Aerospace power can contribute to the air defence mission by delaying, disrupting, or destroying the launch platform ship, submarine, aircraft, or UA before it launches a weapon. Deconfliction zones must be established around the fleet to delineate a transition from this airborne defence to a ship-based defence. In this way, the maximum effectiveness of all defensive weapon systems is ensured and blue-on-blue engagements can be avoided.
These zones will normally be based on the longest range, ship-based anti-air weapon. DCA operating areas are established at an appropriate range beyond this zone along the threat axis. Picket ships may also be positioned up-threat of the force to act as either a passive or active tripwire. These are normally smaller units such as frigates, possessing effective point-defence and radar systems but no area-defence weaponry. ASW denies an adversary the effective utilization of their submarines. The ASW protection of a force depends on the defence in depth and close coordination between ships, aerospace assets, shore-based facilities, and friendly submarines.
Submarines are a significant strategic threat to shipping of all types, and countering this threat demands an extensive range of specialized capabilities to search for a submarine, localize, track, and then attack it. Blocking key avenues of subsurface approach also called barrier operations , sanitizing a vital area through constant patrolling, and prosecuting submarines located by subsurface arrays are examples of ASW operations.
In the Canadian context, the maritime helicopter MH is the only aircraft organic to the ship. These operations can be done independently or in cooperation with other air, surface, and subsurface assets; the most effective ASW team is actually a combination of MH, LRPA, and submarines. The long range and endurance of an LRPA is critical to its ability to conduct these missions.
Close coordination between maritime and air assets as well as sound water and airspace management through effective deconfliction measures are essential to the ASW battle. This can be accomplished either independently of, or jointly with, land-component operations. Aerospace counter-land operations produce effects in the short, medium, and long terms by delaying, diverting, disrupting, or destroying adversarial forces in close proximity to friendly forces, or follow-on forces, before they can be brought to bear.
Aerospace counter-land operations enable friendly manoeuvre and freedom to attack while denying an adversary the same. Aerospace forces are generally unconstrained by battlespace boundaries and the topographical limitations that hamper land force manoeuvre and sensors. Aerospace counter-land missions can be executed by a variety of aerospace platforms; some are purpose built for the mission such as the A Thunderbolt II or Su Frogfoot , but almost any air asset fixed and rotary wing, manned and unmanned with a counter-land force application capability can be utilized.
Aerospace power is fundamental to the success of the land battle, and when true integration of aerospace and land capabilities is achieved, mission success is likely to follow. Dedicated air and aviation specialists embedded within the headquarters and operational elements of supported land forces are key to achieving synergy and effective integration. The level of coordination required to successfully integrate and conduct the mission largely defines the type of counter-land mission undertaken. Aerospace component commanders must be intimately aware of ongoing surface operations and their rationale.
For the supporting aerospace force this means a comprehensive understanding of the aims, intent, plans, and objectives of the supported land force commander. For the supported land force, this means a detailed knowledge of the strengths, constraints, limitations, and capabilities of the supporting aerospace force. This mutual understanding is fostered by integrated liaison, detailed joint planning, and effective communication.
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Each layer is operationally subordinate to higher-level detachments. The TACP has two principal roles:. The G3 Avn detachments have similar responsibilities as mentioned above for the TACP; however, they are primarily focused on providing advice and C2 assistance for rotary-wing RCAF tactical aviation assets. ALOs may represent any specific aerospace asset or capability which may not be satisfactorily represented by either the TACP or the G3 Avn detachment, or in some instances, one or more ALOs may be the only aerospace coordination element provided to a specific land formation or unit.
Attack helicopters are examples of aviation assets which normally belong to an army. In the Canadian context and similar to the RCAF MH force which is considered an organic air asset of the RCN, the 1 Wing tactical aviation force [ 14 ] is the RCAF element whose primary function is "to support land force operations through the provision of aerial firepower, reconnaissance and mobility.
Certain tactical aviation operations include elements of both the Shape and Move sub-functions. Air assault operations, defined as "airmobile operations in which combat forces land within direct fire range and conduct an assault," [ 16 ] imply the use of a mix of air assets and normally involve transport helicopters supported by armed helicopters or other aerial fire support assets. In broad terms and in the Shape context, aerospace forces have four missions in the counter-land battle: air interdiction AI , aerial fire support, tactical security, as well as direction and control of fire.
AI is distinct in that it requires a much lower level of integration with friendly land forces than the other missions. The remaining counter-land missions occur in closer proximity to land forces and, therefore, demand varying degrees of integration, specialized procedures, proficient crews, and specially trained ground personnel.
Counter-land missions require significant planning and coordination at the operational and tactical levels as well as significant levels of support from enabling resources such as air C2, AAR, and others. Similar to OCA and DCA in the counter-air context, different counter-land missions can often be accomplished by the same platforms and draw upon common resources. The four missions, however, are distinct with respect to the targeting process, TTP, and degree of integration with surface forces.
Interdiction attack is a term which aviation assets integral to land forces use to describe their AI-related missions and tasks. The AI mission reflects the flexible and lethal nature of aerospace power. An effective AI campaign must be directed by a single commander who can exploit and coordinate all the forces involved. This may be conducted in support of surface operations or as a main effort against an adversary without the presence of friendly land forces.
When integrated into a ground campaign, AI is used to channelize movements, disrupt logistics and communications, and deny terrain. AI can have a profound effect on the morale of an adversary and may lessen the requirement for ground combat.
The AI mission can be conducted by a range of aerospace platforms including fixed-wing, rotary-wing, and unmanned assets. In the joint counter-land battle, land commanders [ 20 ] will nominate specific targets, either individually or as target sets, for the respective phase of a campaign. Once approved, these targets will be integrated into a joint prioritized target list JPTL , and deliberate AI targets will be assigned to the available AI assets.
AI missions can also be planned within a geographic area where lucrative targets are known or suspected to exist. The area may be defined by geographic boundaries or other spatial dimensions. In this case, aircrew would be tasked to locate, identify, and attack valid targets of opportunity in the assigned area.
In this instance, specific targets are assigned dynamically, using time-sensitive or dynamic targeting procedures. XINT can be an inefficient use of resources unless there is an abundance of assets and only a small number of pre-planned deliberate targets available. This condition is typical of the late stages of an aggressive and successful AI campaign. Aerial fire support includes two main mission subsets: close air support CAS , which is traditionally associated with fixed-wing assets, and close combat attack CCA , which is a rotary-wing mission that is very similar to CAS in terms of effect but quite different in terms of execution.
Vignette 8: Broken Arrow.
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Both belligerents were surprised by the presence of the other; fighting along a hasty and irregular front erupted upon first contact. Throughout the early morning, PAVN forces probed the American lines while their main fighting force moved into position; the all-out assault on the American position began at Enemy fire was intense and evacuation or resupply by helicopter impossible.
As the battle intensified, it was clear the perimeter was in danger of collapsing. The battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Hal Moore his command position now receiving direct fire , transmitted the phrase "Broken Arrow," code signifying that a US unit is about to be overrun. All available aerospace power in the theatre either airborne or on ground alert was immediately dispatched to the battle area. This included bombers, fighters, gunships, and attack helicopters and amounted to a substantial amount of firepower. Their attack blunted and casualties mounting, Vietnamese forces withdrew at after two-and-a-half hours of fierce fighting; hundreds of dead PAVN infantry littered the battlefield.
It is estimated that more than 60 per cent of the Vietnamese casualties from the battle occurred during this engagement. The CAS mission is "air action against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. The term "close" does not strictly entail a physical distance; rather, it is situational, and proximity may relate to time, space, or effect. Therefore, the determining factor as to whether CAS techniques and protocols should be used is the need for detailed integration rather than proximity.
CAS missions ordinarily target adversarial combat elements and are one of the most flexible and dynamic force-application means available on the modern battlefield. The firepower and mobility of aircraft can make an immediate and direct contribution to the land battle, especially against targets that are either inaccessible or invulnerable to available surface weapons.
CAS can be used to rapidly mass a lethal capability at decisive points in order to achieve local ground superiority or as a flexible reserve, allowing the commander to take advantage of battlefield opportunities. CAS effects can be kinetic or non-kinetic, [ 27 ] and as such, CAS should not be considered as simply another type of artillery.
CAS has applications across the spectrum of ground operations, including offence, defence, stability, and enabling operations. The key factor to success of the CAS mission is detailed integration between each air mission as well as the fire and movement of the supported surface forces. This minimizes the risk of fratricide while achieving maximum effect. CAS control requires specially trained and experienced ground personnel; these personnel are authorized and accredited by the air component commander to integrate aerospace fires.
These personnel may be attached to surface formations as a TACP or be integral to the land unit as in the case of a forward air controller FAC. Effective CAS also demands a high level of friendly control of the air; CAS is much less effective in cases where adversarial counter-air capability exists.
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Pre-planned CAS missions are scheduled and planned via the air tasking order ATO planning process but must always be reactive to the dynamic situation on the ground. Close combat attack is a rotary-wing mission defined as "coordinated attack by armed aviation against targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces. In land force terminology, firepower is viewed as a joint concept; it encompasses the collective and coordinated use of target acquisition data from all sources, the use of direct and indirect fire weapons, attacks by armed aircraft of all types, and the use of both lethal and non-lethal means.
Tactical aviation resources may contribute to the firepower function as independent manoeuvre elements or may add their fires to those of the ground commander. Tactical aviation units enhance the firepower function by acquiring and designating targets, adjusting indirect fire, and directly engaging targets. CAS and CCA are largely synonymous in that they both apply kinetic and non-kinetic force in support of friendly ground forces across the spectrum of land operations.
Each demands detailed integration with, and occurs in close proximity to, friendly forces. CCA procedures differ from CAS in control methodology and in the tasking process that assigns the mission to assets. Any armed rotary-wing asset may execute the CCA mission. These assets may have a direct command relationship with the supported land force unit, and the provision of CCA may only be one of a series of fire support tasks assigned.
In terms of tasking, a CCA mission will not be identified as such on the ATO; the helicopter tasking will normally be much more generic, allowing the supported commander greater tactical freedom. In terms of control, the CCA crew is assigned a target and then conducts the attack relatively independently of the controller. By contrast, fixed-wing CAS missions are controlled quite rigidly. Tactical security includes the armed overwatch and aerial escort missions.
While the gathering of information about an adversary is primarily an element of the Sense function, these missions provide early warning, manoeuvre space, and protection for the main body, which are elements of both Shield and Shape. A tactical security mission is an ISR operation that is focused on providing protection for a specified force.
The advent of new sensor technologies—in particular, electro-optical devices coupled with video downlink capabilities—has enhanced ISR capabilities and their application in the battlespace. Tactical security missions use ISR TTP but they are sufficiently distinct; thus, it remains useful to define them separately. A wide variety of aerospace assets can be tasked to conduct these missions, from helicopters to UA armed and unarmed , LRPA, and fighters.
The armed overwatch mission can be considered part of the aerospace Shield function, but as it often involves the potential of offensive as well as defensive action, it is considered here as part of the aerospace Shape sub-function. These missions may be executed over any type of terrain and in all weather conditions; however, missions involving urban centres present unique hazards and substantial challenges. Normally, in built up areas, there are more obstructions and fewer landing spots for helicopters. Communications between land and aerospace forces may be interrupted by buildings or high ground.
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Traffic presents unpredictable hazards and may obscure otherwise predictable threats. The use of force in urban areas also comes with substantial collateral damage challenges and rules of engagement ROE considerations. Aerial convoy escort, one specific type of armed overwatch, operates in close proximity to both the route of advance and the convoy itself and requires close coordination between the aerial escort and the ground convoy. Armed overwatch missions routinely demand highly dynamic use of airspace and air C2, sound intelligence, and comprehensive surveillance.
Vignette 9: Griffon armed overwatch. The M, with its precise, high volume of fire, is an ideal anti-personnel weapon in a counter-insurgency environment such as Afghanistan, where the enemy is dismounted and often in close proximity to civilians. Armed overwatch tasks fall broadly into two types: deliberate—where Griffon crews plan the mission in advance with the supported ground forces and develop a common understanding of terrain, threat, and ground scheme of manoeuvre—and hasty—where crews respond to a developing situation such as an improvised explosive device IED strike resulting in a troops in contact situation—and are initially handicapped by limited situational awareness SA.
Standard configurations saw each aircraft equipped with one sensor and two miniguns with ammunition. Additionally, one of the aircraft would be TCDL tactical common data link equipped and thus able to downlink its video to a ROVER receive-only video enhanced receiver station.
The section lead immediately asks for a grid reference, and the ground unit responds. The aircrew can hear the crack of a rocket-propelled grenade explosion and automatic weapons firing in the background of the radio call.
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Each MX operator immediately inputs the grid into the sensor system, slews their sensors onto that location, and starts recording the video for later intelligence and operations analysis. The GWT, en route to the troops in contact, calls the patrol and requests the enemy location be marked with smoke.
On the way, the GWT section lead conducts a quick scan of the tree line, seeing that the intervening field is empty and confirming there are no locals caught in the crossfire. Personnel from all countries developed, planned and practiced tactics, techniques and procedures during various wartime scenarios. IAF pilots practiced with the other air forces in air-to-air and ground-to-air combat scenarios, as well as several aerial refueling scenarios under fire.
With growing military ties between the two countries, a group of Israeli combat pilots took part in a joint training seminar with RAF Typhoon pilots last year. Amikam Norkin and visited several bases. Ein-Dar told the Post that flying in UK airspace also had a significant meaning.
Jerusalem Post Israel News. By Anna Ahronheim. Share on facebook Share on twitter. Related Content. This Army and Marine Corps multiservice publication serves as doctrinal reference for the employment of mortar squads, sections, and platoons. It contains guidance on tactics and techniques that mortar units use to execute their part of combat operations described in View Product. ATP This manual provides This publication provides a starting point from which commanders can adjust their battery tasks It replaces Field Manual FM CreateSpace Publishing.