Every once in a while I go to services, but I appreciate it a lot more when I do my own thing and say my own prayers. Hesed, age 14, a member of the United Methodist Church, explains how he knows the Christian religion in which he was raised is right for him:. Are they fake? And if they are, why are there millions of Muslims around the world who pray to Allah five times a day?
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And why are there Buddhists who make Buddhism their faith? Why do I think this one faith is real? And basically, to me, I just get a feeling. Christianity just feels right to me. And I can honestly say that I feel the presence of God in that place. And for me, Christianity is the religion where I feel that. And this is right for me.
Reproduced by permission from Carus Publishing Company. Explore the complexity of Jewish identity with reflections from three teenagers about what being Jewish means to them. Explore the debate over banning headscarves in French schools and consider the tension between personal and group identities. Holocaust and Human Behavior.
Add or Edit Playlist. Previous Reading. Next Reading. Ramadan picnic in Istanbul, Turkey, in front of the Hagia Sophia Ayasofya , a building that has been both a Greek Orthodox Christian church and a mosque. A woman lights a candle with her daughter during the start of the Passover seder. How do the young people in this reading experience religious belief and belonging?
What can we learn from the similarities and differences in their stories? Based on your experiences and observations, what are some other kinds of experiences with religion that are not represented in these four short reflections? How would you describe the role, if any, that religion plays in your identity? Because of these believes women in African Traditional religion, cannot hold high political post. In addition they are not expected to be independent from men.
Consequently, African gender construct bestows tremendous power on women. Also, the institution of motherhood is construed as a position of power in African communities. According to Olademo , the elements that prevail in childbirth and child upbringing constitute avenues of power for the women in African communities. This means women are very important in upbringing of a child also in African traditional religion a mother must be respected in order for one to success in life if you anger her you will face bad lucks.
Religion is mainly associated with gender inequality and men are mainly recognised as compared to women. Seguino and Lovinsky are of the view that, religiosity is strongly correlated with gender inequitable attitudes, controlling for a variety of demographic characteristics. In addition, men are found to hold significantly more gender inequitable attitudes than women.
This shows religion reinforce traditional gender roles of women which compromise gender relations in communities. Also, some religious ideologies and norms help to legitimize traditional gender roles by providing a no secular ethos and worldview about the position of women in relation to men Greeley cited in Takyi and Addai Therefore as postulated above, religious groups act as base for daily activities also they contribute a lot to gender relations in societies.
Churches play a particularly important role in defining family norms and regulating behaviours around gender and sexuality Korpi, cited in Roder undated. Therefore these ideas directly affect gender relations in the sense that, men will be expected to play bread winner role while women play domestic work depending on men. This holds true even nowadays, where much change is occurring in societies with increasing female labour market participation and changes in attitudes accompanying this.
Therefore, there are religions which do not value women. For instance Muslim suppresses women using religious beliefs. In the same vein Hajj, and Panizza, postulate that, some Muslim countries impose serious constraints on the ability of women to conduct what is, by western standard, considered a normal life in Saudi Arabia, women cannot drive, not to mention vote and even the most liberal Middle Eastern countries often have legislation that explicitly discriminate against women in Lebanon, for instance, women do not transmit citizenship to their spouses or children.
This affect gender relations because women rights are suppressed, this cause a strained interaction between men women in societies. In this case religion affected greatly the gender relations. According to Inglehart and Norris, cited in Roder undated nevertheless, data shows that Muslims and Buddhists seem to have less egalitarian gender role attitudes than Jews, Protestants and Catholics even when other factors are controlled for Islam in particular has been criticised for suppressing women, and gender is probably the area where negative attitudes about Islam are articulated most frequently in Western societies.
Hajj, and Panizza, postulate that, Islamic leaders tend to emphasize that man and woman have equal value, but that they have very different roles in society. Moreover, since roles are divided according to gender, women end up need to be dependent on men because of their roles. This is mainly influenced by key religious beliefs.
Religion affect greatly affect women education because of their beliefs and norms which end up affecting gender relations. This is because other religions believe that women must be dependent on men. In the same vein Heaton and Cornwall cited in Takyi and Addai echoed the crucial determinant of the relative status of women is the degree to which the women are kept dependent on men. Among religious groups where women are supposed to be dependent on their husbands, women are less likely to be encouraged or helped to pursue their educational goals, particularly in relation to higher education.
Traditional conservative religious groups may also quote the Bible to support their position on the subordinate status of women and their roles as helpmate and mother Takyi and Addai Such ideas may in turn discourage women from pursuing higher education. Furthermore, conservative religious groups may offer programs that help girls to be better housekeepers rather than providing the skills necessary for non-domestic and alternative roles in society ibid.
This can affect gender relations in the societies because women will only taught domestic work in preparation of marriage whilst men will be given technical skills which in turn bring income. Therefore, this may lead to unbalanced gender relations because women will have skills of none economic value.
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Moreover because of these beliefs women are not encouraged to attain higher education. In African traditional religion discourages women from attaining high education. According to Blakemore cited in Takyi and Addai, families with a belief in traditional religious practices, or those who indicate no religion, tend to favour less education for girls. This is maybe particularly true about families in rural areas. As well, in traditional society, a woman with higher educational and career aspirations tends to be viewed as aggressive and unlikely to find a husband.
African, religious norms, values and practices may impact women's educational goals. This means African Traditional religion affect greatly gender relations in African societies to its believers in the sense that, girls will not expected to be educated. In addition to women being sexual victims of troops in warfare, an institutionalized example was the Japanese military enslaving native women and girls as comfort women in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II.
Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.
The social aspects of clothing have revolved around traditions regarding certain items of clothing intrinsically suited different gender roles. In different periods, both women's and men's fashions have highlighted one area or another of the body for attention. In particular, the wearing of skirts and trousers has given rise to common phrases expressing implied restrictions in use and disapproval of offending behavior.
For example, ancient Greeks often considered the wearing of trousers by Persian men as a sign of an effeminate attitude. Women's clothing in Victorian fashion was used as a means of control and admiration. Reactions to the elaborate confections of French fashion led to various calls for reform on the grounds of both beauties Artistic and Aesthetic dress and health dress reform; especially for undergarments and lingerie.
Although trousers for women did not become fashionable until the later 20th century, women began wearing men's trousers suitably altered for outdoor work a hundred years earlier. Corsets have long been used for fashion, and body modification, such as waistline reduction. There were, and are, many different styles and types of corsets, varying depending on the intended use, corset maker's style, and the fashions of the era. The social status of women in the Victoria Era is often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between the nation's power and richness and what many consider its appalling social conditions.
Victorian morality was full of contradictions. A plethora of social movements concerned with improving public morals co-existed with a class system that permitted and imposed harsh living conditions for many, such as women. In this period, an outward appearance of dignity and restraint was valued, but the usual "vices" continued, such as prostitution. In the Victorian era, the bathing machine was developed and flourished. It was a device to allow people to wade in the ocean at beaches without violating Victorian notions of modesty about having "limbs" revealed.
Religion and Identity | Facing History and Ourselves
The bathing machine was part of sea-bathing etiquette that was more rigorously enforced upon women than men. The Roaring Twenties is a term for society and culture in the s in the Western world. It was a period of sustained economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, particularly in major cities.
Women's suffrage came about in many major countries in the s, including United States, Canada, Great Britain. This influenced many governments and elections by increasing the number of voters available. Politicians responded by spending more attention on issues of concern to women, especially pacifism, public health, education, and the status of children. On the whole, women voted much like their menfolk, except they were more pacifistic. The s marked a revolution in fashion.
The new woman danced, drank, smoked and voted. She cut her hair short, wore make-up and partied. Sometimes she smoked a cigarette. She was known for being giddy and taking risks; she was a flapper. With their desire for freedom and independence came as well change in fashion, welcoming a more comfortable style, where the waistline was just above the hips and loosen, and staying away from the Victorian style with a corset and tight waistline.
With widespread unemployment among men, poverty, and the need to help family members who are in even worse condition, The pressures were heavy on women during the Great Depression across the modern world. A primary role was as a housewife. Without a steady flow of family income, their work became much harder in dealing with food and clothing and medical care. The birthrates fell everywhere, as children were postponed until families could financially support them.
Among the few women in the labor force, layoffs were less common in the white-collar jobs and they were typically found in light manufacturing work.
However, there was a widespread demand to limit families to one paid job, so that wives might lose employment if their husband was employed. In rural and small-town areas, women expanded their operation of vegetable gardens to include as much food production as possible.
In the United States, agricultural organizations sponsored programs to teach housewives how to optimize their gardens and to raise poultry for meat and eggs. Quilts were created for practical use from various inexpensive materials and increased social interaction for women and promoted camaraderie and personal fulfillment. Oral history provides evidence for how housewives in a modern industrial city handled shortages of money and resources. Often they updated strategies their mothers used when they were growing up in poor families. Cheap foods were used, such as soups, beans and noodles.
They purchased the cheapest cuts of meat—sometimes even horse meat—and recycled the Sunday roast into sandwiches and soups. They sewed and patched clothing, traded with their neighbors for outgrown items, and made do with colder homes. New furniture and appliances were postponed until better days. Many women also worked outside the home, or took boarders, did laundry for trade or cash, and did sewing for neighbors in exchange for something they could offer.
Extended families used mutual aid—extra food, spare rooms, repair-work, cash loans—to help cousins and in-laws. In Japan, official government policy was deflationary and the opposite of Keynesian spending. Consequently, the government launched a nationwide campaign to induce households to reduce their consumption, focusing attention on spending by housewives. In Germany, the government tried to reshape private household consumption under the Four-Year Plan of to achieve German economic self-sufficiency. The Nazi women's organizations, other propaganda agencies and the authorities all attempted to shape such consumption as economic self-sufficiency was needed to prepare for and to sustain the coming war.
Using traditional values of thrift and healthy living, the organizations, propaganda agencies and authorities employed slogans that called up traditional values of thrift and healthy living. However, these efforts were only partly successful in changing the behavior of housewives. The Hindu , Jewish , Sikh , Islamic and Christian views about women have varied throughout the last two millennia, evolving along with or counter to the societies in which people have lived.
For much of history, the role of women in the life of the church, both local and universal, has been downplayed, overlooked, or simply denied. Warfare always engaged women as victims and objects of protection. The First World War has received the most coverage, with the newest trend being coverage of a wide range of gender issues. During the twentieth century of total warfare the female half of the population played increasingly large roles as housewives, consumers, mothers, munitions workers, replacements for men in service, nurses, lovers, sex objects and emotional supporters.
One result in many countries was women getting the right to vote, including the United States, Canada, Germany, and Russia, among others. The following is a list of articles in Wikipedia and outside links where Wikipedia has no relevant articles which are either about women's history or containing relevant information, often in a "History" section.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Women in society Society. Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country. Main article: History of women in the United Kingdom. Further information: Women in the French Revolution. Main article: Feminism in Russia. Main article: Women in Africa. Main article: History of women in the United States. Main articles: History of Canadian women and Feminism in Canada. Main article: Women's rights. Main article: Women in the workforce. Main article: Roaring Twenties. See also: Women as theological figures.
Main articles: Women and war , History of women in the military , and Women's roles in the World Wars. See also: Women in the military by country , Women in combat , and Women in the military. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Variants general. Variants religious. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Major Problems in American Women's History. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, vol 2.
Writing Women's History: International Perspectives The Princeton History of Modern Ireland pp. Joeres and Mary Jo Maynes, German women in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: a social and literary history Fout, ed. Journal of Military History April , — Tucker, "Problems in the historiography of women in the Middle East: the case of nineteenth-century Egypt. Tucker, eds. History 14 3, Eldredge, "Women in production: the economic role of women in nineteenth-century Lesotho.