Guide Differentiating Non-Distraction and So-Forth - An Aspect of Training in Thorough Cut

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Irrelevance Irrelevance happens when what you do no longer connects to the culture and the people around you. That gap is a factor of how fast things change relative to you.


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Change staves off irrelevance. Get radical about change. Surround yourself with younger people. Seek change to transform you. Burnout Burnout saps the meaning and wonder out of life. Signs of burnout include among other things: your passion fades, you no longer feel your highs and lows, little things make you disproportionately emotional, everybody drains you, nothing satisfies you, and your productivity drops. Getting out of this state begins by admitting it and then figuring out how to live today so you will thrive tomorrow.

What does that look like? Nieuwhof recommends some concrete steps you can take to bring you back from burnout.

1. Make it Visual

Go deep enough and take enough time to recover so that you begin to feel gratitude for the process. Emptiness Ironically, success often makes you feel empty. Humility will win you what pride never will: the affection of others. Other people naturally gravitate toward people who live for a cause beyond themselves. The practical advice found here will benefit anyone on their leadership journey. Without it we tend to be reactive, disengaged, an unimaginative.

The more conscious we are, the faster we adapt, and the higher performing we become. Bob Rosen and Emma-Kate Swann wrote Conscious: The Power of Awareness in Business and Life , because they believe that becoming more conscious is critical in our increasingly disruptive and accelerating world. Driven by the need to be right, those obsessed with being smart tend to hoard knowledge, externalize blame, and mismanage relationships and risks.

This sabotages our ability to thrive in a constantly changing world. As a result, we stay stuck, biased, and reactive. Staying small and never stepping up is sure to lead to regrets and will undermine your highest potential. Harness the power of introspection by getting to know who you are, where you come from, and why you act the way you do. Get curious and adaptive: deal with complexity and paradox by learning how to expand your mind, leverage your relationships and networks, and overcome unconscious biases.

Become more honest and intentional in leadership and life, overcoming the pitfalls of being too safe and cautious while embracing reality. Act boldly and responsibly to reach your highest potential: how to champion your higher purpose, stretch people in constructive ways, and be generous in your relationships. To lead change you need a conscious mindset. If we are going to create change, we have to begin with ourselves. That requires that we become more conscious of what pushes us forward—our Accelerators —and what holds us back—our Hijackers.

Accelerators like courage, drive or determination, deliberate practice, resilience, and vulnerability, drive us forward. Hijackers like self-criticism, cynicism, controlling behavior, aloofness or disengagement, and hyper-competitiveness, hold us back. It is important to know how these things impact your performance and constructively use them or deal with them. There are many things that conspire to throw us off-course. Knowing who you want to be in the world and remembering your purpose, will help you to manage these issues and keep you on course. The more conscious we are the less drama we will experience in our lives.

Another consequence of being conscious is to be civil. Acts of civility are the small sacrifices we make for the good of all and the sake of harmoniously living and working together. Barack Obama because "he's an Arab. He's a decent, family man, citizen that I just happen to have disagreements with on fundamental issues. Conscious unleashes our full potential as human beings. By expanding our minds, enriching our experiences, and shaping our destinies, we discover our purpose in life.

Being conscious enables us to approach life as a journey. Equipped with everything we need—an open mind and heart, confidence and resilience, and our capacity for greater consciousness—we embrace the uncertainty of life. Conscious is the accelerator for effective change. Asking for help makes most of us uncomfortable and we often go to great lengths to avoid doing it. We fear rejection. We fear that people we think less of us. But the truth is we need the help and support of others to succeed. To be sure, leadership is fundamentally about asking people for help. Making matters worse, our intuitions about what should make others more likely to help are often dead wrong; our fumbling, apologetic ways of asking for assistance generally make people feel far less likely to want to help.

We hate imposing on people and then inadvertently, we make them feel imposed upon. But for some reason, we forget that when it is our turn to ask for help. Research shows that people actually like us more when they have been able to help us. It makes them feel good too—unless they feel compelled to help. In-Group Reinforcement. Those members of our group are the most likely to help us. The Positive Identity Reinforcement. Most people like to think of themselves as helpful because it is part of what it means to be a good person.

We reinforce that with gratitude and appealing to the things that matter to them. They need not bother. The Effectiveness Reinforcement. People want what they do to make an impact—to have meaning. If we feel we are not making an impact, we are likely to lose motivation. People need to clearly understand the impact of their helping. Research shows that when people are unable to get any kind of feedback about how well they are doing on a task, they quickly become disengaged from it. Be clear up-front about what you want done and the impact it will have.

And be sure to follow-up. Let them know how things turned out. Reinforcements is written in an engaging way and is full of solid research to support the approach needed to get the help we need to succeed. It is practical advice for anyone asking for help in a way that will leave both parties feeling good about the relationship. By seeking out the experiences of others, we can grow faster with less drama. In The Book of Mistakes , Skip Prichard has created for us an absorbing fable of a young man and a young woman who are both part of a mysterious journey to learn the nine mistakes that tend to trip us up.

While they make sense, they are not always intuitive. The truths presented here often stand between us and success. The main story follows David whose life of promise has become ordinary. Through a life-altering event, he has a chance meeting with an Old Man who sets him on a journey that will take him to meet nine unique people who will share the nine mistakes and the impact these mistakes have had on their own lives. The nine mistakes are framed by three universal laws that are found in an ancient book of wisdom. The parallel story is about Aria and how she comes to be the keeper of the book of wisdom and how she learns of the three laws.

Printable Graphic. The three universal laws enable the nine secrets to creating a successful future. To avoid the nine mistakes, you need to:. Live your own dream. Recognize your inherent value. They set expectations. Reject excuses. Surround yourself with the right people. More forward through challenges with determination and purpose. Act boldly with the knowledge that your potential success is unlimited.

Pursue your goals with urgency. You think about people, about loving those around you. Your first is important because you also must have a longer view, or you will never accomplish the goals that are hard and take longer. Each mentor David encounters has their own story that illuminates the mistake they share with us. Their experiences help to identify and relate to the mistake and help us to take action to avoid the mistake in the future. Prichard brings a lot of wisdom to each of these common life issues. The story is engaging for young and old. Share this book widely because these are the kinds of mistakes that create regret down the road.

At the end of your life these are the things that you look back on and wonder why no one ever told you about these pitfalls. We are never too old to learn them and some are more difficult to deal with because of the baggage that often accompanies them. Now is the time to set your course. We work under the assumption that more is better. Morten Hansen thinks the way we work is broken. Not only that but how we manage and reward work, and how our culture recognizes hard work.

What we call hard work may not be our best work. In Great at Work , Hansen reports on a five-year survey of 5, managers and employees, including sales reps, lawyers, actuaries, brokers, medical doctors, software programmers, engineers, store managers, plant foremen, nurses and even a Las Vegas casino dealer. They discovered seven work smart practices. The first four involves mastering your own work, and the last three encompasses mastering working with others. Do Less, Then Obsess.

The common practice he found among the highest-ranked performers in the study was that they carefully selected which priorities, tasks, meetings, customers, ideas or steps to undertake and which to let go. They then applied intense, targeted effort on those few priorities in order to excel. He found that there were just a few key work practices related to this selectivity that accounted for two-thirds of the variation in performance among our subjects. Redesign Your Work. Redesigning work is about creating more value for the same amount of work done.

The typical inside-out view, by contrast, measures work according to whether we have completed our tasks and goals, regardless of whether they produce any benefits. The Learning Loop means you learn while you work. Doing great work requires that you are getting feedback every day. In his study, 74 percent of the top performers reviewed their work in an effort to learn and improve. On 17 percent in the underperforming category did. Aim for Passion and Purpose. You can have one without the other, but we should aim for both.

You may need to take a wider view of what ignites you. Expand your circle of passion by tapping into these dimensions. Become a Forceful Champion. Getting our work done often hinges on our ability to gain the support of others. Getting other people on board takes more than just explaining the merits of your project. The best advocates in their study master two skills in this regard. Not just grit, but smart grit. Enlist others to help move your project forward. They become lone crusaders for their efforts—and they exhaust themselves in the process.

The ability to lead teams is crucial to great work. As a matter of necessity, much of this work takes place in meetings. The trick is to encourage constructive fights in meetings with cognitive diversity. You must unite. Adopt Disciplined Collaboration. Hansen has identified two sins of collaboration : undercollaboration and overcollaboration.

Some people talk too little, and some people talk too much across teams and departments. He recommends disciplined collaboration. Fresh and compelling examples are used throughout to fully illustrate the seven smart work practices. N OW is where the future happens. In this moment we will take action that will affect our future or we will not. All we have is now. It is a flexible mindset so we can all learn to become a little more Nowist in our approach.

One of the reasons that Nowists can see opportunities is that they are not stuck trying to protect their past; spending time and energy on something that no longer makes sense. Functional Impulsivity. But they do possess a certain kind highly impulsive functional thinking. In a study performed at the University of Michigan on impulsivity, researchers found that there were two impulsive traits. And the kind that allows people to decide quickly with good results. They are good at deciding quickly under pressure and are willing to choose an option even at the cost of making a mistake that they can and are willing to correct as they go forward.

Nowists take control of their time. You can avoid procrastination by changing your learning to see your future in your present. They understand cause and effect.

Buddhist philosophy

We all exist in the Now. It is only in the Now that we can think, do, or change anything in the future. A Nowist is an active optimist. They believe they can make good things happen and take action to create a better future. How does it feel to not be afraid? Steve Sims, the founder of Bluefish , has built a company that gets things done. Bluefish makes seemingly out-of-reach, change-your-life, experiences happen. He calls it bluefishing. Bluefishing is about changing your mindset.

Bluefishers look for connections. What are people passionate about and how can I find a win-win for their passions? Passion is something you have to discover—your own and others too. Bluefishers question everything. Drill down for it. Ask why at least three times.

Lead the orchestra. A dream team. Try something and fail at it over and over until you find out how to do it properly—to see if it is worth pursuing—while everyone else is still trying to work out the demographics. They drowned from staying there. It is discovery. Failure is final. Discovery is just the beginning. You learned what to do on your next attempt. To build your brand, first, do a self-audit. What do you stand for? How do you want people to feel when they are around you?

Discover your strengths and manage your weaknesses. Focus on your own weak links, the things that foul up your life or your work again and again and again. Forget about counting likes. Get others to talk about you—recommend you. Invest in your growth. Get better for your clients—your followers. And let them know. I was willing to look dumb, to be among people that I knew were far more intelligent than me, so that I could learn. Be a sponge. Sims shares techniques to support the thinking but the tactics change over time. The thinking never does. Bluefishing is a mentality first, then a stack of tools and behaviors.

Learn the password and the doors will open. Good is often confused with competency. But it is really a character issue. You can be good at your job but doing good is a character issue. Doing good is not just no being bad but intentionally creating more good in the workplace and especially in others. Tjan begins a discussion by trying to define good and to build a framework and language to talk about what good is.

Truth: A mindset of humility that makes you teachable. Self-awareness and integrity between your thoughts and actions based on that self-awareness. Compassion: An open mind that without bias allows you to understand the actions of others. To practice empathy and act on that empathy with a generous spirit that gives people what they need. Wholeness: Involves gratitude for the people around you that leads to an outgoing concern for others. Caring and nurturing the growth of others. Having the respect to fulfil your obligations to yourself and others and acting with a degree of wisdom.

Knowing what is important. As leaders this is easier said than done. Daily we face tensions that have to managed as we try to implement our ideals real. Tjan lists five core tensions :. Pragmatism versus Idealism Our ambitious goals versus reality. Neither one is good or bad. They are a productive tension. Character is a long-term investment. Good people grow by continually seeking to improve themselves and help others to become fuller versions of themselves. While good people value competency, they place a premium on character and values. They commit beyond competency to character and values of truth, compassion, and wholeness.

Good people are realists and find the balance between competing priorities and tensions. Learn to balance the tensions that exist in leadership. These five things are the Good People Mantra. They are five promises. As leaders we need to break from our role as leader to follower and relate to others human to human. Goodness come from building it in yourself and inspiring it in others. Getting some time for yourself is a challenge. But if we are going to lead effectively, we need white space. We need solitude. I know none of us have any extra time, but there is overwhelming evidence that taking a time-out to simply think is foundational to your success.

Raymond Kethledge and Michael Erwin explore some solid reasons why you must make the time to think in Lead Yourself First. Clarity is about what is true. What is signal and what is noise? Solitude facilitates that distillation process. It helps you to eliminate or deliberately deemphasize all distractions. That alone will help you to make the time to think. Clarity and focus go hand-in-hand. That kind of focused attention is often best done alone.

Intuition complements analytical thought. Clarity is important for decision-making but it is also critical for understanding who you are—strengths and weaknesses. It helps to connect you with your core values and understand your place from that perspective. Solitude opens the path to creativity. People make such an effort to copy what other people do, because we have so much access to information. And people copy them. Creativity is doing something differently than the norm.

Solitude allows us to get away from the inertia of our environment and connect to new possibilities. Emotional Balance Emotional balance requires you to respond rather than react. General James Mattis finds a lack of reflection the single biggest problem facing leaders. Finds himself merely blown from one thing to another. But the leader who steps outside events is a leader who can change them. Solitude allows you to reflect on what is making you emotional and provide clarity on the issue.

Often what you are emotional about is more of a distraction than an issue. Instead of allowing our emotions to adversely affect our leadership, it is wise to move away and deal with them in private. Our emotions will find an outlet somewhere. And that is best alone than in decisions made through unfiltered emotions that affect those around us. Solitude allows you to slow down and be clear and firmly convicted of your values and beliefs.

When those criticisms come along that are design to enforce conformity, it is easier to weather the storm when you know that what you are doing is the right thing to do for the right reasons. It is the power to rise above. Reclaiming Solitude. I could chart the ups and downs of my quality of life personally and professionally and the amount of time I spend in solitude.

We are continuously bombarded by pressures— both personal and social —not to stop and reflect but if we lose our solitude, we will lose who we are. It can be a closed room, the library, a park bench, and even a waiting room. We have a responsibility to seek out periods of solitude. We owe it to ourselves and those we lead. And where we find that disconnect we limit or even derail our leadership potential. In The Leadership Gap , Lolly Daskal addresses this gap—what it is, why it happens, and what we can do about it. The gap is always there but at some point, it comes the surface to sabotage us.

The problem is that one day, suddenly, what once worked so well to propel their rise stops working. And the very same traits that had worked for them actually start working against them. It is at this point that we need to begin asking ourselves some questions. And when there is that gap between how we want to be perceived and how we are actually being perceived, we need to take action. Either way, an understanding of what drives can give us the insight we need to avoid our leadership gaps. Daskal invites us to look at who we are being and the instincts that drive our behaviors.

She has developed seven leadership archetypes to help us gain some clarity as to what drives our beliefs and therefore our behaviors. The Seven Archetypes. The Rebel who is driven by confidence. The gap archetype is The Imposter who is so insecure they play havoc with their mind because they have self-doubt. They undermine their leadership thus keeping them from achieving greatness. The Explorer who is fueled by intuition. The gap archetype is The Exploiter who manipulates every chance they get just so you will not know how powerless they really feel. The tendency for the Explorer is to use their intuition to manipulate others to gain control.

The Truth Teller who embraces candor. The gap archetype is The Deceiver who is suspicious about everyone because they cannot trust themselves to speak the truth. Discovering the truth and then speaking up for what is right is never easy but when we find we have been deceived, we can become paranoid and suspicious of others undermining our influence. We can become a kind of victim that will not speak up when we need to because of our paranoia.

The Hero who embodies courage. The gap archetype is The Bystander who is too fearful to be brave, too conservative to take a risk, and too cautious to take a stand. Once enabled by courage, they are now sidelined by fear. We are not really afraid of losing everything—we are afraid of what will happen when we have nothing. The Inventor who is brimming with integrity.

Everything in business, leadership, and success is founded on the virtue of integrity—it is the force that leads the way. The gap archetype is The Destroyer who is morally corrupt. While an Inventor puts their personal values into practice, if those values become corrupted, usually by forces such as ego, personal gain, or anger, they destroy the organization from within. The Destroyer advocates cutting corners, quick fixes and compromising quality and standards.

The Navigator who trusts and is trusted as they guide people to where they need to go. The gap archetype is The Fixer who a chronic rescuer no one trusts They want to help too much, fix too much and rescue too much. They inspire trust. But their ability and confidence to know where to go and become an arrogance that attempts to control others—to do for others what they need to be doing themselves. The Knight for whom loyalty is everything and will stand beside you and will serve you before they serve themselves.

The gap archetype is The Mercenary who is self -serving and put their own needs before those of the team, the business or the organization. Often the transition from serving to self-serving is subtle. Only after unfaithfulness shapes itself does the self-serving attitude emerge in a way it can be detected and deciphered. Daskal reminds us that understanding our weaknesses is our greatest strength.

From these seven archetypes, we can see how each has powerful abilities and hidden impediments. By knowing the gaps we can get into we can better use our strengths to achieve our own leadership greatness. Daskal explains each of these archetypes in detail and importantly how we avoid these gaps. She describes what the positive looks like and what the negative looks like with examples for each. The Leadership Gap provides the antidote for leading on autopilot. Daskal provides insight into our behaviors and beliefs that can if not managed properly can derail even the most talented and successful leaders.

Confronting and avoiding our leadership gaps is the key to attaining long-term leadership success. Civility costs nothing, and buys everything. Incivility impacts our health and performance. Incivility is contagious. Incivility sneaks into your subconscious. Civility starts with a few basic behaviors and it grows from there.

Simple things like saying please and thank you make a difference in how we are perceived by others and the influence we have on them. Warmth is the pathway to influence. Other basic behaviors include acknowledging people and listening. They signal caring, commitment and connection. Show respect for others by sharing resources, the limelight, and positive feedback. Meanwhile, low-performing teams share twice as much negative feedback than average teams. Porath advises you to avoid the temptation to get even. The best advice has nothing to do with them and everything to do with you.

How will you choose to interpret it? Here are a few of her thoughts:. What are you going to make this mean? How you interpret the situation is crucial. How much are you going to let someone pull you down? What useful lessons might there be for you in the situation? Science reveals that about 50m percent of our happiness is based on brain wiring; 40 percent is owed to how we interpret and respond to what happens to us, and 10 percent is driven by our circumstances.

In large part, you really do get to decide how you interpret incivility, the meaning you assign to it, and the stories you tell yourself. You also get to control whether it makes you feel bad or not. Everyone would agree that we should be civil and we recoil when we see others engaged in it, yet incivility has become more commonplace. And it costs us all. Uncivil behavior does not generate greater influence no matter how loud you are. Most leadership failures can be attributed to abrasive or arrogant approaches to others. Uncivil leaders eventually undermine their own potential.

Are you civil? Porath offers a quick civility assessment online. Faced with the speed of change today, staying aligned with who we are is very difficult making us feel stressed and defeated. We can deal with the winds of change in one of three ways: ignore the change, deal with it head on with uninformed short-term fixes, or get ahead of it.

Social health starts with authenticity, advances to mutually rewarding relationships, and culminates in nourishing teams and communities. Now more than ever, people are yearning for leaders to create the conditions that enable others to excel and to reach their full potential. A business devoid of spiritual health promotes elfish, parochial, and narrow financial interests above humanity and social responsibility.

Rosen says that these six areas are part of a system of health and if one of these subsystems is out of line, the entire system can come undone. Rosen deals with each of these areas addressing the key issues of each, identifying where you need work, and how to develop and master each of them. The process requires self-awareness, disciple and the conscious choice to take the steps to achieve desired outcomes.

Paul Meshanko has highlighted the importance of demonstrating respect in all of our interactions in The Respect Effect. The desired result is that those we interact with will feel valued in some way. He offers 12 Ways of thinking and behaving around others:. What we say is important but how we say it can make or break the communication.

Stock control and inventory

Develop Curiosity About the Perspectives of Others. When this happens, it becomes easier to communicate respect to others, even if we disagree with them. Assume that Everyone is Smart About Something. The only difference is that we are all smart through different histories and life experiences. Look for Opportunities to Connect with and Support Others.

When we demonstrate a willingness to move away from our immediate agenda and search for positions of agreement first, it makes working through the actual differences a bit easier. When You Disagree, Explain Why. We have an obligation to others to be truthful with our perspectives and points of view. When done with civility, tact, and room for counterarguments, sharing our perspectives leads to the best decisions and optimal results.

Look for Opportunities to Grow, Stretch, and Change. Learn to Be Wrong on Occasion. This means that our feeling of certainty about something is nothing more than a strong emotion. The stronger the emotion, the more likely we are to develop blind spots around it. It takes a shift in focus away from what we need to what others need.

With rare exception, when we meet people who greet us with a smile, they are sending us important information about heir intentions. Meshanko concludes with 3 key ingredients to improving your ability to demonstrate respect for others:. Once we understand the value proposition respect offers, that insight can provide us with patience, courage, and creativity. Patience permits us to maintain our composure and respectful demeanor when others are not acting at their best.

Courage enables us to candidly challenge disrespectful behavior and actions directed toward others. Creativity allows us to see points of connection, even in the midst of conflict. When we bring these qualities online and into our work interactions, everyone benefits, including our peers, customers, vendors, and ultimately, our shareholders. The problem is we view struggle as a negative. But struggle is how we grow. We like to think of our leaders as flawless. We like to be perceived as flawless—or at least we like people to think we have everything under control.

It may sound counterintuitive, but considering the benefits illuminated by Stephen Snyder in Leadership and the Art of Struggle , we should welcome it as an important element of the leadership process and our own personal development. Struggles have three defining characteristics: Change : Every struggle is triggered by some type of change. Tensions : Change creates a natural set of tensions. Being out of Balance : Change and its ensuing tensions throw a leader off balance.

This may happen without us even being aware of it, but acknowledgement of it is central to regaining control. In the world we live in today, this is a common occurrence often leading to burnout unless we learn to see struggle through a different lens. Snyder recommends:.

Ancient Greek Philosophy

Adopt a growth mindset. The first step in accomplishing this is through reflection—being aware of what is going on around you. Center your mind, body and spirit. Build your support community. Overcome your blind spots. Blind spots by their very nature are hard to recognize. And they are frustrating because they blind us from seeing why people may be responding to us in counterproductive ways—leading us to finger pointing rather than personal responsibility. A fairly common blind spot Snyder calls the Conflict Blind Spot. This blind spot can cause someone to interpret every interaction through a distorted lens.

It reinforces the perception that the other person is wrong and we are right. Recommit, pivot, or leap. When we struggle we have essentially three options. The first is to recommit and stay the course. The second is to pivot and make a course correction. And third is to leap into uncharted territory far beyond our comfort zone. Choosing the right option requires that we examine ourselves and determine which choice is most consistent with our personal values or mission statement.

Every struggle is a chance to learn and to confront who we are and what we are becoming. Seen in that light, they are a gift. And our ability to deal with our own struggles effectively has an impact on those around us. Not only does it create a more positive environment to function in, but it provides a constructive example for others to follow. Snyder has written an outstanding and practical book to help us to rethink the challenges and problems we face along the way. Struggles are an inevitable part of the leadership journey. With every episode of struggle, there is a learning opportunity.

Snyder offers insights as how to accept and reconcile the struggles you find in your own leadership journey. So if we want to have lasting change, the beginning point has to be our thinking. When we look at our behavior we have to understand that there is a thought going on in our heads that is tripping us up. And we have to change that first. One right thought can correct a lot of bad behavior. As human beings, we latch on to certain ideas and assumptions and they blind us from seeing other options and responses to what life throws at us.

We get ideas in our head that can literally block us from seeing other perspectives. We have to unlearn some behaviors and then learn and put into practice the new thinking and resulting behaviors. And it just takes time. We have to wake up every day and know that we have a tendency—not just because of our life experiences, but also because of the way that we have chosen to respond to them—to repeat a certain set of behaviors over and over again. And learn from it. And then go to work on the thinking behind the behaviors we want to change.

W HEN our performance is in a slump or we get stuck, we tend to become anxious and reach for any quick fix or technique that promises to get us out of it. We apply more effort, focus, and willpower. Instead, when we get stuck we need to rely on Stillpower , not willpower says Garret Kramer. Stillpower is the ability to return to a clear mindset after we get into a muddled mental state—a low state of mind.

Stillpower comes from knowing that self-worth has nothing to do with winning, losing, parental approval, money, fame, or anything external to you. When we get into a low state of mind we need to do nothing. Negativity is a sign to slow down. We can't perform at an elevated level when we are in a low state of mind. A seemingly unresolved issue of today has nothing to do with erroneous thinking of today.

And until an individual comes to this realization, he or she will always fall prey to the conditions of life itself. When this level of functioning is low, most often for no tangible reason, we view life through a dirty lens and are prone to deviant behavior—if we act. Awareness is key. Kramer notes that when you are coaching or counseling, you need to be operating from a higher level of thinking than the person you are talking to. External how-to resources are not all that necessary; love will provide all the direction you seek. Leadership is an all-in proposition.

To cut ourselves some slack, we too often rely on external gimmicks and techniques rather than the messy work of a real relationship. When we focus on a personal prize, our options narrow; when we relish the process, our options expand. Leaders will find a lot to consider here. Stillpower is one of those books that makes you reconsider your approach on many things. It is the perfect prescription for those that have a need to control their world and the people around them.

It is important to note too, that looking within for answers is fine if you have consciously put something there to draw-on in the first place. Good flashes of insight are only produced when there is something good to draw upon. Choose your sources wisely. Why have games and sports been going on for not just centuries, but millennia? The batter in a neighborhood game of softball knows immediately if he hits or misses the ball.

If it is hit, it is clear whether it is in bounds or a foul ball. The tennis player learns immediately how the angle of the racket and the strength of the swing can cause the ball to be returned too low and hit the net or if it is hit too high and too hard it goes out of bounds. Indeed, a good part of the joy and appeal of every sport is this immediate feedback. It also enables the player to make an infinite number of adjustments necessary to improve performance. It is obviously not enough to simply have feedback given if it is angrily rejected or dismissed because of the source.

Attitudes about feedback in companies that have been doing degree feedback for 25 years are extremely different from those doing it for the first time. Within organizations that routinely provide feedback, there is a much higher degree of eagerness to get data. At the same time, there is a calm and ease about being able to dismiss the occasional outlier number or comment. Good things come from asking for feedback. Seeking the opinions of others has a host of benefits. It conveys respect. It reduces barriers between the levels. Managers learn valuable information that comes in no other way.

Empirically it reduces by 10 percent the number of employees who intend to leave. Clearly the ideal is for managers to both give and get, but if you had to choose one or the other, our data suggests that it is better to receive than to give. Connect with Jack at twitter. And too frequently, we dismiss feedback or make excuses for the insights we receive into our own behavior. How we are perceived matters more to our leadership effectiveness than our intentions. We must not only seek out how we are perceived by others but we must do something with the feedback we get.

Canaday calls this applied self-awareness. In other words, using that information to adjust our behavior and close the gaps between our intentions and how others perceive us. Typically, our blind spots, our perception gaps exist in those areas where we have overemphasized our strengths. Or overbearing? Collaborative or manipulative?

Gregarious or obnoxious? Or rebellious and uncooperative? Intellectual Snob: Intelligent and well-qualified? Or condescending and elitist? Frozen Compass: Too Direct: Decisive and candid? Or abrupt and insensitive? Or soft and Lenient? Dust in my Wind: Extremely energetic and driven? Or relentless and unrealistic?

No Crying in Baseball: Composed and steady? Or robotic and indifferent? Safety Patrol: Methodical and compliant? Or inflexible and overly cautious? Or bland and forgettable? Or self-serving and inappropriate? Passion Pistol: Spirited and passionate? Or intense and overzealous? Perpetual Doer: Remarkably reliable and high performing? Or one-dimensional and over-functioning? Self-awareness flourishes in a person that accepts personal responsibility. Without it, we only seek to justify what we do. We never quite get to dealing with those areas where we mean well but are coming across badly.

Whether we like how we are coming across to others or not, it is our reality. It is crucial that we seek out our perception gaps and deal with them if we are to be effective and grow as leaders. Those who are the most successful have just learned how to read the diverse people and situations they encounter and respond appropriately. You According to Them is a great place to start. The Compound Effect is a reminder of the law of cause and effect. Darren Hardy shares the impact it has had on his life and how you can make yourself accountable for your choices. The Compound Effect is the ripple effect you get from the choices you make.

In life, you not only reap what you sow, you reap more than you sow. The seemingly insignificant choices we make daily , will create major changes in your life for good or bad. But over time, they can take you places you never intended. Hardy encourages us to make conscious choices—daily. Given the fact that we have a limited lifespan, the earlier we start consciously making small changes in our behavior, the more powerfully the Compound Effect works in our favor. Since your outcomes are all a result of your moment-to-moment choices, you have incredible power to change your life by changing your choices.

Step-by-step, day by day, your choices will shape you actions until they become habits, where practice makes them permanent. Hardy says you have to begin by thinking your way out of the instant gratification trap. Hardy also recommends that when we try to change a habit we should focus on what we are adding-in rather than what we are taking-out. Instead of thinking about all of the TV you will miss in the evening, think about the experience and fulfillment you will gain by adding-in a hobby instead. Instead of focusing on what you have to sacrifice, focus on what you get to add-in.

Both interventions produced significant dilution effects for sugar-water mixtures, maintained in follow-up sessions, up to 14 weeks later. The CO2 emissions of mobility and transportation continue to increase and constitute a major challenge on the way to reaching climate change goals. Nevertheless, consumers are reluctant to adopt new technology, such as electric vehicles EVs. We provide converging empirical evidence from car drivers and a student sample to support our findings. Additionally, we identify fluency with a given unit of measurement as an important driver of the effects.

Explaining away is a pattern of inference that occurs in situations where independent causes compete to account for an effect. Despite being widely addressed in the literature of causal reasoning, the phenomenon of explaining away remains highly elusive. Several potential explanations of this insufficiency have been put forward thus far. At present, we explore the novel possibility that it may be driven by i differential interpretations of probabilities and ii an erroneous diagnostic reasoning strategy. In particular, we test for the possibility that some people interpret probabilities as propensities, leading to a lack of probability updating and insufficient explaining away behaviour.

Results suggested an overall insufficiency of explaining away. In one large cluster participants did not update their estimates of the causes throughout the task. The proportion of these participants in the sample varied between conditions, which is in accordance with the propensity hypothesis. Further results are discussed, as well as their implications in relation to the previous literature. In a trivariate decision scenario, with two contexts, two options, and two outcomes, decisions should depend on the probability of a positive outcome.

However, statistically inappropriate information, i. While past research has investigated the effect of pseudocontingencies overriding true contingencies by presenting predetermined learning trials, the current project aims at the effects of self-determined information sampling on pseudocontingency inference and choice. Across the three experiments we manipulated whether participants in the information sampling condition were allowed to select the option, the context, or both for each learning trial.

Furthermore, we tested whether pseudocontingencies are still inferred when engaging in self-determined information sampling during learning. The results revealed the inference of pseudocontingencies in a trivariate scenario, even if it led to mistakenly preferring the actually inferior option in a decision phase. When information sampling was self-determined during learning, the choice patterns indicated a preference for the option that was sampled more frequently within a context. This study investigated human-automation interaction with explosive detection systems during cabin baggage screening as a diagnostic aid.

We tested three practi-cally relevant EDSCB scenarios that varied systematically in automation reliability. EDSCB should increase human-machine system performance for detect-ing explosive threats. A diagnostic aid with many false alarms should result in a cry-wolf effect. The positive predictive value should increase compliance with automation alerts and screeners may use the probability matching strategy when making decisions under uncertainty. We conducted a laboratory experiment with screeners of an international airport where they performed in a simulated screening task.

Screeners had to detect improvised explosive devices, bare explosives, guns, or knives. Poor automation PPV resulted in a cry-wolf effect. A high PPV en-hanced screeners' compliance with the diagnostic aid. Equivalence tests and confidence ratings suggest that screeners are using the probability matching heuristic when making decisions under uncertainty, i. Furthermore, many false alarms lead to a cry-wolf effect. Operators use a probability matching heuristic when using a diagnostic aid under uncertainty.

As an interface between human and automation, the advantage of wearable devices, such as smartwatches, lies in the possibility of a location independent, direct worker-machine communication and allows fast as well as personalized notification in case of an important work-related event. Smartwatches provide the options to alert the user via vibration, sound or visual signals.

This study contributes to current research by examining, which modality is suitable in an industrial environment.

We hypothesized that a combination of modalities is recognized faster and evaluated as more useful than using a single mode. Additionally, compared to other modalities, the vibro-tactile notification can also be recognized faster and is evaluated more useful in an industrial environment with industry noise. In a 3 x 3 factorial within-subject design laboratory experiment, 40 participants conducted a building task and simultaneously received a notification visual, auditive, or vibro-tactile in one modality or a combination of the modalities.

Response times retrieved from video recordings were analyzed and usability was rated via questionnaire. The results showed that the response time was lower for all combinations of modalities compared to a single modality notification. The latter was evaluated as less useful. Auditive and vibro-tactile notifications were recognized faster and evaluated as more useful.

In conclusion, important notifications via wearable devices in an industrial environment should use a combination of modalities and the auditive and vibro-tactile modality should be preferred. Automatic processes for body balance control are susceptible to aging-related functional degradation, which may be compensated for by the deployment of attention. Adapting to a steady-state postural set to changing task requirements may raise the demands for attentional control further.

Will a preparatory cue lower the attentional load of transiting between postural steady states? Ten older adults were compared to twelve younger adults in a continuous voluntary swaying task externally paced by a visual cue. Frequency of swaying 0. The specific type of a transition was either unknown or known by the presentation of a preparatory transition cue.

In order to probe the concurrent attentional load, a manual trigger response to an auditory signal was requested randomly before or during a transition. Sway performance measures comprised spatial regularity of Centre-of-Pressure movements during a 4 s transition period. Older adults expressed greater attentional load in terms of longer manual response latencies and showed reduced position variability as well as swaying amplitude during a postural state transition.

They benefitted from being able to anticipate a transition, however, specifically when required to speed up from 0. Preparatory cues also made their swaying trajectories resemble a sinusoidal oscillation more closely thereby approaching the performance of the younger adults. Our findings are discussed in the context of the task switching literature with a generalization to postural set switching. Much research has been conducted investigating the embodiment of body-external entities e. By now, compelling evidence that the self is flexible and can readily be expanded to external corpora has been amounted.

In contrast, the fading or disappearance of such recently acquired feelings of embodiment has received little attention. Precisely this process of disembodiment, however, may reveal critical properties of minimal self-identification. Participants first established the moving rubber hand illusion. Then they were exposed to each of three intervention conditions in a complete within-subjects design. They either a continued to actively operate the rubber hand, thus maintaining synchronous visuo-tactile feedback active condition , or b passively left their hand in the apparatus, thus receiving no more synchronous visuo-tactile feedback passive condition , or c , the rubber hand was struck by a hammer which imposed diverging visual and tactile information disruption condition.

After the intervention, subjective embodiment ratings declined slowly in the passive condition relative to the active condition and showed an abrupt drop following the disruption. Proprioceptive drift estimates also differed between intervention conditions despite similar pre-intervention baselines, but were overall subject to considerable variability. These findings suggest that dis- embodiment is driven by mechanisms of multisensory integration which require continuous synchronized input to maintain a recently acquired entity as part of the self.

We argue that the proper assessment of influencing environmental, social and psychological factors is key in designing and executing successful choice architecture interventions. Staircase use is an ideal field of study to show the advantages of prior assessment since numerous studies exist with different intervention methods, but only a few influencing factors have been considered so far. Our aim was to explore which factors e. In our survey, we asked university students, as well as 10 researchers of the topic to give as detailed answers as possible about the assumed factors.

During the evaluation of the responses, categories of influencing factors were created based on the collected answers and each time a certain type of influencing factor was mentioned, it was registered as a new category. In order to adequately measure the explored influencing categories and develop a structure of influencing factors, a questionnaire was created. To explore the common underlying factors behind the different categories and see which items measure the same factors an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. We suggest that for the most effective choice architecture interventions regarding staircase use, these factors should be considered and measured.

It has been observed that bimanual coordination constraints are represented in motor imagery. Further, sometimes, but not always, imagination is more similar to execution in experts than in novices, presumably because experts have more precise internal models of the respective action. We investigated whether better performance in symmetric than in parallel bimanual finger coordination is reflected in motor imagery and whether this differs between pianists and non-musicians.

Six different finger combinations always consisting of two fingers from each hand were used. With all finger combinations symmetric and parallel patterns were performed. Finger movements were a executed with both hands, b executed with the right hand and imagined with the left hand, and c imagined with the right and executed with left hand. Inter-response intervals were measured. Results showed that in both, imagination and execution, symmetric patterns were performed significantly faster than parallel patterns and that pianists performed coordination patterns significantly faster than non-musicians This indicates that that bimanual coordination constraints and performance ability are represented in motor imagery.

Data did not indicate that non-musicians are less precise than pianists in their imagination the respective interactions were not significant. In conclusion, bimanual coordination constraints and performance ability are represented in motor imagery regardless of expertise. The present study investigated the need for uniqueness, visual aesthetic sensitivity, and their correlation. To date, no studies concerning this correlation have been conducted. The NfU-G measures the need to set oneself apart from others, whereas the VAST -R tests the ability to discover the objective aesthetic goodness of a figural composition.

Thus, the results suggest that participants who strive for individuality have lower visual aesthetic sensitivity since they tend to violate norms in order to assert their uniqueness. Possible explanations and limitations regarding this outcome are discussed. The dissociation or interaction of scene versus object processing is a highly debated topic. There is behavioral and neuropsychological evidence that scene and object processing are dissociated. However, several studies find context effects in object judgement tasks. In this study, we tested the opposite relation: Do scenes of humans performing actions activate congruent object representations?

From a much-used scene stimuli database of complex real-life scenes of humans performing actions with congruent or incongruent objects e. Priming should occur only between intact scenes and congruent objects. As specified in the pre-registration, we relativized the congruity effect RTintact incongruent-congruent with the baseline RT difference RTscrambled incongruent-congruent , and selected only scenes for which the effect remained with a Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

Including only these scenes, we found a significant interaction effect of congruity and intactness, but not in the direction hypothesized. Overall, the results are illuminative for a methodological approach to scene-object processing, and the future use of the scene stimuli data-base by Mudrik et al. Ganel et al. They therefore concluded that the visual information used by the motor system is more accurate than the visual information available to the perceptual system.

The direct comparison of the accuracy in the perceptual and visuomotor system is however difficult, given that a dichotomous variable is used for perception and a continuous variable to measure accuracy in the visuomotor task. We addressed this problem by dichotomizing the visuomotor measures based on the signal detection theory. In the middle of the 19th century, stereoscopes were a popular entertainment medium and stereo cards elicited strong fascination among viewers all around the globe.

However, it remains unclear which factors contribute to the aesthetic appraisal of such stereoscopic image cards. A possible parameter is the amount of binocular disparity in each picture, which influences the subjective impression of depth. Following the idea of processing fluency, disparities that are easier to process may facilitate the formation of a positive aesthetic impression.

Participants compared different versions of each image with a manipulation of the near point disparity and additionally a single 2D image version containing no disparity. Furthermore, participants rated the visual comfort of viewing each image on a visual analogue scale and the interpupillary distance IPD of each participant was measured. A first analysis revealed that stereoscopic images were in general preferred over their 2D counterparts.

In addition, the aesthetic appraisal was higher for smaller values of binocular near-point disparity. Children can differentiate quantities early and almost automatically without any aim to practical differentiate a quantity. The usage of their fingers to show quantities or playing games with dices can be seen as an early arithmetic skill.

This research would like to investigate how far structured quantities like finger patterns or dots of dice are rather identified correct and quicker than unstructured quantities. This research also investigates the impact of the association with representation of quantities to the later performance in addition tasks.

The sample size of the longitudinal study contains preschoolers 58 boy and 58 girls and took place at the end of the preschool and in first grade. The structured and unstructured quantities were captured with a computer experiment which measured the correct response rate and the reaction time. The acquiring of the data took place in a single setting. The results showed that structured quantities can be recognized significantly more correct and faster than unsorted quantities.

In conclusion the association with structured and unstructured quantities during the time of preschool can be seen as important early arithmetic skills which have an intense effect on following mathematical abilities. Especially the handling of structured quantities is associated with arithmetic competencies in first grade. Previously inspected faces can affect the perception of faces seen subsequently.

The underlying mechanisms of these face adaptation effects have been considered to be based on sensory adaptation processes. More recent studies however also suggest a high level effect and an adaptation on a rather representational, memory basis. Although research on adaptation effects in faces seems to be well-advanced, it still lacks a systematic analysis of its generalizability to different types of face information since most research have focused on configural i. Here, we investigated the mostly neglected adaptation effects on local face information by employing color alterations, actually saturation and brightness manipulations.

Results of our studies indicate adaptation effects. We further investigate and discuss these face adaptation aftereffects in the context of pure color adaptation aftereffects using non-face adaptors. Vergence movements are thought to be mainly driven by binocular disparity. However, a number of studies have shown that vergence can be influenced by other depth cues as well as, for example, linear perspective or familiar form. We conducted an experiment to examine whether the depth cue familiar size is used for planning and executing vergence movements.

Six different everyday objects were stereoscopically presented one at a time. The distance to the objects as specified by binocular disparity and the distance as specified by familiar size were manipulated. Participants made vergence movements, followed by reaching movements towards the objects. Eye tracking data showed that when familiar size and binocular disparity specified the same distance, participants fairly accurately converged to that distance. When familiar size-specified distance was in conflict with disparity-specified distance, vergence movements largely followed the distance as specified by binocular disparity.

However, vergence distance was slightly, but significantly deviated towards the conflicting distance as specified by familiar size. Thus, while vergence is mainly driven by binocular disparity, this is the first experiment to show that familiar size also influences vergence movements - at least to some extent. The response time RT -based Concealed Information Test allows the detection of a detail concealed by the examinee based on slower RTs and lower accuracy rate to this potentially concealed detail compared to other, irrelevant details.

Specifically, we examined two factors: The length of the interval ms vs. We found that neither factor influences the RT differences, and that the length of the interval does not, but the transition mode does significantly influence accuracy rate differences: Gradual fading, as implemented in several previous studies, decreases accuracy rate differences. We conclude that 1 shorter intervals may be preferred because they do not influence the outcome but shorten the duration of the test, and 2 clear, non-gradual transition may be preferred because it provides larger accuracy rate differences, which in turn may be used for the detection of the concealed detail.

According to the task-pair switching logic, at least three tasks e. Typically, performance is worse in task-pair switch trials than in task-pair repetition trials, resulting in task-pair switch costs. This cost indicates that the identity of the individual tasks performed in a dual task is jointly represented in a single mental representation, termed task-pair set.

We found comparable task-pair switch costs after Go trials and NoGo trials. This suggests that cues activate the appropriate representation before the subtask-specific task sets are selected. Thus, a task-pair set is not only available after performing a dual-task trial which would indicate that subjects adopted an episodic representation of the specific task-pair of the previous trial.

Numerous studies investigated dual-task performance and found reaction time costs whenever only one of the task stimuli is repeated from trial t-1 to trial t. These partial repetition costs might occur due to unsuccessful across-task predictions when there is no knowledge about any reliable contingency between the two tasks.

Yet, the empirical support for this across-task prediction is rather sparse. Here, we tested whether learning of built-in across-task contingencies could modulate the partial repetition costs. The underlying assumption was that across-task contingencies can substitute tbased predictions and by this reduce the partial repetition costs.

The study consisted of a dual-task paradigm concurrently presenting a visual-manual and an auditory-vocal task. In the former task, participants had to respond to the location of a cross presented at one of three positions on a screen. In the latter, they had to vocally respond to a randomly presented high or low pitched tone.

Across-task contingency was manipulated within-participants by pairing the position either consistently contingency condition or randomly random condition with one respective tone. The results showed significant learning of the across-task contingencies and a decrease of partial repetition costs with time. These findings support the assumption that in dual-task settings learning of built-in across-task contingencies can substitute t1-based predictions or binding effects. This is in accord with the work on the dissociation between binding effects and learning in single tasking i.

The PAM assumes that visual input for action is processed in an automatized as well as analytic fashion, rendering visuomotor behaviour immune to perceptual interferences or dual-task costs. In the present study, we investigate the Garner Interference GI effect under dual- and single-task conditions employing a perceptual button-press task as well as grasping. GI arises when stimuli are classified along a relevant dimension e.

We found classical GI effects in perception as reflected in prolonged reaction times when variations occurred also in the irrelevant object dimension. While reaction times in grasping were not susceptible to GI, effects were observed in several measures for grasping accuracy worse adjustment of grip aperture to object size, prolonged adjustment times, and increased variability of the maximum grip aperture in conditions where irrelevant object dimensions varied.

Furthermore, dual-task costs occurred in perceptual as well as in action tasks. In summary, our findings undermine the assumption of automaticity in visuomotor behaviour as proposed by the PAM. The purpose of this study is to design and validate a robust paradigm capable of identifying granular levels of cognitive load. This paradigm will be used to identify optimal levels of cognitive load in industrial work environments to avoid overload and underload of workers. As a first step to achieve this end, the current study examines whether visual and auditory stimuli influence cognitive load markers differently.

A classic cognitive load paradigm is adapted to investigate whether pupil size and other biomarkers of cognitive load such as heartrate and skin conductance depend on presentation modality. A 2x2x5 Within-subjects design is employed, which induces cognitive load by presenting participants with strings of numbers or German pseudowords one digit or letter at a time, with string length ranging from Auditory stimuli are presented as sounds generated by text-to-speech software. Visual stimuli are presented in black font on a grey background.

The pseudowords are adapted in part from prior research Klatte et al. First results of this ongoing research will be presented and discussed.

The Best Mentor You Can Find is Up to You!

Relatively small numbers elicit faster left-sided responses and large numbers faster right-sided responses. The MNL is a semantic representation in which numbers are horizontally organized from left small numbers to right large numbers. According to the MNL account, a congruent mapping small numbers and left-sided responses generates faster RTs compared to an incongruent mapping small numbers and right-sided responses , and vice versa for large numbers.

This study aimed to test whether, as predicted by the MNL account, the amount of semantic processing required by a task affects the strength of the SNARC effect. Results showed that the SNARC effect was not modulated by the amount of semantic processing, but was proportional to response latency RTs. The results provide evidence against the idea that deeper semantic processing generates a stronger SNARC effect, as predicted by the MNL account, and in favour of alternative accounts dual-route model, working memory account.

According to the conflict-monitoring model cf. Under the dual task sequence learning setup, we observed the conflict-adaptation effect on the current trial, which are analogous to the last fourth trial n - 4. It suggests that the conflict on trial n - 4 tighten the cognitive control, and can reduce the susceptibility to conflict on trial n. As only congruency-level repetitions trigger the quick responses, it also suggests that SRTT and the two-choice RT task can be integrated.

Previous research has demonstrated that emotions, which are induced prior to a visual working memory VWM task, can lead to individual differences in VWM performance e. Spachtholz et al. In a qualitative study, we explored whether the VWM task itself evokes emotions. Specifically, we hypothesised that VWM tasks are viewed as competence-relevant activities, in which one can either fail or succeed Pekrun et al.

Nineteen participants performed a colour wheel VWM task on which they received no feedback. The task was divided into one practice block and two test blocks. During the last test block of the task participants were required to think aloud, that is verbalise any thoughts and feelings they were having during the task. Qualitative content analysis revealed that participants experienced an array of different achievement emotions, such as anger towards subjective task failure, indicating that participants appraised the VWM task as a performance situation. Further analysis revealed that some participants experienced epistemic emotions, such as frustration about the lack of cognitive skill enhancement during the task.

These participants appraised the VWM task as an opportunity for gaining new insights rather than a success vs. This task intrinsic emotion induction may need to be controlled for in future VWM research, as it may lead to individual differences in VWM performance. Airport security checking x-rayed hand luggage need to keep information about prior items in mind while searching for potentially dangerous equipment.

One theory resource depletion account suggests that the target found first is stored in working memory and this is what compromises finding the second target. This suggests that even keeping in mind the identity and position of an unrelated not dangerous item should harm visual search. Thus, content specific processes rather than general resources seem to account for the SSM.

In most cases, multitasking research focus on interference between two simultaneous tasks. Furthermore, a single cognitive models can still not clear each aspect in research. Thus, we introduce a triple-task which is built upon an established simple dual-task from Schumacher and colleagues The triple-task consisted of one auditory-vocal voice and two visual-manual hand and foot two-choice tasks.

After dual-task training, participants showed significant faster RTs and could eliminate dual-task-costs. In triple-task training, trained participants got worse in RTs but were still faster than untrained participants. Furthermore, the expected bottleneck in motor stage was still there after training. Our results indicated that training in dual-task causes strong stimulus-response bindings which are also beneficial for triple-tasks. Our results fit into Wickens et. In a sequential motor task, we reuse and modify the previous motor plan to reduce the cognitive cost of planning.

This results in a persistence to the previous posture hysteresis , which is a proxy for the fraction of motor re-planning FoMR. Motor re-planning has been shown to interfere with spatial memory tasks, as motor and memory tasks seem to share common WM resources. We asked whether disruption of spatial memory performance would depend on the FoMR. Twenty-eight participants 12 male, mean age The FoMR in the randomised task Specifically, the TBRS-Model assumes that both maintenance of memory items and concurrent processing rely on the same attentional resource, which can only be utilized consecutively.

This inter-relation is specified by cognitive load CL , the ratio of specific task time t-alpha to total time T of a task. Thus, if CL is held constant, there should be no main effect of additional processing steps and no interactions between memory demands. We found decreasing accuracies ACC and increasing reaction times RT for additional processing steps and significant interactions on both measures. The most parsimonious model only varied the drift parameter v. According to the results on ACC and RT, there was a significant decrease of drift-rates v for additional processing steps and memory load.

Previous research has shown that n — 2 repetition costs, a marker of inhibitory processes in task switching, are reduced when task repetitions are present. The present study aimed at further investigating processes underlying this interaction. For this purpose, two task switching experiments were conducted in which task repetition proportion was varied for each task separately. Results showed that repetition proportion had a larger effect when specific proportions were easy to detect.

Therefore, it seems to be the specific and not the overall repetition proportion that affects n — 2 repetition costs. However, this factor had no influence on n — 2 repetition costs. Instead, additional combined analyses of both experiments revealed an influence of stimulus congruency: n — 2 repetition costs were highest when repetitions were precluded and the task stimulus was incongruent, whereas no effect of stimulus congruency on n — 2 repetition costs was observed with tasks that possibly repeated.

This result is interpreted in terms of task shielding which is reduced for tasks without repetitions, making these tasks more vulnerable to crosstalk from competing tasks when they are still in an inhibited state. In a typical recognition-memory task, individuals learn a list of words and, subsequently, have to categorize test items as previously studied or not.

Past research has shown that performance decreases in a setting in which people have to classify two words at the same time. However, the source of this performance difference remains uncertain. We tested 80 participants in a recognition task, presenting both trials with single words and trials with paired words in the recognition test.

Behaviourally, we replicated the previous findings and found that both model classes allocate an overall performance difference between single and paired-words to processes of detection and discrimination based on memory evidence. More important, dependencies in recognition decisions observed for paired words are allocated to different sources. According to GRT, the dependencies are attributed to a process influencing the familiarity of the item and thereby to the structure of memory evidence.

In contrast, an extended version of the two-high thresholds model locates the dependencies in guessing processes. Evidence exists that a brief period of wakeful rest after encoding verbal information supports the retention of newly acquired information over shorter and longer temporal intervals, while interference induced through task-related cognition has detrimental memory effects.

Less is known about this so-called resting effect in children and whether individual differences in the impact of a brief period of wakeful rest exists. In the present study, children encoded a list of words, immediately recalled the word list, and wakefully rested for 10 minutes. Next, children encoded another list of words, recalled the word list, and solved visuospatial problems for 10 minutes. After 7 days, a not instructed free recall test for both word lists took place. For the analysis of individual differences, we calculated a mean immediate memory score and classified children as high, middle or low memory performers.

Our results showed that over a period of 7 days only low memory performers retained significantly more words in the wakeful rest compared to the problem-solving condition. No differences in the retention scores between the two conditions were found in high and middle memory performers. These results suggest that labile memory representations in children with a low immediate memory performance profit from a brief period of wakeful rest. The task, stimuli and experimental design were close to the original study measuring recall from iconic memory as a function of a the valence of the target stimulus and b the valence of the distractor stimuli with a neutral target.

We found reliable evidence for enhanced initial availability of negative stimuli in iconic memory. In contrast to the original study, read-out from iconic memory was enhanced also for positive targets, as compared to neutral targets. In addition, there was some indication of slower decay for negative information, as compared to both neutral and positive targets.

Moreover, emotional distractors of either valence interfered with the read-out of neutral targets. Taken together, the results are consistent with the assumption that both the initial availability and the decay of information in iconic memory are susceptible to emotional semantics. Using digital devices as our external memory store helps us to deal with the huge amount of information surrounding us at our workplace and at home. Temporarily irrelevant information can be saved and stored on our computer or smartphone and can be accessed at any time, whenever getting relevant again.

Storm and Stone could show that such memory offloading can be beneficial for subsequent memory performance, in a way that saving already encoded items can enhance recall of items encoded after the saving. After having learned a first list of words, participants could either offload this list or not. Afterwards they had to solve blocks of arithmetic problems, before and after learning a second list of words. Results showed that participants solved significantly more arithmetic problems after offloading the first word list, compared to trials without offloading possibility.

Besides they recalled more words of the second lists in save trials than in no-save trials. In conclusion we did not only replicate saving-enhanced memory but found saving-enhanced performance for unrelated arithmetic tasks. Saving of recently encoded items entailed a general benefit on subsequent cognitive performance, beyond encoding and retrieving word lists.

We assume that offloading freed working memory from the need to rehearse and maintain offloaded items. Gained working memory capacity then can be used for subsequent tasks with high cognitive demands. In Experiment 1, encoding variability was manipulated by presenting items for a fixed or variable duration sampled from a normal distribution at study. In Experiment 2, we used an attentional manipulation whereby participants studied items while performing an auditory one-back task in which distractors were presented at fixed or variable intervals.

Our results suggest that study duration and attention are not suitable proxies for encoding variability, highlighting the issues in testing the hypothesis. Instead, old item variance tended to be linked to overall memory strength in each experiment. During communication, we perceive and express emotional information through many different channels in an interpersonal situation. Although historically the human emotion expression studied on faces without social context.

In recent study we investigated the emotion recognition process with multiple persons visual scenes. Participants were required to categorize facial expressions. A significant interaction was also found between facial expressions and the emotional content of bodily expression, showing a response advantage for facial expressions accompanied by congruent same bodily expression. Taken together, the findings illustrate the importance of emotional whole-body expression as contextual information in communication process. Based on the assumption of a multi-conceptual association of the abstract concept of time, the present study examines if time is associated with other concepts, apart from the concrete concept of space.

The study follows the assumption that affects are an important source of experience that can also structure the concept of time, similar to sensory-motor spatial experiences. The Implicit Association Test was used to examine the direct association of time and affect. The participants were asked to allocate affect-related i. It was assumed that the categorisation is easier within the compatible combination of categories than within the incompatible combination.

Accordingly, the participants allocated words to the combinations future-positive and past-negative more quickly than to the combinations future-negative and past-positive. Specifically, the results indicate an association of time and affect; the future is associated with positive and the past with negative affect. This association is in line with former findings, showing that people tend to positively view and idealise the future and to avoid negative thoughts about the future.

Psychopathic personality PP is characterized by a deficit in learning from negative experiences and by low emotional reactivity. Two theoretical accounts aim to explain these impairments: One assumption is that high PP is associated with a specific deficiency in emotion processing. The other explanation assumes a more general attentional deficit leading to neglecting non-goal-relevant information. Second, we manipulated whether the attended or the non-attended dimension emotion or age predicted a subsequent stimulus category object or animal shown after each scene.

Furthermore, we manipulated whether participants were instructed to search for a relation between the scenes and the subsequent stimulus category or whether no specific information about any relation was given explicit vs. Psychopathic personality was assessed with the PPI-R The results show an emotion processing deficit under implicit learning conditions: Associations between age and subsequent stimuli were learned by individuals high on PP when age was the attended dimension.

This learning effect was not found for high PP individuals when the emotional value was the attended and predictive dimension. However, under explicit learning conditions, high PP individuals acquired knowledge to the same extent as low PP individuals. The latter result suggests that learning deficits in PP can be bypassed by intentional cognitive control processes. Social anxiety and high levels of psychopathic traits could be conceptualized as the opposing ends of one continuous trait i.

Indeed, research found that individuals with clinical social anxiety and psychopathic traits show different automatic social action tendencies, respectively. Besides that, also hormonal levels are involved in both, social anxiety and psychopathy, as well as automatic social action tendencies. The current research examined: 1 the relationship between social anxiety, psychopathic tendencies, cortisol and testosterone and 2 its interactive role in social action tendencies in a non-clinical, female sample. In order to answer these questions, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory, pre-experimental levels of cortisol and testosterone, as well as the Approach-Avoidance task using emotional faces has been assessed.

Indeed, a negative correlation between social anxiety and psychopathic tendencies has been found supporting the continuous approach of caring about social evaluation. Furthermore, by using Structural Equation Modelling significant main effects of psychopathic tendencies, testosterone, and cortisol, and an interaction between cortisol and social anxiety on approach-avoidance tendencies has been found. Most interestingly, individuals with higher psychopathic traits were faster in approaching angry faces.

Besides that, individuals with both, higher social anxiety and higher levels of cortisol were slower in approaching happy faces. These results stress the importance of taking both personality and biology, into account when studying automatic social action tendencies. VR-based paradigms could substantially increase the ecological validity of psychological research as VR allows submerging into real-life experiences under controlled laboratory conditions. LuVRe is a video database designed to provide a standardized set of virtual reality VR clips.

LuVRe comprises videos and pictures covering a large variety of emotionally-evocative themes. Watching these videos with a head mounted display results in an immersive experience. We investigated subjective as well as objective reactions, i. As a result, experiences in virtual reality differ from laboratory conditions with respect to heart rate and frontal alpha asymmetries FAA , but not subjective ratings, indicating a higher emotional saliency of virtual reality.

Realistic VR conditions, as well as laboratory conditions, might thus elicit effects which are specific to their domain. We argue that VR allows for a better approximation of real life regarding and thereby bridges the gap between laboratory and real-life conditions. Approaching positive objects and avoiding negative ones are general tendencies in human behaviour.

Interestingly, arm positions connoting approach arm flexion or avoidance arm extension have been also shown to influence how the valence of stimuli is processed. However, such bodily influence on valence processing has been typically examined within experimental paradigms that do not involve acting upon objects e. Accordingly, our study attempts to integrate such paradigms with findings suggesting that the hand proximity to visual stimuli modulates their cognitive processing.

Sixty participants judged the valence of twenty positive and twenty negative images twice; firstly after observing them on a monitor screen i. We expected that congruent interactions approaching positive images — avoiding negative would raise more positive judgments than incongruent interactions avoiding positive images — approaching negative.

Valence judgments post-interaction adjusted for baseline and valence change valence judgments post-interaction minus baseline judgments were analyzed with linear mixed models LMM. Results indicate that swiping positive images closer vs. Indeed, swiping positive images away and negative images closer did not significantly change their perceived valence. We conclude that swiping affective images closer or away might highlight valence-processing asymmetries wherein interactions leading to more desirable effects are better attended approaching positive and avoiding negative images.

Previous research showed that externally induced emotions influence grading in emotion congruent ways, that is negative emotions lead to lower and positive emotions lead to higher grades for the same essays Brackett et al. We sought to show that a material-inherent cue handwriting naturally elicits discrete emotions anger, enjoyment, and boredom , which influence grades in differentiated ways. The relationship was mediated via anger 0. That is, good handwriting predicted a lower level of anger and a higher level of enjoyment, whereas it did not predict boredom.

A higher level of anger and enjoyment in turn predicted lower and higher grades, respectively, whereas boredom did not predict grades. Past evaluations of youth mentoring programs were based nearly exclusively on questionnaires. This led to the neglect of constructs which cannot be investigated properly in this manner, like empathic accuracy. Further, we explore the effect of mentoring duration on the empathic accuracy of children.

Mentees ranged in age between 7 and 19 years. The mentees watched short film clips in which a person describes an emotional experience. Afterwards, the mentees were asked to rate the protagonists feelings based on 12 adjectives. These scores were then compared to the original scores of the protagonists, using an intra-class-correlation. The results support our hypothesis, as the mentees reached significantly higher scores when their mentor was present than when he was absent.

In the absence of their mentor, mentees showed a marginally higher score of empathic accuracy the longer they have been matched with a mentor when age of the mentee was controlled. This extends our knowledge on how children profit from youth mentoring programs. Further, it shows the necessity to investigate mentoring dyads in a laboratory and not solely rely on survey studies. In everyday interaction we touch a number of different materials, which can elicit distinctive emotional responses: For instances, touching soft fur feels highly pleasant for most of us, whereas sandpaper typically feels unpleasant.

Emotional responses were made along three dimensions: Valence positive, negative , Arousal arousing - boring , and Dominance being controlled - controlling , and they were systematically correlated with values on sensory dimensions. Here, we developed a short variant of the task in order to compare sensory-emotional associations for young females and males. Overall, we replicated the previous results on sensory and emotional dimensions of touched materials using a shorter task, and demonstrated a high consistency in the sensory-emotional associations of young female and male adults. Using social competencies to socially understand children is vital for parenting.

Although there are tasks available to measure social understanding of children in adults e. Similar to the MET-KE, we measure affective aspects of social understanding empathy and compassion by showing either emotional or neutral pictures and asking participants to rate the valence of their feelings and compassion. However, we developed a separate task to measure cognitive aspects of social understanding affect recognition and affective theory of mind.

It uses morphed videos of a neutral face taking on an affect and has been proven to be sensitive with adult stimuli see Domes et al. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to develop and evaluate tasks measuring different aspects of social understanding of several age groups of children in adults. We aim for enough stimuli for multiple test points. We want to use the developed tasks to evaluate the effects of mentalisation-based intervention in parents on social understanding of children. Currently, our task to measure cognitive aspects of social understanding works well, however, the task to measure affective aspects needs to be improved before it can be used.

Previous research has demonstrated that inducing negative mood in individuals lead to a biased processing of facial emotional stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to explore this association in the daily life of individuals. Ambulatory Assessment AA was used to test whether momentary negative affect contributes to i a negatively biased evaluation of emotional faces and ii heightened distrust. To this end, self-reports regarding momentary affect were combined with behavioral tasks on emotion processing evaluation of emotional facial expressions and distrust hypothetical Distrust Game.

Using multivariate multilevel modeling, we tested relations between those variables in a sample of 42 healthy individuals at six time points over 7 days. Results revealed that there was an effect of tense arousal on distrust ratings. More specifically, momentary tense affect was associated with higher levels of distrust in the Distrust Game.