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Mitch Hodge and Paulo Sousa. By: Pascal Boyer. By: Quinton Deeley. By: Ingela Visuri. By: Harvey Whitehouse. By: E. Thomas Lawson. By: Hugh Bowden. By: Esther Eidinow. By: Yulia Ustinova. By: Panayotis Pachis. By: Olympia Panagiotidou. By: Luther H. By: Ekkehart Malotki. By: Peter Jackson Rova. By: Ella Paldam. By: Mikael Rothstein. By: Sylvia Marcos. He has published extensively on Second Temple Judaism, including early Christ-religion, and theoretical and methodological matters, including The Emergence and Evolution of Religion: By Means of Natural Selection , co-authored with Jonathan Turner et al.

Routledge She has published extensively on ancient and modern religion with a focus on early Christianity, in particular asceticism and Christian Gnosticism, including Animals, Gods, and Humans. Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. Teaching Professors : To request a print examination copy for course consideration, please visit: Ingram Academic. Inspection copies are only available to verified university faculty. Some restrictions apply. To request an electronic inspection copy for course use consideration, please visit one of the following services to submit your digital examination request online:.

Home A Different Kind of Animal. Add to Cart. More about this book. If differentiation undermines synthesis, the purpose and the will to survive, differentiated consciousness and culture would never emerge. Differentiation is the very essence of cultural evolution, but it threatens synthesis and may destroy the entire purpose of culture, and the culture itself Perlovsky , b,e, b.

This instability is entirely human, it does not exist in the animal kingdom because the pace of evolution and differentiation of knowledge from ameba to primates was very slow, and instinctual mechanisms of synthesis apparently evolved along with the brain capacity.

The Origin and Evolution of Cultures

The origin of language changed this; accumulation of differentiated knowledge vastly exceeded biological evolutionary capacity to maintain synthesis. This paper suggests that along with the origin of language another uniquely human ability evolved for maintaining synthesis, the ability for music. The hypothesis in this paper is that music evolved along with language for maintaining the balance between differentiation and synthesis.

First we present arguments, than we discuss empirical and experimental means by which this hypothesis can be verified. Many scientists studying evolution of language came to a conclusion that originally language and music were one Darwin, ; Cross, a; Masataka, In this original state the fused language-music did not threaten synthesis. Not unlike animal vocalizations, sounds of voice directly affected ancient emotional centers, connected semantic contents of vocalizations to instinctual needs, and to behavior.

This way Jaynes explained stability of great kingdoms of Mesopotamia up to 4, years ago. We would like to emphasize the already discussed fact that since its origin language evolved in the direction of enhancing conceptual differentiation ability by separating it from ancient emotional and bodily instinctual influences. As language was enhancing differentiation and destroyed the primordial unity of psyche, music was reconnecting differentiated psyche, restoring the meaning and purpose of knowledge and making cultural evolution possible.

The fundamental role of music in cultural evolution was maintaining synthesis in the face of increasing differentiation due to language. This was the origin and evolutionary direction of music. We now return to the basic mechanisms of the mind, including KI and analyze them in more details in view of this hypothesis. But clearly it is a great simplification. It is not sufficient for the human mind to maximize an average value of the similarity between all concept-models and all experiences.

Adequate functioning requires constant resolution of contradictions between multiple mutually contradicting concepts and between individual concepts quickly created in culture and slowly evolving primordial animal instincts. Human psyche is not as harmonious as psyche of animals. Some of our ancestors were able to acquire differentiated contradictory knowledge and still maintain wholeness of psyche necessary for concentration of will and purposeful actions; those had tremendous advantage for survival.

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For these reasons KI itself became differentiated. It was directed not only at maximizing the overall harmony, but also at reconciling constantly evolving contradictions, cognitive dissonances.


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This hypothesis requires theoretical elaboration and experimental confirmation. Emotions related to knowledge are aesthetic emotions subjectively felt as harmony or disharmony. These emotions were differentiated along with KI. In other words, a high value concept attaches aesthetic emotions to other concepts.

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In this way each concept acts as a separate part of KI: evaluates other concepts for their mutual consistency; this is the mechanism of the differentiated knowledge instinct. Virtually every combination of concepts has some degree of contradictions.

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The number of combinations is practically infinite Perlovsky, d. Therefore aesthetic emotions that reconcile these contradictions are not just several feelings for which we can assign specific words. We feel this continuum of emotions not just many separate emotions when listening to music. We feel this continuum in Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, Chaikovsky, Shostakovich, Beatles, and Eminem… and this mechanism extends to all cultures in the world. Each emotion, he wrote, is different depending on which object it is applied to.

But Huron has already argued that this use of music for basic needs is just that, a utilitarian use of music, which evolved for a much more important purpose that cognitive musicologists had not yet been able to identify.

The Role of Culture and Evolution for Human Cognition

It is proposed here that musical emotions have evolved for synthesis of differentiated consciousness, for reconciling contradictions that every step toward differentiation entails, for reconciling cognitive dissonances, for creating a unity of differentiated Self. Akerlof, G.

The Evolutionary Origins of Human Cognitive Development, Tetsuro Matsuzawa

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