Translation into Portuguese, Translation into Croatian in preparation. Translation into Korean in preparation. Hall, Fann and Donald Clark Hodges, eds. Imperialism , Porter-Sargent, November 21 In my capacity as one of four founding editors I have been involved in every aspect of creating and maintaining a journal, including issue development, article selection, review, editing, editorial writing, and writing, as necessary, commentaries and introductions for articles.
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Dilthey had dreamt of completing Kant's famous triad with a fourth Kritik , namely, a critique of historical reason. This becomes apparent in the last phase of his work. Sartre had long been fascinated with the French novelist Gustave Flaubert. In this work, Sartre joins his Existentialist vocabulary of the s and early s with his Marxian lexicon of the late s and s to ask what we can know about a man in the present state of our knowledge.
These features doubtless contributed to his being awarded the Nobel prize for literature, which he characteristically refused along with its substantial cash grant lest his acceptance be read as approval of the bourgeois values that the honor seemed to emblemize. In his last years, Sartre, who had lost the use of one eye in childhood, became almost totally blind. Like Husserl and Heidegger, Sartre distinguished ontology from metaphysics and favored the former. In his case, ontology is primarily descriptive and classificatory, whereas metaphysics purports to be causally explanatory, offering accounts about the ultimate origins and ends of individuals and of the universe as a whole.
Unlike Heidegger, however, Sartre does not try to combat metaphysics as a deleterious undertaking. He simply notes in a Kantian manner that it raises questions we cannot answer. It begins by analyzing two distinct and irreducible categories or kinds of being: the in-itself en-soi and the for-itself pour-soi , roughly the nonconscious and consciousness respectively, adding a third, the for-others pour-autrui , later in the book. Being-in-itself and being-for-itself have mutually exclusive characteristics and yet we human reality are entities that combine both, which is the ontological root of our ambiguity.
The in-itself is solid, self-identical, passive and inert. One can see why Sartre is often described as a Cartesian dualist but this is imprecise. The principle of identity holds only for being-in-itself. The for-itself is an exception to this rule. The category or ontological principle of the for-others comes into play as soon as the other subject or Other appears on the scene.
The Other cannot be deduced from the two previous principles but must be encountered.
Praxis is dialectical in the Hegelian sense that it surpasses and subsumes its other, the practico-inert. Thus speech acts would be examples of praxis but language would be practico-inert; social institutions are practico-inert but the actions they both foster and limit are praxes.
The Other in Being and Nothingness alienates or objectifies us in this work Sartre seems to use these terms equivalently and the third party is simply this Other writ large. The concepts of praxis, practico-inert and mediating third form the basis of a social ontology that merits closer attention than the prolix Critique encourages. Sartre's gifts of psychological description and analysis are widely recognized.
His early studies of emotive and imaging consciousness in the late s press the Husserlian principle of intentionality farther than their author seemed willing to go.
For example, in The Psychology of Imagination , Sartre argues that Husserl remains captive to the idealist principle of immanence the object of consciousness lies within consciousness , despite his stated goal of combating idealism, when he seems to consider images as miniatures of the perceptual object reproduced or retained in the mind. If emotion is a joke, he warns, it is a joke we believe in. These are all spontaneous, prereflective relations. They are not the products of reflective decision.
Yet insofar as they are even prereflectively conscious, we are responsible for them. And this raises the question of freedom, a necessary condition for ascribing responsibility and the heart of his philosophy.
tyruvyvizo.cf : sartre
But it would be better to speak of it as criterion-constituting in the sense that it grounds the set of criteria on the basis of which our subsequent choices are made. It resembles what ethicist R. Sartre's use of intentionality is the backbone of his psychology. And his psychology is the key to his ontology that is being fashioned at this time.
In fact, the concept of imaging consciousness as the locus of possibility, negativity and lack emerges as the model for consciousness in general being-for-itself in Being and Nothingness. That said, it would not be an exaggeration to describe Sartre as a philosopher of the imaginary, so important a role does imaging consciousness or its equivalent play in his work. Sartre was a moralist but scarcely a moralizer. His earliest studies, though phenomenological, underscored the freedom and by implication the responsibility of the practitioner of the phenomenological method.
Thus his first major work, Transcendence of the Ego , in addition to constituting an argument against the transcendental ego the epistemological subject that cannot be an object central to German idealism and Hussserlian phenomenology, introduces an ethical dimension into what was traditionally an epistemological project by asserting that this appeal to a transcendental ego conceals a conscious flight from freedom. Authenticity is achieved, Sartre claims, by a conversion that entails abandonment of our original choice to coincide with ourselves consciously the futile desire to be in-itself-for-itself or God and thereby free ourselves from identification with our egos as being-in-itself.
In our present alienated condition, we are responsible for our egos as we are for any object of consciousness. The former is egoistic, Sartre now implies, where the latter is outgoing and generous. This resonates with what he will say about the creative artist's work as a gift, an appeal to another freedom and an act of generosity. It is now common to distinguish three distinct ethical positions in Sartre's writings.
The first and best known, existentialist ethics is one of disalienation and authenticity. It assumes that we live in a society of oppression and exploitation. The former is primary and personal, the latter structural and impersonal. As Merleau-Ponty observed, Sartre stressed oppression over exploitation, individual moral responsibility over structural causation but without denying the importance of the latter. Admittedly, it does seem compatible with a wide variety of life choices.
We could say that authenticity is fundamentally living this ontological truth of one's situation, namely, that one is never identical with one's current state but remains responsible for sustaining it. The former is the more prevalent form of self deception but the latter is common to people who lack a sense of the real in their lives. Sartre sometimes talks as if any choice could be authentic so long as it is lived with a clear awareness of its contingency and responsibility. But his considered opinion excludes choices that oppress or consciously exploit others.
In other words, authenticity is not entirely style; there is a general content and that content is freedom. Sartre's thesis is that freedom is the implicit object of any choice, a claim he makes but does not adequately defend in his Humanism lecture. In fact, his entire career could be summarized in these words that carry an ethical as well as a critical message.
As he grew more cognizant of the social dimension of individual life, the political and the ethical tended to coalesce. It purports to question many of the main propositions of his ethics of authenticity, yet what has appeared in print chiefly elaborates claims already stated in his earlier works.
But since the tapes on which these remarks were recorded are unavailable to the public and Sartre's illness at the time they were made was serious, their authority as revisionary of his general philosophy remains doubtful. If ever released in its entirety, this text will constitute a serious hermeneutical challenge. He emerged committed to social reform and convinced that the writer had the obligation to address the social issues of the day.
He founded the influential journal of opinion, Les Temps modernes , with his partner Simone de Beauvoir, as well as Merleau-Ponty, Raymond Aron and others. After a brief unsuccessful attempt to help organize a nonCommunist leftist political organization, he began his long love-hate relationship with the French Communist Party, which he never joined but which for years he considered the legitimate voice of the working class in France.
This continued till the Soviet invasions of Hungary in Still, Sartre continued to sympathize with the movement, if not the Party, for some time afterwards. Each suspended his or her personal interests for the sake of the common goal.
No doubt these practices hardened into institutions and freedom was compromised once more in bureaucratic machinery. But that brief taste of genuine positive reciprocity was revelatory of what an authentic social existence could be. Sartre came to recognize how the economic conditions the political in the sense that material scarcity, as both Ricardo and Marx insisted, determines our social relations.
Raymond Aron: 30 years on
In Sartre's reading, scarcity emerges as the source of structural and personal violence in human history as we know it. Never one to avoid a battle, Sartre became embroiled in the Algerian War, generating deep hostility from the Right to the point that a bomb was detonated at the entrance to his apartment building on two occasions by supporters of a French Algeria. Sartre's political critique conveyed in a series of essays, interviews and plays, especially The Condemned of Altona , once more combined a sense of structural exploitation in this case, the institution of colonialism and its attendant racism with an expression of moral outrage at the oppression of the Muslim population and the torture of captives by the French military.
Mention of the play reminds us of the role of imaginative art in Sartre's philosophical work. Sartre often turned to literary art to convey or even to work through philosophical thoughts that he had already or would later conceptualize in his essays and theoretical studies. Which brings us to the relation between imaginative literature and philosophy in his work. And this is what existentialism is chiefly about: challenging the individual to examine their life for intimations of bad faith and to heighten their sensitivity to oppression and exploitation in their world.
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Sartre's early work Nausea is the very model of a philosophical novel. Its protagonist, Roquentin, works through many of the major themes of Being and Nothingness that will appear five years later. It can be read as an extended meditation on the contingency of our existence and on the psychosomatic experience that captures that phenomenon.
In his famous meditation on a tree root, Roquentin experiences the brute facticity of its existence and of his own: both are simply there, without justification, in excess de trop. But if not that, how is it to be indexed? Rather, being accompanies all phenomena as their existential dimension.
But this dimension is revealed by certain experiences such as that of the utter contingency which Roquentin felt. This is scarcely rationalism, but neither is it mysticism. Anyone can experience this contingency and, once brought to reflective awareness, can ponder its implications. In a series of essays published as What is Literature? Though steeped in the polemics of the day, this continues to be a seminal text of criticism.
The artwork, for Sartre, has always carried a special power: that of communicating among freedoms without alienation or objectification. In this sense, it has stood as an exception to the objectifying gaze of his vintage existentialist texts. By the time he gathers these thoughts in What is Literature?
Sartre, sex and philosophy jostle as de Beauvoir centenary looms
It is offered as an example of positive reciprocity in the political realm. In other words, Sartre's political and ethical values and concerns conjoin in the concept of committed literature. Each of these studies constitutes a form of existential psychoanalysis. While connecting impersonal historical phenomena in their dialectical necessity for example, the unintended consequences ingredient in any historical account , these narratives are intent on conveying the subject's sense of the anguish of decision and the pinch of the real.
In effect, biography is an essential part of an existentialist approach to history and not a mere illustrative appendage. Foucault once dismissed Sartre testily as a man of the nineteenth century trying to think the twentieth. With his emphasis on consciousness, subjectivity, freedom, responsibility and the self, his commitment to Marxist categories and dialectical thinking, especially in the second part of his career, and his quasi Enlightenment humanism, Sartre seemed to personify everything that structuralists and poststructuralists like Foucault opposed.
A classic example of philosophical parricide.