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With UNHCR assistance, authorities established three shelters; these quickly filled in , leaving later arrivals to seek accommodation elsewhere, including in makeshift campgrounds. In response to the arrivals, many business owners initially welcomed the growing market for rice and sugar. Some workers, however, claim that they are unable to compete with the low wages paid to Venezuelans, leading politicians to worry that they might lose elections as a result of an anti-immigrant backlash.

Italians in Brazil: The Post-World War II Experience by Gloria La Cava - tyruvyvizo.cf

In early February , President Michel Temer doubled the number of soldiers at the Venezuelan border, to , indicating a shift toward treating this refugee inflow as a national security issue. Yet recent economic stagnation has slowed this trend: Just 94, foreigners arrived in , down from , in , a 23 percent decrease. In May , following a year of political turmoil, the National Congress unanimously approved a new migration law designed to replace the Statute of the Foreigner, which treated immigrants as threats to national security.

The legislation established rules against discrimination and xenophobia, and gave immigrants the right to unionize and participate in political demonstrations. Pressure from conservative politicians, security forces, and extreme right-wing activists led Temer to veto various components of the law, including a provision offering resident status to all foreigners who arrived before July , regardless of arrival conditions.


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Temer also vetoed the provision that would have exempted naturalized Brazilians from the military service technically required of all male citizens, if they had previously served in another country. The legislation, in its final version, shifted the focus from migrant rights back to dictatorship-era national security concerns.

As a result of the legislation, and the stagnating economy, foreigners may evaluate migration to Brazil differently than in the past. Today, as in the past, immigration is not just about wages or short-term safety. Ethnicity, how individuals imagine their new lives, and the connection between personal identity and national citizenship are at play when people decide to migrate.


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  • Tensions are on the rise as more refugees arrive in a country that promotes a supposed lack of racism. Meanwhile, a recent analysis of 11, Brazilian newspapers and magazines from to showed that refugees have throughout history been predominantly portrayed negatively and as a national problem.

    Italian Brazilians

    Given long-term trends, it comes as little surprise that refugees from Haiti and recent immigrants from Africa have been the victims of xenophobic and occasionally physically violent attacks in multiple cities. This suggests that some immigrant and refugee groups—Venezuelans, Cubans, Angolans, Haitians, and Syrians, for instance—may find acculturation as much a challenge as others did historically. Barreto de Campos, Gustavo. Available online.

    Brazil Foreign Ministry.

    Portal Consular: Brasileiros No Mundo. Accessed December 18, Brasil: Anos de Povoamento. Buechler, Simone. Latin American Perspectives 31 3 : Channel NewsAsia.

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    Channel NewsAsia , May 20, Ferreira Levy, Maria Stella. G1, December 13, Jardim, Denise Fagundes. Lesser, Jeffrey. Lopez, Mariana, and Nick Miroff.

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    Washington Post , January 1, Lorentz, Anna. Columbia East Asia Review 6: Margolis, Maxine L. Moreira, Julia Bertino. Muggah, Robert.


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    The Conversation, February 12, Nogueira, Maria Beatriz, and Maiara Folly. The Guardian , June 15, Pereira, Elvis. Folha De S. Paulo , June 16, Puff, Jefferson. BBC Brasil, August 15, Reuters, February 8, Rolnik Xavier, Iara.

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    Schreiber, Mariana. BBC Brasil, January 29, Sousa, Viviane. Globonews, May 4, Tobace, Ewerthon. The Brazilians Winning in Japan. BBC News, July 17, Brazil Declaration and Plan of Action.

    Demographic trends

    Accessed January 11, Venezuela Situation. Uribe, Gustavo and Bruno Boghossian. Inbunden Engelska, Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. Following World War II, Italy underwent a major social crisis owing to an unprecedented unemployment rate. Cesare Battisti, a former leftwing guerrilla fighter, was returned to Italy earlier this month after having taken refuge in Brazil. In his onslaught last week, Di Maio also accused France of manipulating the economies of African countries that use the West African CFA franc as their currency, thus stifling their development and prompting mass migration to Europe.

    The renewal of a friendship pact between France and Germany last week is another potential catalyst for worsening relations.