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Allied warships ranged across Russian waters sinking shipping, disrupting trade, raiding ports, bombarding fortresses, destroying vast quantities of stores, and shelling coastal towns.

Biographical Note

The scale and intensity of the naval operations will astonish you. Only a few examples of uniforms or insignia are known to date from the Crimean War period. A major source of information is the C. Norman study based on General Vanson notes and illustrations. Brown Military collection also provide a significant amount of information on the appearance of Ottoman Crimean War uniforms.

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The study of Crimean War uniforms and insignia of the Ottomans is an ongoing task, and any study is faced with the problem that many uniform images were frequently recopied and altered over the decades. This small volume attempts to put these varied sources into their correct contextual order, based on current understandings of this history. This was the first major battle the British had fought on European soil since Waterloo almost 40 years before. In this compelling and meticulously researched study, Ian Fletcher and Natalia Ishchenko reconstruct the battle in vivid detail, using many rare and unpublished eyewitness accounts from all sides - English, French and Russian.

Their groundbreaking work promises to be the definitive history of this extraordinary clash of arms for many years to come. It also gives a fascinating insight into military thinking and organization in the s, midway between the end of the Napoleonic era and the outbreak of the Great War. Covers the Crimean war and Franco Prussian War s. Author interviewed many of the survivors of the Light Brigade charge.

Includes black and white illustrations and maps. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. The Crimean War is known for the logistical and tactical errors during the land campaign on both sides the naval side saw a successful Allied campaign which eliminated most of the ships of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea. Nonetheless, it is sometimes considered to be one of the first 'modern' wars as it introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare, including the first tactical use of railways and the electric telegraph.

It is also famous for the work of Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole, who pioneered modern nursing practices while caring for wounded British soldiers. The war also led to the establishment of the Victoria Cross in backdated to , the British Army's first universal award for valor. The Crimean War was one of the first wars to be documented extensively in photographs.

News correspondence reaching Britain from the Crimea was the first time the public were kept informed of the day-to-day realities of war. This unique collection of images will prove to be an invaluable resource for historians, students and all those interested in what was one of the most significant periods in British military history. Following the fall of Sevastopol, Robinson visited the town and the Redan fortress and journeyed through the Crimean countryside pp. The collected letters to The Times by its famous correspondent , covering the period from 6 March to 29 June Russell left with the troops from Southampton, witnessed the unopposed landing at Evpatoriia on 14 September , and reported all subsequent events until the proclamation of peace, bringing home to the British public the horrors of the war, the military mismanagement and the heroism of the soldiers.

London: Harrison, Sayer , deputy-assistant lieutenant-general of the Horse Guards and a favourite at the British Court, fought in the Crimea, was wounded at the Alma in September and, after a period of recuperation at Scutari, was sent home. This is not a personal account, however, but a collection of official despatches and army papers and orders, covering the period from September to July and written by both the British commanders in chief Raglan, Simpson, Codrington and divisional commanders and others.

Jervis is responsible for the statistics and detailed maps. Tunbridge Wells: D.

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Costello, Regimental Sergeant Major Smith of the 11 th Hussars was in the Crimea from 16 September until 25 January apart from a supplies-securing mission to Constantinople between mid-November and January London: Griffith and Farran, He provides a detailed narrative of his experiences, based primarily on his letters and journals, written between the September landing and his eventual departure on 9 June Like many other officers, he took the opportunity, following the peace in late March , to explore the sights of the Crimea pp. Edited by Mrs Frank Pownall.

His letters to his family from the Crimea run from 14 September until 18 April , except for a period away due to illness between 7 August and 16 November He was present at the Alma and Inkerman and throughout the siege of Sevastopol. In his later letters, following the armistice, he describes the social pursuits and intercourse with Russian troops pp. London: privately printed by Robson, Levey and Franklyn, Macqueen, The Crimean letters of Sir Anthony , who was a brigade major and then an assistant adjutant general to Sir Colin Campbell and the Highland Division, run from 18 September to 29 November and then from 17 February to 8 May The letters, which describe the main battles, are supplemented by contextualising information provided by Sterling in and with copies of official reports.

Feeling dishonoured at having had a junior officer promoted over him, Sterling left the Crimea in November pp. He returned in mid-February to the camp at Kamara and took part in negotiations with the Russians, before leaving in May pp. As aide-de-camp to Lord Lucan and officer in the 7 th Dragoon Guards, he was present at the Alma, Balaklava and Inkerman and left a brief eye-witness account of the charge of the Light Brigade pp.

Manchester: W. Woodford, Whelan, who served in the Royal marines during the Crimean War, is frequently vague about dates and events but apparently disembarked on 14 September His account is mainly interesting for the little sketches of camp life, such as Christmas celebrations in camp and the green coffee rationed to the British soldiers.

He also describes a flogging he received in February for accusing a superior of lying pp. Fact or fiction? Do we disbelieve a man of the cloth? Wickenden , Cambridge M. His Flashman-like adventures included exchanging clothing with a serving soldier and spending a night in the trenches with heroic results. Illness compelled him to return to England on 6 July, before the fall of the city. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, The first volume covers the period from the invasion of Crimea to the battle of Inkerman.

The work provides a voice to women accompanying the regiment and also includes sections on Crimean housekeeping, local landmarks, and religious monasteries. By a regimental officer. London: Charles J. Skeet, Edited by Major Hugh Pearse. Introduction by Sir William Howard Russell. Sir Charles served as quartermaster general of the 4 th Division in the Crimean War and his letters and diary run from 14 September until 15 October He describes the battles of the Alma and Inkerman, the hurricane of 14 November , as well as the routines and tedium of camp life.

He led the storming party of the 2 nd Division during the second assault on the Redan on 8 September pp. Woods , the war correspondent in the Crimea for the Morning Herald , landed at Kalamita Bay on 14 September and although incapacitated by illness from early May, remained until mid-July Heavily based on personal observations, but supplemented from official sources and the testimony and correspondence of others, his journalistic account follows the campaign until the fall of Sevastopol.

Strongly critical of Westminster politicians, he emphasizes the hardships and horrors of war vol. London: Ward and Lock, Wright , who had arrived in the Crimea in mid-September as principal chaplain to the British Army in the East, delivered on his return to England a series of public lectures at Canterbury. He writes of the religiosity of Raglan, the relations between the British army and clergy, his burial duties in the aftermath of battles and his explorations of the surrounding countryside pp.

By John Bilcliffe. Chippenham: Picton Publishing, They describe the hardships of camp life, the siege of Sevastopol, the incompetence of military superiors. Of particular note are the accounts given of the battle of Balaklava, the changing arms and equipment situation, and the harsh winter of pp. A narrative of the campaign from the declaration of war to the battle of Inkerman and the hurricane of 14 November Includes often long extracts from the letters of mainly unidentified soldiers and sailors and the reports of war correspondents.

Edited by Philip Warner. Between 1 October and his departure from Balaklava on 19 November Godman , who rose to the rank of major-general, served as a cornet with the 5 th Dragoon Guards and took part in the charge of the Heavy Brigade during the battle of Balaklava on 25 October His detailed letters to his family describe other actions in which he was involved as well as everyday life in the camps, discuss British press reporting of events, the vexed question of promotion, and record the deaths of friends and horses from battle, disease, deprivation and lack of medicine. Godman, incidentally, took three horses to the Crimea and brought them home unscathed pp.

With plans, and illustrations from sketches taken on the spot by Colonel the Hon. Colville, C. Sir Evelyn , who was later to switch from the navy to the army, receive the Victoria Cross during the Indian Mutiny, and finish his career as a field-marshal, served in the Crimean War as a midshipman on board HMS Queen. He went ashore as a member of the Naval Brigade on 2 October and was appointed acting aide-de-camp to Captain Peel on 1 January Wounded in the failed British assault on the Redan on 18 June , he was soon repatriated.

His book was based a collection of articles originally published in the Fortnightly Review, describing his re-visiting the Crimea in August and re-living his experiences forty years earlier. A succinct account of his service in the Crimea vol. By a non-combatant.

A collection of ten letters written by a tourist keen to observe the first months of the campaign. Edited by his son, Major L. Fisher d. London: printed for private circulation by Rivingtons, A number of the letters Buchanan d. He describes recent battles and skirmishing, provides news of the fate of his brother officers. He visits French positions before Sevastopol and is struck by the cowardice, the zouaves apart, of the French soldiers pp. In the course of some ten months, from 25 October until 9 September , punctuated by brief visits to Constantinople, Taylor , formerly of the 95 th Regiment, described events in the Crimea witnessed not as a combatant but as an interested observer.

After a period with the Second Division at Sevastopol, he was with the expeditions to Kerch in May , later at Inkerman and Balaklava. He witnessed the attack on Taganrog in June , described the assaults on the Malakov and Redan later that month, and in a final visit in September, visited the evacuated Sevastopol.

Crimean Simpson. Edited by George Eyre-Todd. Fisher Unwin, Over the next few months he produced numerous sketches from the war zone, including one of Balaklava at the behest of Queen Victoria. In May he joined the second Kerch expedition before returning to the Crimean battlefields, where he remained until September, when he was invited by the Duke of Newcastle to accompany him to Circassia. He returned to England at the end of the year for the publication of the sketches that brought him fame pp.

In April he returned to the Crimea, visiting Sevastopol and other battle and burial sites pp. Accompanied by eighty double tinted plates from drawings taken on the spot by William Simpson. London: Paul and Dominic Colnaghi and Co. Brackenbury left the Crimea in May before the end of the siege of Sevastopol. Introduction by I. The ship left Marseilles on 1 November with troops and ammunition for the Crimea and sailed between Turkey and the Crimea until the contract with the French expired, after which Codman served with the Turks until the end of the war. Edited by David Inglesant. Sergeant Newman b.

He describes the mile march from Sevastopol to Voronezh, via Perekop, Zaporozhe, Dnepropetrovsk, Novomoskovsk and Kharkov, reaching his destination sometime in February Released in August , he travelled for seven weeks back to Balaklava, via Poltava and Odessa. The last letter describes a visit to the camp of the French zouaves. Edited by R. The letters from Russian soil, addressed to various family members, run from his landing on 8 November until 31 March , broken up by a period of leave in January Campbell was fiercely critical of the British military leadership, lack of preparation and flawed strategy, constant themes even as the supply situation began to improve in the spring of Extracts from letters sent home from the Crimea Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, Young d.

On 20 September he assumed responsibility for the medical care of the staff of the Light Division. His letters chronicle his experiences in the Crimea between 13 November , when he landed at Kamesh Bay the day before the great hurricane, and his departure on 22 June pp. Bowdon: Withycut House, An officer in the 46 th Foot Regiment, Lluellyn was in the Crimea from early November until his departure on 9 March Entries in his diary describe the British camp at Balaklava and before Sevastopol, fighting at Inkerman, the 14 November storm and the weeks he spent on board a vessel in Balaklava harbour when ill from fever pp.

Creagh b. He left the Crimea in July Short on detail but rich in unexpected anecdotes, his autobiography recounts the terrible conditions of the winter of , his witnessing of the Allied attack on the White Works and Quarries on June , his participation in the plundering of Sevastopol and his subsequent social interaction with French and Russian colleagues pp.

Transcribed, edited and annotated by Major Colin Robins.

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Dunscombe d. His diary consists of short entries, with frequent comments on the weather, recent military developments, actions in which he was personally involved, and observations about the practicalities and hardships of camp life. London: William Wesley, The young McCormick , the future eminent American politician and journalist, was sent to Europe for reasons of health, but within months became a correspondent reporting on the Crimean War for a number of New York papers. After six weeks he returned to Constantinople and visited the hospitals at Scutari.

The American edition was entitled A visit to the camp before Sevastopol with the correct spelling of his surname! He had earlier included a moving account of the battle of Inkerman sent to him on 7 November by Captain E. Burnaby vol. Toronto: Hunter, Ruse and Company, Among the stirring incidents that Faughnan d.

He provides detailed and moving accounts of the two British assaults on the Redan on 18 June and 8 September ; wounded during the former, he was evacuated to the hospital in Scutari, returning to Sevastopol on 20 August pp. Edited by Betty Askwith. Wilton: Michael Russell, Entries in her diary from the Crimea from 26 December until 29 January , although succinct, reveal her as an intrepid young lady, visiting the Inkerman battlefield under shellfire and also to the trenches themselves during the height of winter pp.

Edited by Demetrius Charles Boulger. It was as a young officer in the 39 th Regiment that General Gordon landed in the Crimea at the end of — his first letter from the camp at Balaklava dates from 3 January Upbeat in tone, his letters for the most part describe the idleness of camp life but he gives a detailed account of his part in the failed British assault on the Redan on 18 June and his search for war trophies in the evacuated Sevastopol fortress.

He participated in the Allied expedition that captured Kinburn in mid-October His last letter from Crimean soil is dated 10 May pp. Subsequent letters describe his service with the Boundary Commission, fixing the new frontier between Russia and Moldavia and Wallachia and then in Armenia between Russia and Turkey. He weaves in and out of Russian territory, including Georgia, from the end of June until finally leaving for Constantinople in mid-November pp.

Hawley, 89th, from the Crimea, December to August Hawley , a captain in the 89 th Regiment who was promoted to brevet-major on 2 November , arrived at Balaklava on 5 January and remained in the Crimea until 5 July He did not participate in any of the major military events of the campaign and his letters reflect rather the everyday tedium of life in camp pp.

Part II of this collection of essays on military topics contains items relating to the Crimea. With an introductory memoir by Ellen Catherine Tait.

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London: Elliot Stock, Ceylon-born Irishman General Sir Richard , promoted to lieutenant-colonel in the 34 th Regiment in March , wrote detailed and frank letters to his wife from 17 January until 24 March , edited and introduced by his daughter. Within weeks, on 23 March, Kelly was captured by the Russians and he describes his experience as a prisoner of war as he journeys from Sevastopol, via Simferopol and Ekaterinoslav, to Riazan, where he arrives on 25 May An appendix contains letters regarding his falsely reported death in the British press in mid-March and a letter describing his time as a Russian prisoner Kelly wrote in October to the historian A.

Translated by Robert Howe Gould. London: S. It is written as an official history, but includes to a degree the personal observations of Bazancourt, who was in the Crimea from January until the autumn of , together with the testimony of others and the evidence of despatches and correspondence. Goodman was a Devonport Sister of Mercy, a member of the group travelling with Florence Nightingale to the hospital at Scutari, where they arrived on 4 November Although mostly concerned with her work at Scutari, her account describes her visit to Balaclava in January and her interaction with British soldiers.

She left soon after the armistice pp. London: Kerby and Endean, This is the posthumous publication of detailed journal entries by Colonel Pack , of the 7 th Regiment of Foot, the Royal Fusiliers, during five months in the trenches before Sevastopol between January and June London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, Porter , a major in the Royal Engineers, offers an anaesthetized and uncritical account of his time in the Crimea between January and May , when he was invalided to Scutari. Many of his descriptions of camp life and daily routines are rarely linked to specific dates or events, but he includes extracts from his diary from 3 March to 11 May pp.

Edited by Jane Williams. London: The St Catherine Press, Reid, Edited by Joseph O. Baylen and Alan Conway. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, Reid , an assistant surgeon in the 90 th Light Infantry, provides an account based upon letters sent home during his service on Russian soil between 2 February and 14 June except for a period between early August and early September , when he was invalided to Scutari. After his return from Scutari, Reid describes the terrible losses amongst the British and French forces in the trenches due to their proximity to the Russian lines and how in the wake of the failed British assault on the Redan on 8 September, he worked non-stop for forty-eight hours.

His final letters describe the festivities following the fall of Sevastopol and his visits to the Russian lines following the Treaty of Paris pp. By an amateur. London: Saunders and Otley, Sir Edward , fifth baronet of Thames Ditton and author of several travel works, describes a stay in the Crimea between 2 February and 6 March , undertaken to satisfy his curiosity about the war.

He provides very detailed descriptions of the difficult conditions at the British camp at Balaklava and visits various battle sites, with particular attention to the site of the battle of Inkermann pp. With an essay on his life and work by Helmut and Alison Gernsheim. Fenton had visited and photographed in Russia in but it was his visit to the Crimea that ensured his reputation.

The Gernsheims include extracts from the surviving twenty-five letters, preserved in two letter-books, over the period 27 February to 25 June Lord Panmure was both Secretary-at-War and Secretary of State for War between February and the fall of the Palmerston ministry in February , having been appointed following the public censure of the Duke of Newcastle for the poor conditions and equipment of the British army besieging Sevastopol.

His papers, arranged by month and containing correspondence with political, military, diplomatic and royal figures, contain many letters, often edited, received from military figures based in the Crimea. I; vol. With an introductory preface by W. Russell, Esq. London: James Blackwood, Disappointed in her attempt to be accepted as a nurse, she travelled independently to Scutari to provide provisions to the troops. She was often on the front line and frequently under fire. Although some of the Army doctors regarded her as a 'quack', others were more supportive and believed in her cures.

Most of these were based on the use of traditional herbs, poultices and therapeutic rubs. If the soldiers could not afford to pay her, Mary subsidised them from her own pocket. In the spring of , preparations were resumed for the capture of Sevastopol. The British, many of whom were recently-arrived and inexperienced reinforcements, attacked a strongpoint known as the Redan. Forced to advance under heavy fire over yards of open ground, they suffered over 1, casualties before falling back.

On 8 September , the Allies attacked again. For a second time, the British failed to take the Redan. The Allies spent another winter in the Crimea. When the Austrians threatened to enter the war against them, the Russians agreed to peace terms and the Treaty of Paris was signed in March Allied troops land on the north-west coast of the Crimea at Calamita Bay.

The Russians are defeated on the River Alma. The Allies move on to besiege Sevastopol. The Allies defeat a Russian attempt to break the British siege lines and then capture their supply base. The Allies defeat another Russian attempt to break their siege lines. Poor administration causes severe hardship for the British soldiers during the bitter Crimean winter. A British attempt to storm the strongpoint of the Redan is beaten off.

The French take a key part of the Sevastopol defences, forcing the Russians to abandon the port city. Defeats for Russia, along with the threat of Austrian intervention on the Allied side, force the Tsar to negotiate. Crimean War Europe Politics s. The Battle of Balaklava in witnessed one of the most famous acts of battlefield bravery and one of the most infamous blunders in military history.

Florence Nightingale was a legend in her own lifetime and one of the most famous women in British history. Follow this gallery trail to find out about soldiers' lives during the Crimean War. In this video, we look at how changing national interests have affected Britain's military relationship with Russia from the 18th century to the present day.

The British Army on Campaign (2)

He later led a relief army with great distinction during the Indian Mutiny of Field Marshal Garnet Wolseley won important victories in several colonial campaigns. Thoroughly enjoyed it. Be the first to hear about our latest events, exhibitions and offers. Simply enter your email address below to start receiving our monthly email newsletter. To find out more about how we collect, store and use your personal information, read our Privacy Policy.

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Crimean War

View this object. The Charge of the Light Brigade, Landing troops on the Aland Islands in the Baltic, August Turkish troops storming enemy positions at Silistria, The Allied landing in the Crimea, September The Battle of the Alma, 20 September Missed opportunity The way to Sevastopol was now open. Prince Menshikov's boots captured at the Alma, Balaklava On 25 October, Menshikoff mounted an attack with about 25, men in the direction of the British supply port of Balaklava and captured a number of Turkish redoubts.

The Charge of the Heavy Brigade, The Charge of the Light Brigade, 25 October The Guards taking a Russian battery at Inkerman, November Inkerman On 5 November , the Russians tried again.