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What is the diameter of the vent? What is the position of the axis of the vent? In the old models it is in a plane passing through the axis of the bore, perpendicular to the axis of the trunnions. The vents of columbiads and mortars of the model of are in planes parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the bore, and perpendicular to that of the trunnions, and at a distance from it equal to one-half the radius of the bore.

The vents are perpendicular to the axis of the bore; the one on the right of the axis is not bored entirely through to the bore by one inch. The vent of the field and siege pieces of the model of is at right angles to the axis and in the plane passing through it per. Divisions marked on the upper quarters of the base ring, commencing where it would be intersected by a plane parallel to the axis of the piece, and tangent to the upper surface of the trunnions.

To what use are the quarter-sights applied? For giving elevations up to three degrees; but especially for pointing a piece at a less elevation than the natural angle of sight. An instrument having a graduated scale of tangents, by means of which any elevation may be given to a piece. How are the divisions of the tangent scale found? By taking the length of the piece, from the rear of the base-ring to the swell of the muzzle, measured on a line parallel to the axis, and multiplying it by the natural tangent of as many degrees as may be required; and then deduct the dispart.

Thus, for 5 0 elevation, and the gun supposed to be 5 feet, or 60 inches long, multiply. With what pieces are breech-sights used? Guns and howitzers. At the lower end of the scale is a brass bulb filled with lead. The slider which marks the divisions on tile scale is of thin brass, and is clamped at any desired division on the scale by means of a screw.

The scale passes through a slit in a piece of steel, with which it is connected by a screw, forming a pivot on which the scale can vibrate laterally. This piece of steel terminates in pivots, by means of which the pendulum is sup ported on the seat attached to the gun, and is at liberty to vibrate in the direction of the axis of the piece.

The seat is of metal, and is fastened to the base of the breech by screws, so that the centres of the steel pivots of vibration shall be at a distance. The height of this sight of a is equal to the dispart of the piece, so that a line joining the muzzle-sight and the pivot of the tangent-scale is parallel to the axis of the piece. An instrument made of sheet-brass; the lower part is cut in the form of a crescent, the points of which are made of steel; a small spirit-level is which fastened to one side of the plate, parallel to the line joining the points of the crescent, and a slider is fastened to the same side of the plate, perpendicular to the axis of the level.

What is it used for? To mark the points of sight on pieces. A simple line and bob for pointing mortars. It is a graduated quarter of a circle of sheet-brass of 6 inches radius, attached to a brass rule 22 inches long. It has an arm carrying a spirit level at its middle, and a vernier at its movable end. To get a required elevation, the vernier is fixed at the indicated degree, the brass rule is then inserted in the bore parallel to the axis of the piece; the gun is then elevated or depressed until the level is horizontal.

There is another graduated quadrant of wood, of 6 inches radius, attached to a rule It has a plumb-line and bob, which are car-. It is an arc attached to the rear part of the cheek of a gun-carriage, having its centre in the axis of the trunnions; the arc is graduated into degrees and parts of a degree. By placing the axis of the piece horizontal, and marking the breech at any of the divisions on the arc, any elevation or depression required will be noted by the number of degrees below or above this mark. It turns on a pivot which admits of the arc, when not in use, being placed inside the cheek to which it is attached.

What is the use of the cascable? Of what use are the trunnions of a piece? By means of them the piece is attached to its carriage; and by being placed near the centre of gravity, it is easily elevated or depressed. What are the dolphins of a piece? Are all pieces provided with dolphins? Only the pdr. What is understood by the preponderance of a piece? It is the excess of weight of the part in rear of the trunnions over that in front; it is measured by.

Why is this preponderance given? To prevent the sudden dipping of the muzzle, In firing, and violent concussion on the carriage at the breech. What is bushing a piece of artillery? Inserting a piece of metal about an inch in diameter near the bottom of the bore , through the centre of which the vent has been previously drilled. It is screwed in. What kind of metal is used for bushing bronze pieces? Pure copper always, which is not so liable to run. What is the object of bushing a piece? To prevent deterioration of the vent, or provide a new one when this has already occurred.

Is all new artillery bushed? How are vents replaced? The vent-piece in bronze and rifled pieces is taken out, and a new one screwed in. In other pieces the vent is filled up by molten zinc, clay being placed on the head of a rammer, and pressed against the upper surface of the bore, so as to close the vent on the interior, and a new one is bored two or three inches from the first. How is artillery rendered unserviceable?

Drive into the vent a jagged and hardened steel spike with a soft point, or a nail without a. Wedge a shot in the bottom of the bore by wrapping it with felt, or by means of iron wedges, using the rammer or a bar of iron to drive them in. Cause shells to burst in the bore of bronze guns. Fire broken shot from them with large charges. Fill the piece with sand over the charge, to burst it.

Fire a piece against another, muzzle to muzzle, or the muzzle of one to the chase of the other. Light a fire under the chase of a bronze gun, and strike on it with a sledge, to bend it. Break off the trunnions of iron guns; or burst them by firing them at a high elevation, with heavy charges and full of shot. State how to unspike a piece. In a brass gun, take out some of the metal at the upper orifice of the vent, and pour sulphuric acid into the groove, and let it stand some hours before firing.

If this method, several times repeated, is not successful, unscrew the vent piece if it be a brass gun; and if an iron one, drill out the spike, or drill a new vent. Explain how to drive out a shot wedged in the bore? Unscrew the vent piece, if there be one, and drive in wedges so as to start the shot forward, then ram it back again in order to seize the wedge with a hook; or pour in powder, and fire it after replacing the vent piece.

In the last resort, bore a hole in the bottom of the breech, drive out the shot, and stop the hole with a screw. Explain how to use a piece which has been spiked? Insert one end of a piece of quick-match into the cartridge, the other being allowed to project from the muzzle. Apply the fire to the match and get out of the way. When quick-match of sufficient length is not at hand, insert one end in the cartridge, the other projecting in front of the shot, and throw two or three pinches of powder into the bore, after they are rammed home.

Place another piece of match in the muzzle, one end projecting out. The fire is applied without danger. Wh at is sealing a piece of artillery? How are cannon of the old model in our service marked? As follows, viz. How are the new pieces marked? What marks are used to designate condemned pieces? Pieces rejected on inspection are marked X C on the face of the muzzle; if condemned for erroneous dimensions which cannot be remedied, add X D; if by powder proof, X P.

What are the kinds of proof which artillery must undergo, before being received into the service? By means of engines, an endeavor is made to force water through them. They are examined internally, by means of light reflected from a mirror. Are brass cannon liable to external injury, caused by service. What are the causes of internal injury? Internal injuries are caused by the action of the elastic fluids developed in the combustion of the powder, or by the action of the shot in passing out of the bore.

These effects generally increase with the calibre of the piece. Name the principal injury of the first kind? The cutting away of the metal of the upper surface of the bore over the scat of the shot. Name those of the second kind? The lodgment of the shot,— a compression of the metal on the lower side of the bore, at the seat of the shot, which is caused by the pressure of the gas escaping over the top of the shot. There is a corresponding burr in front of the lodgment; and the motion thereby given to the shot causes it to strike alternately on the top and bottom of the bore, producing other enlargements, generally three.

Scratches, caused by the fragments of a broken shot, or the roughness of an imperfect one. When is a piece said to be honeycombed? When the surface of the bore is full of small holes and cavities. To what is this due? How may the durability of bronze guns be increased? In field guns, both bronze and iron, the paper cap which is taken off the cartridge should always be put over the shot. To what injuries are iron cannon subject? To the above defects in a less degree than brass, except the corrosion of the metal, by which the vent is rendered unserviceable from enlargement.

The principal cause of injury to iron cannon is the rusting of the metal producing a roughness and enlargement of the bore, and increase of any cavities or honeycombs which may exist in the metal. How may you judge of the service of an iron gun! Generally by the appearance of the vent.


After about rounds the vent, becomes enlarged to 0. In rifled guns the wear of the vent is about twice as great as in smooth bore guns. Cannon should be placed together, according to kind and calibre, on skids of stone, iron, or wood, laid on hard ground well rammed and covered with a layer of cinders or of some other material to prevent vegetation.

In case of guns and long howitzers, the pieces should rest on the skids in front of the base ring and in rear of the astragal, the axis inclined at an angle of 40 or 50 with the horizon, the muzzle lowest, the trunnions touching each other; or the trunnion of one piece may rest on the adjoining piece, so that the axis of the trunnions may be inclined about to the horizon; the muzzle closed with a tompion or plug of dry wood, well saturated with oil or grease; the vent down, stopped with a greased wooden plug, or with putty or tallow.

The pieces may be piled in two tiers, with skids placed between them exactly over those which rest on the ground - the muzzles of both tiers in the same direction and their axes preserving the same inclination. In case of short howitzers and mortars, the pieces should stand on their muzzles, resting on thick planks, the trunnions touching, the vents stopped. What additional precautions should be observed in case of iron pieces? The lacker should be renewed as often as necessary, and the grease at least once a year.

The lacker and grease should a applied in hot weather. The cannon should be frequently inspected, to see that moisture does not collect in the bore. What are GUNS? Long cannon without chambers. How are guns denominated! What are the principal parts of a gun? The cascable, breech, reinforce, chase and muzzle. What proportion usually exists between the length and calibre of a gun? It varies from 15 to 27 calibres. What is the natural angle of sight in smooth-bore siege and garrison guns?

One degree and thirty minutes. What is it in smooth-bore field guns? One degree in all except the new pdr. Why have sea-coast guns no natural line of sight? Because the swell of the muzzle is not visible when the eye is on a level with the base-ring. NOTE—A natural line of sight may be formed by affixing.

Upon what are guns mounted? On field, siege, barbette or casemate carriages. What projectiles are used with guns? About what are the weights of the different guns? Give the entire length of the several guns. A chambered piece, of larger calibre than a gun of like weight, and mounted in a similar manner. That of a cylinder. How is it united with the large cylinder of the bore? By a conical surface, except in the 8-inch siege howitzer, where it is united with the cylinder of the bore by a spherical surface, in order that the shell may—when necessary—be inserted without a sabot.

What advantages are gained by the employment of howitzers? What projectiles are used with howitzers? Shells usually, spherical case, canister, grape and carcasses. Give the entire length of the several howitzers? Iron inch, What is the weight of a howitzer of each kind? What is the natural angle of sight in siege and garrison, and field howitzers? One degree. What in mountain howitzers? Thirty-seven minutes. Why have sea-coast howitzers no natural line of sight? Because the swell of the muzzle is not visible when the eye is on a level with the base ring.

How are howitzers denominated? Either by the weight of the solid shot they would carry, or by the diameter of the bore in inches. A gun of much larger calibre than the ordinary gun, used for throwing solid shot, shells, spherical case, or canister. What are some of the peculiarities of this gun, when mounted in barbette? Its carriage gives a vertical field of fire from 50 depression to elevation; and a horizontal field of fire of Are these pieces chambered?

Give the weight of this piece? What is the entire length of this gun? What is the natural angle of sight in this piece? NOTE—The great difference between the diameters of the reinforce and muzzle, rendering it impracticable to place an artificial sight on the muzzle, a projection is cast on the upper side of the columbiad, between the trunnions, as a seat for the front sight.

The shortest piece in service; the trunnions are placed in rear of the vent at the breech; the bore is very large in proportion to the length, and is provided with a chamber. What are the principal advantages obtained By the employment of mortars? What do you mean by vertical fire? That produced by firing the mortar at a high elevation:. What are its advantages? Why are mortars constructed stronger and shorter than other pieces? Why is a mortar constructed with a chamber? In consequence of employing various charges, some very small, it becomes necessary to use a chamber to concentrate the charge as much as possible, so that the shell may be acted on by the entire expansive force of the powder.

What form of chamber is given to mortars? That of a frustum of a cone. The bottom is hemispherical in the sea-coast mortar. What is this form of chamber called? Gomer Chamber. What is the advantage of the conical over the cylindrical chamber? Cylindrical chambers are objectionable, as the projectile is frequently broken in consequence of the small surface exposed to the action of the charge. How are mortars designated? Usually by the diameter of the bore in inches. H ow are mortars mounted? On beds of wood or iron. Those for the new model mortars are made of wrought iron. What is the object of mounting mortars on beds in preference to wheel carriages?

On account of the high elevation at which they are usually fired, when the recoil, instead of forcing the piece backwards, tends to force it downwards, and this tendency becomes so great at the higher angles that no wheel-carriage could long sustain the shock. W hat is the entire length of each mortar? What are the weights of mortars? What are the weights of the different mortar beds?

What is the diameter of the bore of the coehorn mortar? What is the length of the bore of the different mortars? What is the length of the chamber of. For what was the eprouvette used? To what purpose was a stone mortar applied? To throw stones a short distance, from to yards; and also 6-pr. NOTE—The firing of 6 or pdr. The fuzes of the shells are cut, driven, uncapped, and the shells placed in tiers in the barrel, the fuzes turned down. The last tier Is covered over with hay, which is rammed to keep the projectile in place. In what manner were the stones disposed in this mortar?

They were put into a basket fitted to the bore, and placed on a wooden bottom which covers the mouth of the chamber. What use is made of coehorn mortars? What kind of projectiles are thrown from mortars t. Shells, fire-balls, and carcasses. How rapidly may siege mortars be fired? At the rate of twelve rounds per hour continuously; and in case of need with greater rapidity. PART 1. On barbette, casemate, flank casemate, and columbiad carriages; and the carriage upon which the mortar is mounted—called its bed. What number and kind of pieces are required for the armaments of forts on the seaboard?

In our service they are prescribed by the War Department, according to t e character and extent of the work. What disposition should be made of heavy and light pieces in a fortification? Heavy pieces should be employed on the salients of the work, or for enfilading channels where a long range is required; light pieces, where the range is shorter.

How are siege-guns mounted? Usually on travelling-carriages, with limbers. Of what number and kind of pieces is a siege-train composed?

Instruction for heavy artillery;

For pdr. For For in. For 8-in mortars,. Mortar-wagons, 1 for each in, mortar and bed,. Park battery-wagons, fully equipped,. Park forges,. Sling-carts, large,. For each. Total, about 1, horses. Round-shot, to each 24 pdr. Grape and canisters strapped, 20 rounds to each piece. Spherical-case strapped, 20 rounds to each piece.

Shells, to each 8-in, howitzer. Canisters strapped, 5 to each. Gunpowder, in barrels, , lbs. Computing for each pdr. What is the best position for guns in order to make a breach? On the glacis, within 15 or 16 feet of its crest; but if the foot of the revetment cannot be seen from thence, the guns must be placed in the covered way, within 15 feet of the counterscarp.

In what manner should the fire of siege-guns be conducted in order to form a breach? Make a horizontal section the length of the desired breach along the scarp, at one-third its height from the bottom of the ditch, and to a depth equal to the thickness of the wall. Fire at the most prominent parts of the masonry left standing; beginning always at the bottom and gradually approaching the top. Fire into the broken mass with howitzers until the breach is practicable. Breaches of more than 20 yards in length have been opened by way of experiment, and rendered practicable in less than ten hours, by about two hundred and thirty pdr.

One of them pieces was mat bellow and the other mild under the direction of captain Rodman of the Ordnance. In consequence of the action of the elastic force of the piece, due to the combustion of the powder. In enlarging the vent, the sieges have had new vents bored in them some 7 or 8 times. What regulates the selection of the kinds of artillery and the proportion of the different kinds in the train? Similar considerations to those specified in the foregoing answer. The following principles may be observed in ordinary cases:. What is a field-battery?

A certain number of pieces of artillery so equipped as to be available for attack or defence, and capable of accompanying cavalry or infantry in ail their movements in the field. How many pieces are allotted to a field-battery? Four guns and two howitzers. Are all field-batteries alike? No; field-batteries accompanying infantry are composed of the heavier, and those accompanying cavalry of the lighter pieces, the first manned by foot-artillery, and the latter by horse-artillery.

In what respect does a battery of horse artillery differ from one of foot artillery? The main difference consists in the cannoneers in a battery of horse-artillery being mounted; in rapid evolutions of foot-artillery they are conveyed on the carriages. What is the composition of a field-battery on the war establishment? For howitzers………….. Whole No. NOTE—For two pdr. What is the composition of a battery of mountain howitzers!

Forge and tools, in 2 chests,. Pack saddles and harness,. Horses or mules,. What determines the quantity of such supplies! How is the ammunition which cannot be transported by the batteries carried? With the park; in caissons, or in store-wagons. Do any other carriages and stores form part of the Field-Park? Yes; spare gun-carriages, one to each field-battery,.

Travelling Forges,. Spare spokes, 50 to each battery,. Spare Jellies, 20 to each battery,. Are any other pieces ever used for field service? Yes: sometimes the 12 and pdr. For what particular service are these different pieces most suitable? The siege pieces for batteries of position; the pdr. What are the peculiar advantages of Horse Artillery? Possessing, from their lighter construction and mounted detachments, much greater locomotive powers than other field-batteries, they are especially adapted for following the rapid evolutions of cavalry, for sudden attacks upon particular points, and for supporting the advance or covering the retreat of an army.

How is a field gun mounted? Upon a four-wheel carriage, which answers for its transportation as well as for its service, similar to a siege carriage, but lighter, and the limber carrying an ammunition chest. Where should a battery be placed before the commencement of an action? Is it advisable to move a battery at once into action in the field? No; but if unavoidable, it should be masked as much as possible until ordered to open its fire.

How should a battery lie masked? It practicable, by covering it with cavalry, in preference to infantry, as the former does it more effectually, and is sooner moved out of the way. In commencing an action, how should the of a battery be directed? When the enemy is in line, the fire should be directed over the whole line, and not upon the real points of attack; but when in column, ready to advance, it should be concentrated upon the real points of attack. How should batteries be placed in relation to the troops with which they are acting?

Upon the flanks of a line, but at such a distance as not to impede its movements, and at the same time to be unfettered in their own; the artillery may thus represent the faces of a bastion, and the line of troops the curtain. In supporting an attack, what precautions are necessary? The battery should be carefully kept clear of the Intended line of march of our own troops, and such points occupied as may afford the greatest annoyance to the enemy. Generally so as to secure a cross fire on his position, and on all the ground over which he moves to the attack, endeavoring to take him at all times In the direction of his greatest dimensions; that is, obliquely or in flank when in line, and in front when formed in columns.

Should the fire of field-batteries be carried n at the same uniform rate? Certainly not; the destruction of the enemy be-. Should the fire of field-batteries be carried on in salvoes or otherwise? Never in salvoes; but in a regular manner, well sustained, and with distinct intervals between every round, commencing slowly, and increasing in rapidity as the range diminishes.

Is the fire of batteries more efficacious when dispersed than when concentrated? The effects of the fire will be in proportion to the number of guns brought together, and therefore, in order to strike a decisive blow, this should at once be done. What projectiles are used with field guns? Solid shot, spherical case, and canister. At what distance from the enemy should the several kinds of projectiles be employed with field battery pieces? Solid shot from yards and upwards; spherical case from up to yards, although It may be used within the first range; and canister within yards, or up to against extended formations.

What number of rounds can be fired from a field gun in one minute? Two solid shot or spherical case, or three of canister. Why are more rounds of canister fired in a minute than of solid shot or spherical case! Because the latter are fired at greater distances. What is the smallest number of guns that may with safety be employed in the face of an enemy? Is the practice of employing field-batteries against those of the enemy recommended? Their fire should be directed principally against columns of attack, and masses, or upon positions which are intended to be carried.

In what time could a battery come into action into action in the field? Suppose cavalry to be advancing to attack infantry, and first observed at the distance of a mile , passing over the first half mile at a trot; the next quarter of a mile at the maneuvring gallop, and the remaining distance at an increased gallop, terminating with the charge; occupying altogether about six minutes: during the last yards of their advance how many rounds per piece might a battery fire in that time!

Eleven rounds with effect, thus:. From to yards. What number of rounds could a battery. Thirty-six rounds with effect, viz. From to Wherever the best cross fire can be obtained order to obstruct and harass him as much as possible; and if he has succeeded in passing over portion, of his troops, it should be directed against their formation. When the enemy is making the passage of a river in retreat, where should your guns be posted. In such a position as to bear upon the batteries that cover the retreat, and also upon his bridges.

In forcing the passage of a river what is most advantageous position for artillery? The bridge being generally laid in a re-entering angle, batteries should be posted on each side of bridge, and far enough from it to secure a cross-fire on the opposite bank. Upon no account; ammunition should at all times be carefully husbanded, particularly at the commencement of an action, as the want of it at the close may decide the fate of the day; it should also be sparingly used in skirmishes and minor.

When should the reserve be employed? When a particular point of the line requires additional support, a favorable position is to be seized, an impression has been made on the line by the enemy, a forward or retrograde movement is in contemplation, or when a determined attack is to be made on him, then the reserve should came up and take part in the action; and it is of the utmost importance that this should be done as expeditiously as circumstances will permit. Where should the reserve be placed previous to an engagement? In rear with the second line, out of the range of shot, and as little exposed as circumstances will admit, but always in such a position as to have ready access to the front or rear.

Should guns be lightly abandoned before an enemy? What is the position for cavalry when placed in support of a battery? What is the proper position of field-Batteries when infantry squares are attacked by cavalry! Should the detachments be driven from their guns, they will retire into the square, after discharging their pieces, and taking with them the sponges and other equipments; the moment the enemy has retired, they recommence their fire.

To point a piece, is to give it such a direction and elevation, or depression, that the allot may strike the object; and the rule except in case of mortars is: First give the direction and then the elevation, or depression. When a shot is fired from a piece, by how many forces is it acted on? By three. The impulsive force of the powder, which urges it forward. The resistance of the air, which tends to stop it. The force of gravity, which causes it to descend. Why is it necessary to give a certain degree of elevation to a piece? Because a shot describes under the action of the above forces a curve called a trajectory, which is situated below the prolongation of the axis of the piece, the extent of its departure from this line increasing with the time of flight.

Therefore, the more distant the object, the greater must be the elevation to enable the shot to reach it. How is the direction given to a gun or howitzer? By directing the line of metal upon the object. How is the elevation or depression given? The elevation or depression, which depends upon the charge, the distance, and the position of the object above or below the battery, must be ascertained from tables or by experiment, and the proper degree given by means of instruments.

When will the object be struck by merely directing the line of metal upon it? But in one case—when it is at point-blank distance. How must the line of metal be directed for all ranges less than the point-blank range, in order to strike it? So as to pass below the object. Give a simple rule for firing at objects within point-blank.

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Add to the point-blank range the difference between it and the required range, set the scale to the elevation corresponding to this sum, as shown by tables of faring. Then aim the gun directly at the object; now apply the scale, and observe where the visual ray of the scale strikes the ground, and having noted this point, aim the gun directly at it.

How must the line of metal be directed for ranges greater than the point-blank range, in order to strike it? Above it. When the line of metal passes over the object, what instruments must be employed for giving the proper elevation? How is the quadrant used? After the direction has been given, the quadrant. How is the breech-sight used? It is first set to the elevation corresponding to the distance; it is then applied to the highest point of metal on the base-ring, and by the elevating screw, or quoin, the notch of the breech-sight, the highest point on the swell of the muzzle, and the object, arc brought in the same line.

What is a line thus determined called?

What we do

An artificial line of sight. In the absence of instruments, how may the elevation be given? By placing one or more fingers of the left hand upon the base-ring, perpendicular to the axis, and using them as a breech-sight. Should the line of metal be always directed in the vertical plane passing through the object? If the shot be so placed in the bore that its centre of gravity be to the right of the axis, the deviation will be to the right; if to the left of the axis, the deviation will be to the left; if placed above, the range will be increased, and If below, diminished.

It is found that a projectile, from this cause, will deviate to the right, in the northern hemisphere, no matter in what direction it is fired, the distance depending on the latitude of the place, and on the range and time of flight. A inch shell of lbs. Is the line of metal a permanent line under all circumstances? No; in batteries for garrison and sea-coast defence, where the platforms are fixed, the line of metal may be considered as nearly permanent; but with siege guns, which are mounted on travelling carriages, the wheels of which arc liable to vary in position from unevenness of ground, or unequal settling in newly constructed platforms, this line is constantly changing.

When the elevation or depression has once been ascertained for any given distance, how may the firing at that distance be facilitated? By noting some point on the elevating screw or quoin; adjusting some fixed measurement from a point on the stock to another point on the under side of the breech; or by a chalk mark drawn across the face of a trunnion and its corresponding cheek. When firing either within or beyond point-blank range, may remarkable points on the ground be taken advantage of, in order to furnish an object to aim at?

Yes; some fixed object may often p resent itself which will serve as a point upon which to direct the line of metal. No means should be neglected that may tend to secure accuracy of aim; fort he shot that is thrown away by carelessness in pointing, had better not be thrown at all. How may precision of fire be secured at sight? In case of a barbette carriage, the traverse wheels should be chocked in the proper. Should night-firing with GUNS be limited? Yes; it should be limited to a small number of rounds, as it consumes ammunition to little advantage.

What is the rule for pointing mortars? First give the elevation, and then the direction. How is the elevation given? By applying the quadrant to the face of the piece, and adjusting the quoin until the required number of degrees is indicated. No; because mortars are usually masked from the object to be struck, by an epaulment or parapet.

To determining practically two fixed points, which shall be in line with the piece and the object, and sufficiently near to be readily distinguished by the eye. These points being covered by the plummet, determine a vertical plane, which, when including the line of metal, becomes the plane of fire. What is the simplest manner of directing the mortar? By means of pointing-wires.

Describe this method? The points being thus established, the direction is given to the mortar, by causing a plummet held in rear of it, to cover the wires and the line of metal. In what respects is this method defective? Both in accuracy of aim, and the liability of the wires being deranged by the shots of the enemy or by other causes. Give a better method. By means of pointing-stakes, by which one of the fixed points is established upon the crest of the parapet or at the foot of the interior slope, and another in rear of the piece.

How are the stakes planted? To this stake the cord is temporarily attached, and stretched by the first stake, just grazing it, to a point on the ground, one yard in rear of the platform. At this point a third stake is driven. The cord is removed from. How is the mortar directed?

The cord is stretched to the rear stake, and as near the muzzle band as possible, with the left hand, while the plummet is suspended against it with the right; or the plummet may be attached to the cord, just in rear of the mortar. The line of metal is then brought into the plane of these two lines. Because the cord, the plummet, and the line of metal, are evidently in the vertical plane of fire. What is done in case the shell should strike constantly to the right or left of the object? The pointing cord is shifted to some notch on the pointing board, to the right or left, until the shell falls at the desired point.

Describe the pointing board. When not in use, the pointing cord may be wound on it. The mortar being placed upon the middle of the platform, the gunner mounts upon it, and suspend the plummet in front of the muzzle, covering the object. Where the plummet thus suspended cuts the crest of the epaulment, the first stake is driven. A second stake is then driven in the same line be-. The first stake is then removed, and the cord attached permanently to the second stake.

When the object cannot be seen from the mortar, owing to the interposition of some obstacle, as a parapet or a hill, two persons in sight of each other, one of whom faces the mortar, and the other the object, must by successive changes of position, place themselves in the vertical plane of fire, and at the points thus determined, stakes must be driven, one of which will serve as the object.

How may precision of fire be secured at night with mortars? PART Ill. What is the charge of a piece of artillery? The powder with which it is loaded. What is the ordinary service charge of powder for heavy guns? One-fourth the weight of the shot. One-sixth the weight of one shot. What is the breaching charge? One-third the weight of the shot. What kind of charges are used in hot shot firing? Small charges from one-fourth to one-sixth the weight of the ball. For what reason? To what depth should hot shot penetrate? Not deeper than ten or twelve inches.

In ricochet firing, what kind of charges are used? Light charges generally ; varying from two-thirds to one-eighth of the ordinary charge. In what manner are the charges of mortars regulated? The charges vary with the elevation; or if the elevation be fixed at any particular angle, they must be determined by the range. What are the charges for field guns and field howitzers? See Table, page What are the charges for heavy guns, columbiads, and howitzers? What charge is used for projecting fire balls from mortars? One twenty-fifth the weight of the ball.

For shot For spher. For shells lbs. The distance from the muzzle to the first graze. How may the range of a projectile be extended without increasing the charge of powder? In three modes, viz. In what does the French definition for point-blank range differ from ours? It requires that the natural line of sight should be horizontal. What is the British definition for point-blank range? The distance from the muzzle to the first graze when the axis of the piece is parallel to the plane upon which the carriage stands.

ABcF, the line passing through the highest points of the base ring and swell of the muzzle, or the muzzle band, or the top of the sight if there be one, is called the natural line of sight. EPeG is the axis of the piece or line of fire; the curved line PgD, described by the projectile, is called the trajectory, and is entirely below the line of fire, in consequence of the action of the force of gravity giving the projectile a downward tendency. The point D is called the point blank, and its distance from the mouth of the piece, the point-blank range.

Mention some of the causes which vary the point-blank range. The form of the cannon; the weight or force of the charge; the diameter and weight of the projectile; and the inclination of the line of sight to the horizon. Why has the form of the cannon an influence on the point-blank range? What influence has the charge on the point-blank range? How do the diameter and weight of the projectile affect the range?

As the ball increases in size and density, it will overcome with more ease the resistance of the air. Does the inclination of the line of sight to the horizon have much effect on the point-blank range? For the ordinary inclination, from 0 0 to 15 0 , above or below the horizon, the difference may be wholly neglected.

What is the effect on the point-blank range of firing upwards under a large angle? The contrary effect obtains in firing downwards under a similar angle, as the weight and the force then act in nearly the same direction. The dimensions, charges, and weights of projectiles, being constant, and the inclination of the natural line of sight, except in a very few cases, being comprised between 0 0 and 15 0 , it follows that for the same calibre, the point blank may be considered constant, and may serve as a point of reference in firing at different distances.

What is the extreme range of a piece of artillery? For a given velocity what effect has an increase of the angle of fire on the range? It increases with the angle of fare up to a certain limit, beyond which it diminishes. Forty-five degrees. When will this angle give the maximum range in practice? Only for feeble charges, and very heavy projectiles. How is the angle of greatest range in practice affected by a change in the velocity and size of the projectile?

It seems to diminish as the velocity is increased, and as the ball is reduced. For the musket the angle of maximum range varies from 28 0 to 30 0 and is nearly 42 0 for mortars. Under what angle is a mortar usually fired? Under the constant angle of 45 0 , and the charge is varied according to the range required. What are the advantages of this practice? Is the mortar ever fired at any other angle than 45 0?

Yes; sometimes at 60 0. NOTE—In this case the range is about one-tenth less than that due to an angle of 45 0. When is the mortar fired tinder an angle of 60 0? It is evident that projectiles the higher they are thrown up acquire more velocity in falling, besides striking the object more directly and with increased violence. Under what angle were stone-mortars usually fired? Under an angle of 60 0 , and sometimes of 75 0 ; that, in falling from a great height, the stones might have the maximum force of percussion.

With four men. In this case, No. With three men. When No. The transportation of a ] li-. Charges, etc. The ordiiiary service charge of powder for heavy guns is one-fourth the weight of the shot. For tiring doultle shot it is one-sixth that weight. The breach- ing charge is one-third the weight of the shot. When, however, the piece has been fired so often that the ball has caused a lodcj- ment in the bore, it is well to use wads differing In length, according to the position and extent of the lodgment, between the shot and the cartridge.

Hay Avads may be made by twisting hay into a rope of about one inch in diameter, folding it together of any desired length, and then winding the folds from one end to the other, leaving a wad a little larger than the bore. Breaching Batteries. Breaching Batteries established against walls are, First. To make a horizontal section the length of the desired breach along the scarp, at one-third its height from the bottom of the ditch, and to a depth equal to the thickness of the wall.

To make vertical cuts through the wall, not farther than ten yards apart, and not exceeding one to each piece; beginning at the horizontal sec- tion, and ascending gradually to the top of the wail. To fire at the most prominent points of the masonary left standing; beginning always at the bottom, and gradual! To fire into tiic broken mass with how- itzers until the breach is practicalde.

Rapidity of Firing. As many as twenty an hour have been niudo for sixteen conseoutivo hours. Penetration of Shot. I"C ;. Service of an S-itich Siege Jlou'iizcr, mounted on a 2-i-pdr. Plate VII. Handspikes Sponoe and Ram- mer Haversack Tube-pouch Five men arc necessary : one gunner, and four other cannoneers. The piece is in battery upon its platform. The implements, etc.

On props, eighteen inches behind and parallel to the cannoneers of the right, the sponge-head turned toward the epaulment. Containing fuzes, a jiair of sleeves, and a priming-wire, bent at right angles at the point, for with- drawing the cartridge used in instruction. Suspended from the knol of the cascable.

Containing friction-tubes, and the lanyard wound in St. Sus- pended fron the knob of the cascable. Gunner's pouch. Chocks Vent-cover. In u basket, or on a shelf, against the epauhnent, outsitle of and near the handsjiikes of the left. On the end ofthe hurter, near No.

One on each side of the piece, near the ends of the hurter. Covering the vent. In the muzzle. Under the breech. One shell and one bombazine cartridge-bag for in- Blruction — the bag tilled with sawdust, and having loo s of thread at the ehoke end—are at the maga- zine, or other sale plaee in i-ear of the piece. The gunner, receiving his from No. The other handspikes are held, laid down, and resumed, as prescribed in Nos.

The gunner directs No. The instructor causes the service of the piece to be executed by the following commands : 1. From rattkry. The gunner moves two paces to his right. All being ready, the gunner gives the command IIk. He sees that Nos. Jjond hy detail —Loap. The gunner jilaces himself near the stock, as in No. Witiidrawing the tongs, he makes a face and a half to liis left on the right heel, and puts the hooks of the tongs into the ears of the shell, which he lifts and holds about two feet from the ground, whilst No.

If the ] ieec is to he fired horizontally, or at an anijlo of depression, No. The gunner ] ricks, leaving the j riniing-wire in the vent, and resumes his post. In battery. As soon as the wheels touch the hurter, he commands J1. All unliar, and resume their posts. If the piece is to be fired point-hlank, horizontally, or at an angle of depression, lie does not apply the breedi-sight. If the piece is masked from the object fired at, he ] laces himself astride the stock, or in rear of the trail, and gives the direction by the plummet.

Xumhrr one or the liko Fiiik. Wliut is prt'HCTibcd in No. To unload. To scrape the piece. To cea. ART I. To serve the piece with reduced numbers. Executed as in No. Tlic transportation of an S-inch siege howitzer requires eight horses and four drivers. Greatest charge of powfler 4 lbs. Charpc of the shell filled with powder 2 Ih?. Bursting charge of the shell 1 lb. Charge to hlow out the fuze 4 oz. Weight of the shell filled with b'ullcts f. See Tal. If the amniunition for howitzers is to be pre- pared and issued l. Thev are Kent to the mairaziiie. Containini; fiizo-phiirs.

Low HI. For stoppers. Of bombazine. To Jill he cartridifis. The cartridges thus tilled are placed upright in a box until tied, when they are transported to the budgo- barrel. This wad is made by laying wisjts of hay evenly togother so as to form a cylimU'r nearly of t lie diamo- ler of the cartridge-bag. The wad is tied aiiout an inch from each end, and the ends are cut scpiarcly olf, so as to presi-nt an even surface to the j ow ler.

In To prepare the shells. If the shell is to bo loaded with bullets or incen- diary composition, it is charged before the fuze-plug is driven. It should contain about three hundred and twenty bullets, and one pound and a quarter of powder. If tilled only Avith powder.

The shells thus differently charged are kept separate. Service of a lO-inrh Siege Mortar. Tlu' mortar is upon its platform. The implements, ete. Containing fuzes, and a jtair of sleeves. Andrew's cross ujton its handle. Attached to the tompion, and iN'ing upon the mortar. At- tached to the tomjiion, anti lying ujion the mortar. Quoin With the basket. Under the mortar upon tlie l olstor, its handle to the left.

To the same battery there will be one hammer-wrench. One shell and one paper cartridge-bag for instruc- tion, are at the magazine or other safe place in rear of the piece. The cannoneers having been marched to their posts, the instructor directs them to place their mus- kets against the cpaulment,and then explains to them the names and uses of the implements, and the nomen- clatures of the mortar, its bed, and the battery.

To cause the pointing-stakes to be established in position, the instructor commands : Plant the pointing-stakes. The gunner, assisted by Xos. The gunner lays the slack of the pointing-cord at the foot of the epaulnient, leaving the plummet at tho stake in rear of tiic piece. All resume their posts. To cause the implements to be distributed, the instructor comniunds : Take implkments. I tlie sleeves and the wi] er; to No. All take their hands ikes.


The handspikes are held as in No. When laid down, they are returned, except in one ease, to their places on the nianteuvring-bohs. As soon as the piece is on the middle of the platform, he commands IIalt. All unbar, and re- sume their posts. The gunner, taking the scraper, places himself in front of the muzzle, and scrapes the bore and chamber draws out the 8cra] ings with the spoon ; returns the scraper to the basket; and again places himself at the muzzle, one yard in its front.

While No. In carrying the shell they hold the handspike with their right haiuls. Parsing by the left of the piece, between the gunner and the muzzle, they rest the shell upon the platform against the mid- dle of the transom. The gunner advances the left foot, and places the left hand upon the face of the piece ; introduces the 5 The gunner steps forward, and with the left hand over the handspike, tlie right hand under and nearer to it, seizes the shell-hooks and assists to lower the shell gent I ' into its place. Tlie gunner adjusts the shell so that the fuze is in the axis of the ] iece ; throws the shell- hooks to their jdacc behind No.

Iliturning the uadiant to the basket—Nos. To throic the mortar to the left. When all arc ready, the gunner gives the commands Heave—Steady. The cannon- eers remain unbarred until he gives some other com- mand, or makes the signal to unbar. To throic the mortar to the right. To throir the viuzzle to the left. To throw the trail to the left. The muzzle or trail is thrown to the right, in a simi- lar manner to the preceding, by Nos.

The direction having been given, the gunner gives the word Ready, and makes a signal with both hands; leaves the plummet at the stake; returns the ] ointing- cord to the foot of the epaulment; and goes to the windward to observe the effect of the shot. Number one or the like Fiuk. As soon as the shot strikes, he resumes his po8t. What is prescribed in No. To continue the exercise, the instructor causes the piece to be moved toward the rear of the jjlatform, directs Nos.

Executed as in Nos. To secure piece and replace implements. To discontinue the exercise, the instructor, hav- ing ordered the firing to cease, and caused the j ieco to be jjlaced as at the c-ommand 1. The gunner receives the implements from the cannoneers, and replaces them between the cheeks. One mortai'-wagon is allowed to each inch siege mortar and bod ; to transport which, requires eight horses and four drivers.

Greatest charge of powder 4 lbs. Range, charge 4 lbs. Range, charge. With a charge of onr tirmty-Jifth of its weight, the ball is thrown from -ix hundred to seven hundred j'ards. See Tables in Part Til. To prepare ammxtnition. Their duties at the magazine are similar to those pre- scribed in No.

The shell hrini; first ehargcd, the fuze, cut ut the right lenjjth, is then driven. It may be cut with a knife to any desired length. Time of flight. The exi erimental length of yie fuze may bo given according to this rule. To ascertain the distance by the report of fire-arms. Multijily the nniiiber of seconds which elaj se between seeing the flash and hearing the report by ; the product will be nearly the distance in feet. Siege mortars can be Hred conveniently at the rate of twelve rounds an hour continuously ; but they may, in case of need, be fired with greater rapidity. Service of an S-inch Siege Mortar.

Three men are necessary : one gunner, and two otlicr cannoneers. The mortar is upon its platform. They arc arranged as proscribed in that number. The wad is in the basket. The instruction for this piece is the same as that prescribed in Lesson III, with the following modifica- tions : At the command Take implements, No. At the command In battery. At the eommand Load. I having wiped out the mortar, places the wiper upon the stake; pricks; and, if necessary, sweeps the platform.

The gntiner. At the signal from the gunner, No. One inortar-wijgon will carry three S.

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To prepare its ammunition, and to transport it by hand Avith ease, two additional men are required. The gunner carries the basket and implements. It is fired either from behind intrenchments. As the shell is without ears, it should be strapped with tin. The chamber being cylindrical, a sponge is used, which is handled by No. Cbarfrr of Ihc nhcll fillivl with powder 1 lb. Kn 1 ,r. See Tables in rail Service of a inch Sea-coast Mortar.

Plate IX. Five men are necessary : one gunner, and four other cannoneers. Tlie implements,. They are arranged as pre- scribed in that number, except that the sponge is S laced upon props one yard behind No. The instruction for this piece is the same as that prescribed in Lesson III, with the following modifica- tions : No. To scrape the bore, and to put in the cartridge and shell, the gunner mounts upon a block in front of the muzzle.

To lift the sliell into the muzzle. Ill ;rivin;r the elevation. Hi'fore jtrimin;;. See Tables in Pari Service of a IS-mch Sea-coast Mortar. Five men are necessary: one gunner, and four other cannoneers. The instruction for this piece differs in no respect from that prescribed in Lesson VI. See Tables in Part ill. N VI Tl o mortar is upon its plattbrm. Tlio iniploinciits, otc.

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With fifteen G-jxlr. As the shells are liable to hurst on leaving the bore, llie j iece is fired by a slow match applied to a train of quick match, giving the men tinie to place themselves under cover. Service of a gun mounted on a barbette carriage. The instruction for a barbette gun, although in many respects precisely the same as that for a siege gun, is given in full, because the siege gun is seldom found in the forts on the seaboard.

The piece is in battery. Two on each side of the carriage, leaning against the parajiet, in line with the cannoneers. One yard beliind the cannoneers of the right, the sponge upper- most, the sponge and ranimer- h. Against the parapet, outside of the pile of balls. Gl'Nnkb'8 pouch.. Contninin;; friction tubes, and the lanyard, wouml in St. Andrew's cross upon its handle. Sus- ] ended from the knob of the caseable.

One on each side of the piece, at the foot of the parapet, insido the handspikes. ToMPioN In the muzzle. Leanin;; against the parapet, out- side ol' the pile of balls. Containing cartridges, at the safest and most convenient place in rear of the piece. When several guns are served together, tiiere will bo- only ono gunner's level and two vent-punches to each battery not exceeding six pieces.

To the same battery there will be one icorm, one ladle, and ono trrrnch. The bulls are regularly j iled on the banquette, on the left of the piece. The wads are placed between the parapet and the bulls, partly resting on them. The cannoneers having been marched to their posts, the instructor explains to them the names and uses of the implements, and the nomenclatures of the gun, its carriage, and the battery. To cause the implements to bo distributed, the instructor commands : Take implements.

The gunner mounts upon the tongue; takes otf the vent-cover, handing it to No. When the cannoneer la3's down his handspike, he places it dirccth" before him, about six inches in advance of. The instructor causes the service of the piece to be executed by the following commands: 1. From battery. As soon as the face of the piece is about one yard from the parapet, he commands Halt.

All unbar, and resume their posts. In order that Nos. The gunner mounts upon the tongue of the chassis, placing the left foot about six inches from the rear transom of tlie gun-carriage, and breaks well to the rear with the right foot, the toe to the right; closes the vent with the second finger of the left hand, bend- ing well forward to cover himself by the breech ; and turns the elevating-screw with the right hand, so as to adjust the piece conveniently for loading. They insert the sponge as far as the hand of No. Iri motion.

They slide the hands along the staff, and seize it at arm's length. They force the sponge down as prescribed in the fir. They repeat the second motion. If in executing these motions, or the corresponding ones, with the rammer, it be found that the sponge or rammer is at home at the third or fourth motioji, then what is prescribed for the fifth motion will be per- formed at the third or fourth.