At least tentatively the answer seems to be yes. Either coming from God in creation, or arising by the process of naturalistic evolution—take your pick as to which of those you think is correct—some universal characteristics seem to by shared by all humans. Some scenes and motifs—some examples are mother with child, hero overcoming adversity and succeeding, demise of the arrogant or the oppressor—appeal nearly universally, as do certain musical intervals and harmonies.
The philosopher Denis Dutton identified seven universal signatures in human aesthetics: . Increasingly, academics in both the sciences and the humanities are looking to evolutionary psychology and cognitive science in an effort to understand the connection between psychology and aesthetics.
It is not uncommon to find aesthetics used as a synonym for the philosophy of art, but others haver realized that we should distinguish between these two closely related fields. Further it is clear that even the basic meaning of the term "art" has changed several times over the centuries, and has changed within the twentieth century as well. Often, if the skill is being used in a lowbrow or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art, yet many thinkers have defended practical and lowbrow forms as being just as much art as the more lofty forms. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way it may be considered design, rather than art, or contrariwise these may be defended as art forms, perhaps called "applied art.
Even as late as it was normal in the West to assume that all art aims at beauty, and thus that anything that wasn't trying to be beautiful couldn't count as art. Perhaps as in William Kennick's theory no definition of art is possible anymore.
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Perhaps art should be thought of as a cluster of related concepts in a Wittgensteinian fashion as in Morris Weitz or Joseph Beuys. This "institutional definition of art" has been championed by George Dickie. Most people did not consider the depiction of a Brillo Box or a store-bought urinal to be art until Andy Warhol and Marcel Duchamp respectively placed them in the context of art i.
Proceduralists often suggest that it is the process by which a work of art is created or viewed that makes it art, not any inherent feature of an object, or how well received it is by the institutions of the art world after its introduction to society at large. For John Dewey , for instance, if the writer intended a piece to be a poem, it is one whether other poets acknowledge it or not.
Whereas if exactly the same set of words was written by a journalist, intending them as shorthand notes to help him write a longer article later, these would not be a poem. Leo Tolstoy , on the other hand, claims that what makes something art or not is how it is experienced by its audience, not by the intention of its creator. Functionalists like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether or not a piece counts as art depends on what function it plays in a particular context; the same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context carrying wine , and an artistic function in another context helping us to appreciate the beauty of the human figure.
Art can be confusing and difficult to deal with at the metaphysical and ontological levels as well as at the value theory level. When we see a performance of Hamlet, how many works of art are we experiencing, and which should we judge? Perhaps there is only one relevant work of art, the whole performance, which many different people have contributed to, and which will exist briefly and then disappear. Perhaps the manuscript by Shakespeare is a distinct work of art from the play by the troupe, which is also distinct from the performance of the play by this troupe on this night, and all three can be judged, but are to be judged by different standards.
Perhaps every person involved should be judged separately on his or her own merits, and each costume or line is its own work of art with perhaps the director having the job of unifying them all. Similar problems arise for music, film and even painting. Am I to judge the painting itself, the work of the painter, or perhaps the painting in its context of presentation by the museum workers? These problems have been made even thornier by the rise of conceptual art since the s.
It would be a mistake to praise Warhol for the design of his boxes which were designed by James Harvey , yet the conceptual move of exhibiting these boxes as art in a museum together with other kinds of paintings is Warhol's. His execution of the concept in the medium? The overall result? Our experience or interpretation of the result? Ontologically, how are we to think of the work of art? Is it a physical object? Several objects? A class of objects? A mental object? A fictional object? An abstract object? An event? Those questions no longer seem to have clear or unambiguous answers.
Many goals have been argued for art, and aestheticians often argue that some goal or another is superior in some way. Clement Greenberg, for instance, argued in that each artistic medium should seek that which makes it unique among the possible mediums and then purify itself of anything other than expression of its own uniqueness as a form. Affirm the cleanliness of the individual after the state of madness, aggressive complete madness of a world abandoned to the hands of bandits. Closely related to the question of what art should be like is the question of what its value is.
Is art a means of gaining knowledge of some special kind? Does it give insight into the human condition? How does art relate to science or religion? Is art perhaps a tool of education, or indoctrination, or enculturation? Does art make us more moral? Can it uplift us spiritually? Is there some value to sharing or expressing emotions? Might the value of art for the artist be quite different than it is for the audience?
Might the value of art to society be quite different than its value to individuals? Do the values of arts differ significantly from form to form? Working on the intended value of art tends to help define the relations between art and other endeavors. Art clearly does have spiritual goals in many settings, but then what exactly is the difference between religious art and religion per se? But is every religious ritual also a piece of performance art, so that religious ritual is a subset of art? The answer seems to be yes. We have examples of pre-historic art, but they are rare, and the context of their production and use is not very clear, so we can do little more than guess at the aesthetic doctrines that guided their production and interpretation.
Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Greece had the most influence on the development of aesthetics in the West. This period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of corresponding skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions.
Ancient Greek philosophers initially felt that aesthetically appealing objects were beautiful in and of themselves. Plato felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, harmony, and unity among their parts. Similarly, in his Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order, symmetry, and definiteness.
Surviving medieval art is highly religious in focus, and was usually funded by the Roman Catholic Church, powerful ecclesiastical individuals, or wealthy secular patrons. Often the pieces have an intended liturgical function, such as altar pieces or statuary. Figurative examination was typically not an important goal, but being religiously uplifting was. One reason for the prevalence of religious art, including dance, theater, and other performance arts during the medieval period, was that most people were illiterate and such art presentations were used to teach them the content of their religion.
Reflection on the nature and function of art and aesthetic experiences follows similar lines. As the medieval world shifts into the Renaissance art again returns to focus on this world and on secular issues of human life.
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The philosophy of art of the ancient Greeks and Romans is re-appropriated. From the late seventeenth to the early twentieth century Western aesthetics underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism.
German and British thinkers emphasized beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, and saw art as necessarily aiming at beauty. For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the sense experiences, a younger sister of logic , and beauty is thus the most perfect kind of knowledge that sense experience can have. However, beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. For Friedrich Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature.
Latin Poetry and the Judgement of Taste: An Essay in Aesthetics by Charles Martindale - tyruvyvizo.cf
For Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel all culture is a matter of "absolute spirit" coming to be manifest to itself, stage by stage. Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest immediately to sense-perception, and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty.
For Arthur Schopenhauer aesthetic contemplation of beauty is the most free that the pure intellect can be from the dictates of will; here we contemplate perfection of form without any kind of worldly agenda, and thus any intrusion of utility or politics would ruin the point of the beauty. The British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic camps.
The intuitionists believed that aesthetic experience was disclosed by a single mental faculty of some kind. For the Earl of Shaftesbury this was identical to the moral sense, beauty just is the sensory version of moral goodness. For philosopher Francis Hutcheson beauty is disclosed by an inner mental sense, but is a subjective fact rather than an objective one. Analytic theorists such as Lord Kames, William Hogarth, and Edmund Burke hoped to reduce beauty to some list of attributes. Hogarth, for example, thought that beauty consists of 1 fitness of the parts to some design; 2 variety in as many ways as possible; 3 uniformity, regularity or symmetry, which is only beautiful when it helps to preserve the character of fitness; 4 simplicity or distinctness, which gives pleasure not in itself, but through its enabling the eye to enjoy variety with ease; 5 intricacy, which provides employment for our active energies, leading the eye "a wanton kind of chase"; and 6 quantity or magnitude, which draws our attention and produces admiration and awe.
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Later analytic aestheticians strove to link beauty to some scientific theory of psychology such as James Mill or biology such as Herbert Spencer. The challenge, issued by early twentieth century artists, poets and composers, to the assumption that beauty was central to art and aesthetics led, in response, to various attempts since then to define a post-modern aesthetics. George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities.
All Categories. Home Books. Quantity 1. Easy Returns Free returns on eligible items so you can shop with ease. Secure Shopping Your data is always protected. Book Description This book argues for a new attention to the importance of beauty and the aesthetic in our response to poetry. Charles Martindale explores ways in which Kant's aesthetic theory, as set out in the Critique of Judgement, remains of fundamental importance for the modern critic.
He argues that the Kantian 'judgement of taste' is not formalist, and explores the relationship between the aesthetic and the political in our responses to art. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue.
- C. Martindale and R. F. Thomas (eds), Classics and the Uses of Reception;
- Seminaire Bourbaki, 34, 1991-1992 - Exp.745-759;
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SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Life, love and death in Latin poetry : studies in honor of Theodore D. Responsibility edited by Stavros Frangoulidis and Stephen Harrison. Language English, Latin, Greek, Ancient to Cited texts in Latin and Greek accompanied by English translation. Series Trends in classics. Supplementary volumes ; v.
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