song dynasty , the Ming dynasty perhaps saw fewer advancements in science and technology compared to the pace of discovery in the Western world.
In fact, key advances in Chinese science in the late Ming were spurred by contact with Europe. When the Ming founder Hongwu came upon the mechanical devices housed in the Yuan dynasty's palace at Khanbaliq — such as fountains with balls dancing on their jets, self-operating tiger automata , dragon-headed devices that spouted mists of perfume, and mechanical clocks in the tradition of Yi Xing — and Su Song — — he associated all of them with the decadence of Mongol rule and had them destroyed. The Chinese were intrigued with European technology, but so were visiting Europeans of Chinese technology.
In , Abraham Ortelius — featured in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages , just like Chinese ships. This includes mechanical and hydraulic powered devices for agriculture and irrigation,  nautical technology such as vessel types and snorkeling gear for pearl divers,    the annual processes of sericulture and weaving with the loom ,  metallurgic processes such as the crucible technique and quenching ,  manufacturing processes such as for roasting iron pyrite in converting sulphide to oxide in sulfur used in gunpowder compositions — illustrating how ore was piled up with coal briquettes in an earthen furnace with a still-head that sent over sulfur as vapor that would solidify and crystallize  — and the use of gunpowder weapons such as a naval mine ignited by use of a rip-cord and steel flint wheel.
Focusing on agriculture in his Nongzheng Quanshu , the agronomist Xu Guangqi — took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry. There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms.
This includes hollow, gunpowder-filled exploding cannonballs ,  land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses,  naval mines,  fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control,  multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile shaped like a dragon's head ,  and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels.
Li Shizhen —93 — one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history — belonged to the late Ming period. His Bencao Gangmu is a medical text with 1, entries, each entry with its own name called a gang. The mu in the title refers to the synonyms of each name.
Throughout the Ming dynasty, around fifty texts were published on the treatment of smallpox. Sinologist historians debate the population figures for each era in the Ming dynasty.
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The historian Timothy Brook notes that the Ming government census figures are dubious since fiscal obligations prompted many families to underreport the number of people in their households and many county officials to underreport the number of households in their jurisdiction. The practice is well documented in China, going back over two thousand years, and it was described as "rampant" and "practiced by almost every family" by contemporary authors.
The number of people counted in the census of was 59,,; however, this number dropped significantly when the government found that some 3 million people were missing from the tax census of The government tried to mitigate this by creating their own conservative estimate of 60,, people in Historians are now turning to local gazetteers of Ming China for clues that would show consistent growth in population. Even with the Jiajing reforms to document migrant workers and merchants, by the late Ming era the government census still did not accurately reflect the enormous growth in population.
Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that it had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ming disambiguation and Ming Dynasty disambiguation. Former empire in Eastern Asia, — Ming China in during the reign of the Yongle Emperor. Remnants of the Ming imperial family ruled southern China until as the Southern Ming. The Ming loyalist state Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan lasted until , but it was not ruled by the Zhu clan and thus usually not considered part of the Southern Ming.
Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history. Main article: History of the Ming dynasty. See also: Timeline of the Ming dynasty. Main article: Ming conquest of Yunnan. Main article: Manchuria under Ming rule. Main article: Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty.
Main article: Yongle Emperor. Main article: Fall of the Ming dynasty. Further information: Europeans in Medieval China. Main article: Qing conquest of the Ming. See also: List of emperors of the Ming dynasty. Further information: History of science and technology in China , List of Chinese inventions , and List of Chinese discoveries. Journal of World-systems Research. Retrieved 16 September International Studies Quarterly. Frank, ReOrient: global economy in the Asian Age , , p. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
Accessed 9 October T'oung Pao , Second Series, Vol. Accessed 14 October Peking: Temples and City Life, — Berkeley: University of California press. People's Daily. Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Volume 13 of Routledge studies — China in transition illustrated ed. Psychology Press. Retrieved 28 June China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press.
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People's Republic of China Testimony of History. China: China Intercontinental Press. In Faure, David; Ho, Ts'ui-p'ing eds. UBC Press. Harvard University Asia Center. University of Minnesota. Retrieved 4 August BBC News. By Lynn A. The Journal of Asian Studies. Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan Frontier, — Stanford University Press. The Chinese Hsinhai Revolution: G. Morrison and Anglo-Japanese Relations, — Spence 28 October Penguin Publishing Group. New World Press. The Passing of the Manchus. Aldrich 1 March Hong Kong University Press.
Craig A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. Elman, "Political, social, and cultural reproduction via civil service examinations in late imperial China. Plaks , Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel. Oxford Univ. Press, University of Washington Press.
The 59th George E. Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. Ktav Publishing Inc, Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Hopkins 15 September The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in History. University of Chicago Press. Inoculation had been a popular folk practice The Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 August Chinese views of childhood. Andrew, Anita N. Atwell, William S. Chang, Michael G. Engelfriet, Peter M. Goldstein, Melvyn C. A delightful read, this memoir reveals a time gone by in Old Shanghai when American and European expats lived a life of privilege and war-tinged uncertainty.
Patricia weaves a poignant story through the eyes of a young girl who's very world is shaken to the core. Yet her descriptions of s Shanghai quench the thirst of French Concession Sinophiles. Look at Chinese culture and life from American point of view Beautiful book told by young American girl but written by old American lady, Chinese at heart.
Makes you hate war and love people, no matter what their race, color or background. Coming from India and living in America for life, I can appreciate different cultures without judgement. The author spares no detail as she recounts her life in China as the daughter of a well-to-do American family, living in s China. I thought Patricia shared marvelously from a child and teenage perspective.
Grateful to see some heart and flesh connected to the historical relevance of the events of the late '30s and early '40s of the last century. How i would love to chat with her, and hear more stories over tea. Nov 01, Nancy Rosen rated it liked it. Wonderful book. I visited China a couple of years ago and Chapman's writing made me feel like I was there again. She is no friend to the Japanese. Fabulous book. One of the best I have ever read.
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