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However, the pressures that threaten the existence of these floral and faunal resources in the other parts of the country are also present in this island. Deforestation, which is a major factor to declining wildlife population, has reduced the country s forest cover from 17 million hectares ha in to 5. Most of these are located in upland ranges. Located in the province of Misamis Occidental, Mindanao, Mt.

Malindang is the only representative natural forest in the Zamboanga Peninsula Biogeographic Zone Myers It is one of the upland ranges whose biodiversity has been severely threatened due to forest loss and therefore considered as the hottest among the hotspots in the Philippines. The results of the Participatory Rapid Appraisal PRA manifested high species richness, many endemic and economically and socio-culturally important floral resources.

But these data were only indicative in nature. The kind and realistic levels of biodiversity resources need to be inventoried and assessed so that strategies for their sustainable development could be effectively designed and implemented. Biodiversity conservation becomes more imperative as more pressure is made through the constant use of biodiversity resources, causing the loss of habitat and reduction in species richness.

This project was conducted to provide guidelines for researchers, communities, and institutions on the project sites in designing protection and conservation strategies of biological resources. These were the bases in identifying livelihood opportunities for developing socioeconomic interventions and sustained biodiversity conservation measures in the forests of Mt. Malindang Experience This project was undertaken to conduct an assessment of floral and faunal resources to generate an understanding of those present in the Mt.

Malindang forests. Specifically, the project aimed to: determine the species richness and diversity of the biological resources; build up a database of Subanen indigenous knowledge on plant and animal names and uses; assess the conservation status of the species, e.

Malindang forests and agroecosystems; identify species, sites, and habitats of plants and animals for in situ conservation; identify the ethnobiological uses; and recommend livelihood projects for biodiversity conservation. Preparatory activities, such as team organization among local participants and researchers, action planning, and training-workshop, were done. Nomination and selection of participants and local researchers Subanen for the project from the three barangays bordering the three study sites were made with the stakeholders in the communities. Participants were those with sufficient to excellent indigenous knowledge of the floral and faunal resources of the study sites.

Location and Description of Study Sites The study sites were located in Don Victoriano, Misamis Occidental in primary and secondary forests, as well as agroecosystems. The first site was situated within Barangay Lake Duminagat at Mt. Ginanlajan in the North Peak Range, with an altitude of about 1, meters above sea level masl , representing primary forest. The second and third sites were located within Barangays Mansawan and Lake Duminagat, representing secondary forest. Sampling sites for the agroecosystems were likewise established in Barangays Mansawan and Lake Duminagat.

The two 1-ha plots established in Barangays Lake Duminagat and Mansawan were more or less permanent for future re-assessment and monitoring even beyond the project duration. The semi-permanent plots served as demonstration center or laboratory for developing a methodology and training of local researchers for participatory inventory, assessment, monitoring, and in situ conservation of flora and fauna.

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In addition, nested plots of 20 x 20 m, 5 x 5 m and 1 x 1 m were established in the forest and agroecosystem to determine species richness of flora and invertebrate fauna. Line transects, mist netting, and trapping areas were established for vertebrate fauna in the identified sampling sites. Based on the community validation of the project proposal, the decision of both the stakeholders and the researchers was to locate the sampling plot along the primary forest approaching Barangay Lake Duminagat at the southwest side of the barangay proper at an altitude of about 1, masl.

In addition, another plot in Palo 6 at about 1, masl, which is located at the southeastern side of Barangay Mansawan, was selected by the stakeholders for comparison purposes on the dynamics of the floral resources between primary and secondary forests. The stakeholders also expressed their desire to preserve the floral species inside the secondary forests that are threatened due to round timber harvesting.

Barangay Lake Duminagat is a crater valley with residential houses and a primary school. With farms and gardens located at the base of the mountain around the North Peak Mountain Range, it has an elevation of 2, masl. The lake itself is located across the ridge, about 1 km away at the western part of the barangay.

With an elevation of 1, masl, the Lake is about 10 ha large. A shallow stream at the eastern side drains the surface water towards Kalilangan River and ultimately joins the Dapitan River. Establishment of Biodiversity Plots and Transects With the involvement of the local researchers, two 1-ha plots with an area of 20 x m were established along the contour lines at the southwest portion of Barangay Lake Duminagat.

The first plot at the southwest site represented the primary forest and the second plot at Mansawan represented the secondary forest. Within the 1-ha plot, six 5 x 50 m subplots were established for tree profiling, 40 5 x 5 m for the inventory of trees and shrubs, and 40 1 x 1 m within each 5 x 5 m subplots were added for the inventory of life forms herbs, vines, pteridophytes, bryophytes, lichens, and even fungi. All corners of the 20 x m plot, 5 x 50 m subplots, 5 x 5 m subplots, and 1 x 1 m subplots were staked and tied with strings in different colors for identification.

Visual and opportunistic sampling for invertebrate fauna was conducted in the 1 x 1 m squares. Sweep net sampling was performed in two intersecting diagonal strips extending from end to end of the 20 x 20 m plot. Vertical x 10 m transects between center plots were also utilized for 26 Land. Moreover, ten holes measuring 0. Five sampling sites were established for the vertebrate fauna study, where Site 1 was a disturbed forest, Sites 2, 3, and 4 were agroecosystems, and Site 5 was a primary forest. Considering that vertebrate fauna is highly mobile, a plotless method was followed to sample the major vertebrate groups.

Two-kilometer long line transects, however, were also established to record birds diversity in the area. Subanen researchers were trained on the inventory techniques, identification and nomenclature, field collection, preparation of voucher specimens, assessment of conservation status endemic, endangered, rare, common, economically and culturally important species , ethnobiological survey, diversity measurements, use of equipment, tree profiling, data collection and analysis.

Subanen researchers participated in the establishment of sampling plots. After the training and subsequent involvement in the conduct of the research inventory, the Subanen researchers were able to learn the inventory techniques, and classify flora and fauna to a certain extent. Furthermore, they had developed skills in proper documentation, collection, and preparation of specimens as vouchers during the training courses.

Data Collection and Community Participation Participatory Inventory, Collection, and Identification of Flora and Fauna A combination of different sampling techniques was employed for vertebrate fauna sampling. Collection of amphibians and reptiles followed the visual encounter or opportunistic method. Line transect and mist netting methods were used to sample birds in the area. Systematic trapping and mist netting were used to sample small nonvolant and volant mammals, respectively.

Identification of plants and animals was done by the experts and the Subanen researchers. All plant and animal groups were identified as to their scientific and official Philippine common names by the researchers from the academe and the Subanen researchers using books, monographs, and taxonomic keys Rojo , Tan et al. Indigenous knowledge on how to identify the species was recorded.

For unidentified specimens, representative samples were collected and preserved as voucher specimens for laboratory examination. The preliminary field identification was confirmed by Dutch and Filipino taxonomists using the voucher specimens prepared by the Subanen researchers. Interactive Ethnobiological Survey and Assessment by Subanen Researchers and the Community An ethnobotanical survey inside the sample plots was conducted, with the Subanen researchers as informants and research assistants.

They collected and evaluated all medicinal plants, and gave information about their local names, diagnostic characters, habitat, altitude, and use. Fertile specimens were collected for permanent herbarium retention, while sterile plants were simply tagged for later identification by Subanen researchers who were the main informants on local names and uses of plants. A questionnaire was prepared, and a survey with 10 percent sampling intensity of the households in the communities was conducted.

This involved quantitative evaluation of plants used as food, timber forest products construction, poles, piles, etc. A list of species, uses, means of preparation, parts of plants used, and dosages was also prepared. Specimens of plants not found in the sample plots were gathered for scientific identification. A similar survey was conducted for vertebrates amphibians, reptiles, birds, volant and nonvolant mammals , as well as invertebrates insects, coleopterans, and earthworms to get information on the resource utilization of the different animal groups by the local community.

Information on economically and socio- Land Malindang Experience culturally important species was provided by key Subanen informants. The researchers and the local researchers Subanen presented the results for validation. Through the community validation, the local names and uses of flora and fauna were confirmed.

Wild Tribes Davao District Mindanao

One or two local names for a particular species were adopted. Several additions in the use, mode of preparation and use, and ailments that can be cured herbally were made. The two 1-ha plot alone revealed a total of species, genera, and families. Of these, species were angiosperms, five were gymnosperms, 57 were pteridophytes, 61 were bryophytes, and 11 were lichens Table 1. Of the two 1-ha plots, plot 2 in Barangay Mansawan showed higher species richness species than plot 1 in Barangay Lake Duminagat, which had only species.

The high species richness in the secondary forest of Barangay Mansawan was due to the presence of more species of pteridophytes and bryophytes. The presence of more trees, abundance of tree ferns, and varied habitat types could explain the abundance of pteridophytes and bryophytes in plot 2. Complete inventory of trees in the two 1-ha plots showed a total of 86 species, with 67 species found in plot 2 and 63 species in plot 1. This number of tree species per hectare basis was extremely high as compared to Mt.

Kitanglad in Bukidnon which had only 43 species of trees per hectare Pipoly and Madulid Not only that high tree species richness was observed in Mt. Malindang, but also a spectacular high tree density per hectare was noted, ranging from to 1, individuals. This figure was nearly 25 percent higher than that reported for lowland forests in Neotropics Balslev et al. Initial inventory of Pteridophytes in Malindang Range showed species, which was 33 percent of the species found in the Mindanao island. The varieties Cebuano, Berling, and Native yellow outer skin were commonly planted as cash crops in the three barangays.

Cebuging was only observed in Barangay Mansawan together with Ganda, a well-known herbal medicine and spice. Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas , with 19 locally-known cultivars, were documented as cash crops, but mostly for daily subsistence of the farmers. Dublesa and kaulbo were commonly planted in all barangays. Furthermore, the corn varieties cultivated in small scale were hybrid white corn, hybrid yellow corn, and native white corn only since physiological maturity takes seven to eight months.

Abaca Musa textiles plants, introduced by CARE Philippines, were planted in fallowed areas, with the provision of PHP 10 per hill planted to a minimum of hills per farmer. Stripping machine was available at Barangay Mansawan. Survey results on vertebrate fauna in the five sampling sites showed a total of 16 species of amphibians, four species of skinks, five species of snakes, 90 species of birds, 12 species of volant mammals, and 16 species of non-volant mammals Table 2.

Higher amphibian species richness was consistently observed in the forested areas as compared to the agroecosystems. This may be due to the greater heterogeneity of vegetation present in forested habitats than in agricultural areas that may provide amphibians the needed microenvironmental requirements for their survival. The result represented about percent of the approximately 80 amphibian species known to occur in the Philippines and about percent of those recorded for Mindanao Island.

Species richness and endemism in Malindang Range. Vertebrate faunal species found in five sampling sites of Mt. Malindang Mindanao on-going study Mt.

FAY‐COOPER COLE – - Eggan - - American Anthropologist - Wiley Online Library

Malindang Don Victoriano Tabaranza et al. Malindang Experience All skinks and most snakes, however, were captured from agroecosystem sites than in forested sites, which could be attributed to the sparse vegetation and high exposure to sunlight in agroecosystem that are favorable as foraging place of reptiles.

The reptiles recorded constitute only 3. The high elevation of the sampling sites 1,, masl could be the reason for this low species richness since Alcala reported that majority of the reptiles occur at lowlands up to 1, masl or less and only a few occur at high elevations. Results indicated that of the 90 species of birds recorded, more were found in the agroecosystem sites than in the forested sites. This was perhaps due to the greater number of food plants available in the agroecosystem areas. Most of the birds comprising this site, however, were widespread species, while the endemic species were confined to the primary forest of high elevation.

Mallari and Jensen also observed in their study in Sierra Madre that endemic forest specialists characterized the avian communities at the higher elevations. Species richness of volant mammals was higher in the agroecosystem sites. Abundance of fruit-bearing plants in these sites could be the reason for the greater number of species. This record was higher compared to that of Tabaranza et al. Malindang, however, the number of non-volant mammals in this study was lower.

A partial inventory of the species richness of invertebrates in the secondary forest of Barangay Lake Duminagat is shown in Table 3. More species of insects 60 were recorded in the multicropped agroecosystem of Barangay Lake Duminagat, composed of 28 families in nine insect orders. The disturbed forests had lower species richness of 53 in 31 families and 10 orders in Lake Duminagat, while 42 species in 26 families and nine insect orders were recorded in Sitio Pungol.

Of all the families, Family Curculionidae of weevils had the most number, where there were eight species. Family Curculionidae had only two species, while the highest number of species was observed under the category of undetermined Diptera. As an initial result of the inventory of the species richness of this site, Family Phasmatidae of walking sticks ranked first with six species. The leaf beetles of the Family Chrysomelidae ranked first in terms of pest species richness in the multicropped agroecosystem.

Earthworms collected in the m 2 plots in the sampling sites in Mt. Malindang showed higher species richness 26 in the disturbed forest than the primary forest The agroecosystem sites consistently showed a dominance of only one species, Pontoscolex corethrurus, which is a native species of South America. This species was also found in all sampling sites.

It is interesting to mention that the distured forest of Toliyok had the most abundant P. The habitat type and vegetation of Toliyok may have caused the greater population of this widespread species in the area. Assessment of Floral and Faunal Resources As basis for the protection and conservation of the flora and fauna, assessment of its status is necessary.

Assessment of the status of each species using IUCN categories of plants revealed 11 endangered, 98 endemic, 52 rare, and economically important species. The two 1-ha plots alone revealed two endangered, 71 endemic, 11 rare, economically important species, and 10 species of socio-cultural importance Table 4. An endangered plant seen in the two 1-ha plots was Tmesipteris lanceolata Dang Psilotaceae.

This primitive plant grows only as an epiphyte on the trunk of Cyathea spp. However, unabashed collection of trunks of Cyathea as medium to grow orchids, anthurium, and other epiphytic plants had endangered the life of Tmesipteris. Although not observed within the sampling plots, Bryum russulum Bryaceae was another endangered plant seen only in the 1-ha plot of Mt. This percentage becomes higher when considered by hectare basis since species endemism reach up to 60 percent. This figure was comparatively higher than in Mt.

Kitanglad, which has only 47 percent of species endemism Pipoly and Madulid However, when results of the inventory from nested plots and transect belt were added, endemism was reduced to 33 percent. It is noteworthy that some species were site endemic, such as Medinilla malindangensis, or island Mindanao endemics, such as Saurauia involucrata, Saurauia fasciculiflora, Saurauia glabrifolia, and Cinnamomum mindanaense, and others were widespread Philippine endemics. In some cases, reported Luzon endemics were now reported in Mindanao, like Begonia cumingii, Vaccinium jagori, and Saurauia fasciculiflora.

As to the endemicity of plant groups, the trees and shrubs obtained a high percentage of endemism, ranging from 33 to 49 percent, while the herbs and vines had 11 to 44 percent endemism. Species richness of invertebrates and earthworms recorded in Mt. Conservation status of floral species in Malindang Range. Table 5 shows the endemism of the vertebrate faunal groups in Mt. Nine of the amphibian species were endemic to the Philippines, with six having ranges restricted to Mindanao. Most of the endemics were captured in the forested sites of higher elevation.

All of the amphibians recorded were of stable conservation status. Considering that the top four abundant amphibian species were all endemics, namely, Philautus sp. Malindang is still favorable for amphibian growth and development. Reptilian endemism was also very high at 89 percent, with three of the skinks and all of the snakes being endemic.

The high endemism in Mt. Malindang is very encouraging considering that the forest was already disturbed, especially sampling site 2 which was already converted to agriculture. Continued habitat disturbance and destruction, however, may severely threaten survival of the endemic species and may push these endemic species higher up the forest where the habitat conditions are usually more unfavorable for species adapted to lowland conditions. Results showed that only endemic species were found in the higher elevation of the forest, while the lower elevation and the agroecosystem sites supported widespread as well as endemic species.

Of the bird species known to occur in the Philippines, are endemic, 39 of which were recorded in this survey, including 25 Mindanao endemics. The endemic species found were confined to the disturbed and pristine forests of higher elevations. This suggested that endemic birds prefer to occupy the less disturbed forested areas, having Land Malindang Experience Table 5. Endemism and threatened species recorded in Mt. Malindang on-going study Mt. Of the Mindanao endemics, two were endangered, namely, the Giant scops owl Mimizuku gurneyi , and the Silvery kingfisher Alcedo argentata.

Three species were vulnerable: the Mindanao scops owl Otus mirus , the Blue-capped kingfisher Actenoides hombroni , and the Mcgregor s cuckoo-shrike Coracina mcgregori. Another four species were of the near- threatened category. Endemism of volant mammals was high at percent, of which 25 percent were Mindanao endemics.

Of the endemic species captured, three were listed in IUCN as vulnerable: Small rufous horseshoe bat Rhinolophus subrufus , Philippine pygmy fruit bat Haplonycteris fischeri , and Harpy fruit bat Harpionycteris whiteheadi. For non-volant mammals, endemism was also high at Two of the Mindanao endemics, Urogale everetti and Crocidura beatus, were of vulnerable status, while the rest had stable status. It is common in primary forest and dependent on lowland forest. Lowland forest is rarely found in Mt. In the absence of such forests, it is believed that this mammal may adapt to lowland montane forest and secondary growth forest situation.

Ethnobiological Survey Survey of Subanen Researchers within the Plots An ethnobotanical survey was conducted by recording the indigenous knowledge of the Subanen researchers regarding the ethnobotanical uses of plants found within the two 1-ha plots. It revealed 10 socio-culturally important species and economically important species. The economically important species included 39 medicinal species, 14 species of food plants, 18 ornamental plants, and species either for lumber, firewood, or handicraft.

Preparations of plants for specific uses were annotated as described by local researchers. Most of the medicinal species are common or cosmopolitan plants. However, prescriptions on the way the Subanens used these plants are often unique to their community 32 Land. The identification and uses of these ethnobotanical plants were validated by the community.

As a result of the validation with the community, the uses and procedure on how to use these plants were refined based on the articulations of women who used them. It was also found that some members of the community had already forgotten the uses of these plants due to the easy and cheap access to western medicine. The Subanen researchers considered bakbak or frogs in general as edible, however, not a single respondent in the interview conducted utilized frogs as food.

Some birds, like the different species of doves and the jungle fowl, were hunted for food and as pets. It is interesting to note that none of the birds in the threatened category was hunted. Large mammals, which included the deer, monkey, civet cat, and wild pig, were commonly hunted for food consumption.

Animal species considered as pests, like the rats and tree squirrels, were hunted to control their population. Community Ethnobotanical Survey Using ethnobotanical knowledge, the local people could design, test, and develop resource use patterns, establish microenterprise and markets, and develop mechanisms for transferring knowledge from one generation to the next.

Of the medicinal plant species mentioned by the residents of the three barangays, it was the Elephantopus scaber that was the most versatile. It could allegedly cure 16 ailments out of 87 illnesses recorded. Blumea balsamifera 14 ailments followed, then Psidium guajava 12 illnesses. Zingiber officinale, Persea americana, and Eleusine indica could cure 11 ailments each. Many of these plant species were found outside the plots and at lower elevations. These included exotic or introduced species, like Persea americana and Sweitenia macrophylla.

Of the 87 illnesses recorded by the local people of Mt. Malindang, fever could be cured using 59 species of herbal plants, while pasmo, wounds, stomachache, relapses, and cough could be cured using as many as 30 species of herbal plants. These ailments were the most common illnesses that the local people usually experience.

Seventy-nine plant species were recorded as food plants. Results of interview revealed that the local people never depend much on wild plants for their food, but their knowledge on the availability of wild fruits was quite high. The local people used species of plants with economic importance.

Plants for housing construction was the priority for the local people, hence these were more commonly known and were considered of great importance. Some Socio-culturally Important Species Of the flora species within the sampling plots, 10 species were reported by Subanen researchers to have higher sociocultural importance.

These were being used in social occasion burial rites , courtship, giving birth or conception, hunting, fishing, farming, and even as personal possession, such as anting-anting. Below are the ten species of sociocultural importance: a. Solanum sp. The Subanens believe that these species can cast away the bad spirits so as not to harm the living.

Habenaria sp. This species is considered as panglumay. It is mixed with perfume to be used during courtship for the girl to accept the suitor s pleas. This can be placed in a small bottle filled with coconut oil and put on the windowpane with the early morning rays of the sun striking it. By chanting the name of the girl being prayed for, she would be summoned by the man holding this mysterious plant. Macaranga bicolor labulag. This plant is used to rekindle lost love by placing a leaf under the pillow while sleeping. It is also believed to cast away bad spirits that cause illnesses to newborn babies if its leaves are placed as poultices on the abdomen of the pregnant woman.

Xylaria hypoxylon oten-oten sa unggoy. For couples who want a baby boy, this fungus species is believed to answer their prayers by making it part of the wife s belt or habak before pregnancy. Impatiens montalbanica silangka. This species is of great help to pregnant women who are about to give birth. The ripe capsule of this plant is believed to assure women of delivering the baby quickly and easily by placing the capsule near the feet of the woman about to give birth and letting the capsule dehisce by touching it. Land Malindang Experience f. Gardenia longiflora tamilok.

This plant is of great importance to Subanen hunters who use it for attracting civet cats milo. If placed near the bait, it would surely capture one. Rubus sp. Fishermen place the sampinit s thorny twigs on the fishing pole to attract more fish to the bait, allowing them to catch baskets full of fish. Ficus sp. For farmers who wished to harvest abundant and bigger sweet potatoes, they include fruits of the busyong in the stems of camote during planting. The Subanens believe that if the fruit is included in the first seven seedlings, this would give them a bountiful harvest.

Glochidion canescens tulog-tulog. This plant, sometimes called tulog-tulog, is used by some people who wish to be invisible. Tulog-tulog, mixed with Mimosa pudica, would make a person who wants to visit a loved one s house, or who needs protection, invisible, if placed in a bottle of oil accompanied by a prayer. Livelihood Development for Biodiversity Conservation During the community validation, the community had identified two projects with potential for livelihood. These are briefly described below: Establishment of Nursery As a result of the inventory of trees in the two 1-ha plots in Malindang Range, 15 species of indigenous fast-growing trees were identified and recommended by the Subanens as reforestation species.

These fast-growing trees would be used in the three barangays of Don Victoriano to reforest denuded areas. Not only that these trees are fast growing, they have other economic uses to the community as well - for lumber, medicine, food, and others. The Subanen researchers would collect seeds of the fast-growing trees and grow them in the nursery. The seedlings produced would be used by the community to reforest denuded mountains, and also for planting along the road and trail to provide shade. As an income-generating project of the community, all visitors, e.

Malindang would be asked to buy a seedling from the nursery and plant it as part of the reforestation project. If approved, this could generate income to the community, and at the same time promote biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a Community Economic Garden The Subanen researchers had identified many economically important plants within the two established semi-permanent plots and along the trail from Barangays Mansawan, Gandawan, and Lake Duminagat.

These economic plants could be tapped as sources of a vegetables for human food; b medicine; c ornamentals; and d raw materials for handicraft making. With information on their uses and financial support from the SEARCA-BRP and local government units, these economic plants could be mass propagated and could benefit the socioeconomic condition of the three barangays through the establishment of a community economic garden.

This could be made possible by developing a: community farm for edible plants as cash crops, such as chayote Sechium edule , and pako Diplazium esculentum ; plantations for medicinal plants; commercial gardens for plants with ornamental values; and cottage industry for plants with handicraft potential, like Lygodium spp. Establishing a community economic garden proposed by officials and local members of the community is not only a livelihood project, but also a strategy in conserving the remaining biodiversity in the forest.

This ex situ conservation technique would allow the use of plant resources without depleting their natural population in the wild. The trees with high species importance values included babasa Polyosma philippinensis , sakam Clethra lancifolia , gantaw Cyathea brevipes , and gulayan Lithocarpus philippinensis.

These species have various uses to the community. Higher species richness and endemism of amphibians was recorded in forested areas than in agroecosystem sites. Unlike the amphibian population, more reptiles were captured in the agroecosystem. Assessing floral and faunal resources revealed 11 endangered plant species and 13 threatened vertebrate faunal species.

A total of 98 species of plants and 74 species One 34 Land. Of the Mindanao endemic birds, two were andangered, three vulnerable, and four near-threatened. Of the Philippine endemic bats, three were of vulnerable status, while two of the Mindanao endemic non-volant mammals were also of vulnerable status.

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The survey on species of socioeconomic and cultural importance revealed 10 plant species within the plots and 79 species outside the plots that were used in burial rites, courtship, wedding, conception, hunting, farming practices and personal charm. Of the faunal species identified, the local people used 13 species composed of eight birds and five mammals.

These resources were utilized either as pets or consumed as food. Active participation of the Subanen researchers contributed significantly to the scientific results on ethnobiological and scientific identification of flora and fauna. Two immediate potential livelihood projects for biodiversity conservation were identified - establishment of a nursery and a community economic garden.

The upper montane forest of Mt.


Malindang is still very rich rich in floral and faunal resources, an important resource for both in situ and ex situ conservation in Mindanao. C Philippine Land Vertebrates. New Day Publishers, Quezon City. Alcala, A. C Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna. Amphibians and Reptiles. Balslev, H. Luteyn, B. Oligaard, and L. Opera Botanica 92, pp Brown, W. Alcala Philippine Lizards of the Family Gekkonidae. Siliman University. Dumaguete City, Philippines. Brown, W. Alcala Philippine Lizards of the Family Scincidae. Crombie, R. Unpublished Manuscript. Umali, and E. Sotalbo Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna.

Volume III. Grubb, P. Lloyd, T. Pennington, and T. I: Physiognomy and Floristics. Journal of Ecology 51, pp Heaney, L. The Field Museum, Chicago. Malindang Experience Inger, R. F Systematics and Zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Ingle, N. Fieldiana 69, p. Downloaded from Kalkman, C. Noteboom eds. Flora Malesiana Series.

Kennedy, R. Gonzales, E. Dickinson, H. Miranda, and T. Fisher A Guide to the Birds of the Philippines. Oxford University Press Inc. Mace, G. Version 2. In: M. Dove, and P. Sajise eds. Maintenance in Asia. East- West Center, Hawaii. Mallari, N. Asia Life Sciences 2 2 , pp Merrill, E. Volumes I-IV. Bureau of Printing, Manila. Tabaranza, B. Tabaranza, A. Bagaloyos, and A. Dimapilis Flora and Fauna of Mt. Final Report. Tan, B. Fernando, and J. Yushania 3, pp Valencia, R. Zamora, P. Co Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna.

Volume IV. Goodwill, Quezon City. Ates 3, Apolinario A. Labajo 6, and Sharon M. Dejarme 6 T he study on the diversity of four vertebrate faunal groups amphibians, reptiles, avifauna, and mammals aimed to assess the faunal diversity in Mt. Malindang to come up with conservation strategies for community biodiversity management. Line transect, mist netting, trapping, and opportunistic methods were used in collecting primary data from the selected sampling sites representing the mossy, montane, almaciga, dipterocarp, mixed dipterocarp and agroecosystem vegetational types.

A total of species of vertebrate fauna were found, represented by 26 species of amphibians, 51 reptiles, birds and 40 mammals. Mindanao has, reportedly, vertebrate faunal species out of the 1, species found in the Philippines. The higher species richness on Mt. Malindang was matched with a higher level of endemism, wherein Avifauna endemicity was relatively higher compared to other faunal groups. Of the total Philippine endemics, percent belong to avifauna, percent belong to mammal, percent belong to amphibian, and percent belong to reptile group.

The number of Mindanao endemics was consistently higher among avifauna The data showed that Mt. Malindang presents a biologically unique landscape supporting a number of endemic animals. Faunal exploitation of the communities was found to be maintained at a subsistence level, but the biggest threat to the vertebrate fauna is habitat loss. With the dissemination of the research findings to communities, people realized the status of the fauna as basis for conservation actions.

The widest dissemination of the output of the study, as well as its recommendations, could hopefully create a network of concerned groups communities, local government units [LGUs], institutions, and agencies working for the protection and conservation of endemic and threatened fauna on Mt.

Given these problems, it is important to study the quality of the remaining habitats and the current status of the faunal species in the area especially the threatened and restrictedrange vertebrate species. The knowledge of what is left of or what is found in the forest is essential in recommending effective measures for conservation. Vertebrates are very good indicators of the health of the ecosystem, aside from their socioeconomic significance to the life of the indigenous people in Mt.

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  4. Hence, there is a need to assess the major vertebrate faunal groups in Mt. The collaborative-integrative approach, where findings are integrated and discussions among different study groups are done, ensures that possible interrelationships among faunal diversity, floral diversity, soil ecology, other environmental parameters, and socioeconomic factors are drawn or established. Integrated results towards an integrated conservation and management plan are viewed to have more impact and to be more effective.

    Through the participatory approach, where local researchers, the community, and other 1 Paper presented at the 14 th Annual Philippine Biodiversity Symposium, April , Tuguegarao City, Cagayan. The contents of this paper are initial results of the study entitled Vertebrate Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang Experience stakeholders are involved, it is hoped that better strategies for conservation and production of information, education, and communication IEC materials could be developed, which could contribute towards development in Mt.

    Malindang for better understanding and management of critical resources, and 2 to analyze significant interrelationships of the faunal resources. Malindang; b determine the vertebrate faunal species being threatened by various resource utilization practices; c determine the biodiversity indices for designing appropriate conservation and management schemes of the critical resources; d relate socioeconomic and cultural activities with the biophysical properties of the terrestrial ecosystems; e to assess and build on the existing indigenous knowledge system IKS or community-based biodiversity monitoring and conservation practices; f formulate recommendations for increasing awareness on biological diversity and conservation; and g develop integrated development and conservation strategies that can be used in local biodiversity conservation and management.

    Two to three voucher specimens were prepared for captured species, especially new and unidentified species. Herpetofauna Collection of amphibians and reptiles was done by visual encounter or opportunistic method.

    Vlog No. 4 - Kadayawan PART 1 - Lumad tribes of Davao

    Sampling for amphibians was conducted during daylight and nighttime hours. Aquatic, subterranean, surface, and arboreal strata were searched for amphibians. Late in the morning to early afternoon is the best time to sample reptiles, considering the peak activity of these species. Reptiles were collected by digging and trenching using bolos and sticks, climbing and searching through the forest, checking isolated pools, seepage areas, tree holes, burrows, rotten logs and rocks, vines, ant mounds, leaf litter, tree foliage, and other microhabitats.

    A total of field days were spent on collecting herpetofaunal species in Mt. Body weight and morphometrics were taken. These are important data for identification. Malindang Figure 1. One sampling site each was assessed in the mossy, almaciga, montane, plantation, and dipterocarp forests, four in mixed dipterocarp forest, and five in agroecosystem areas. Some of the samplings sites established were further subdivided into two subsites to determine whether there are apparent significant differences on species composition between north subsite 1 and south subsite 2 exposures.

    Sampling Methods, Measurements, and Identification Primary data were collected through appropriate participatory and multidisciplinary approaches. Standard sampling techniques of Haribon were followed for vertebrate fauna. Species effort curve was the basis for determining the sufficiency of sampling efforts. The study followed the capture-mark-release technique, where identified specimens were marked and released.

    For large Figure 1. Map showing the 14 established sampling sites in different Barangays on Mt. Each group has specific standard measurements, which are important in giving the appropriate body configuration for each species. Inger , Brown and Alcala , Brown and Alcala , and Alcala were used as references in the identification. Avifauna Mist netting was used to sample birds in the area. Mist nets were set up at least 0.

    Sky nets as high as 15 m above the ground were set up in appropriate sites to catch canopy species. Nets were set along and across waterways, forest edges and clearings, flyways, and vicinities of feeding trees. Nets were checked every hour during the day so as not to unduly subject the captured birds to stress. A total of 7, net days were spent to sample birds in all the sampling sites. Body weight and morphometrics were taken for each bird captured. The following morphometrics were taken: wing length WL , tail length TV , total length TL , tarsus length, culmen, and bill length.

    Taxonomic keys, Dickinson et al. To supplement capture results, the line transect method was also done, where a standard 2-km transect line was first established in the chosen sampling area. Using colored plastic markers, the line was divided into 80 transect points with an interval of 25 m per point and eight reference points. Data, such as the locality, elevation, location, date, weather, habitat type, species, number of times the bird was observed during the walk, stratum or the location of the bird during observation, the method of observation used, the transect point where it was observed, and remarks, were all written in the transect forms provided for each observer.

    A standard 2-hr walk per observer was done along the transect line. Mammalian fauna Systematic trapping and mist netting were used to sample small non-volant and volant mammals, respectively. Direct observation and interviews with the local residents were done to record large mammalian species. Mist nets were used to sample volant mammals. The same mist nets used to sample birds were used for volant mammals.

    The nets were left open at night to capture bats and other nocturnal species. Checking of nets was done in the early evening since insect-eating bats are active at this time, and every hour thereafter so as to prevent the bats from tearing the nets and being stressed when left too long in the nets. A total of 7, net nights were spent to sample volant mammals in all the sampling sites. Trapping live traps and snap traps was carried out to sample small nonvolant mammals.

    Traps were set with earthworms, bananas, and roasted coconut coated with peanut butter as bait. Traps were placed at 5-m intervals on the ground, along suspected runways, near holes, among root tangles, and on fallen logs. Checking of traps and rebaiting were done twice a day, early in the morning and late in the afternoon. A total of 14, trap nights were spent in all sampling sites.

    On the other hand, locally-made traps, made of wood with a string attached, were set up to compare their efficiency with the standard traps in capturing non-volant mammals. Twenty-one traps were set up in Site 1 and 11 in Site 5. Results showed that standard traps were more efficient in capturing non-volant mammals than locally-made traps.

    Only one locally-made trap was able to capture one Paradoxurus hermaphroditus out of the 32 traps set up. The low capture may be due to the kind of materials used in locally-made traps that made it not durable enough to prevent the escape of non-volant mammals captured. Identification key of Ingle and Heaney was used in the identification. Threatened Faunal Species A list of threatened species, as per IUCN criteria, as well as endemic, and economically and culturally important species based on published literature and information obtained from the community was generated after the conduct of field sampling.

    Information on species occurrence, socioeconomic importance of the vertebrate fauna to the community, and resource utilization was obtained through key informant interviews and through discussions and integration meetings with the resource utilization study group of the Socioeconomic and Cultural Studies SECS Master Project of the Biodiversity Research Programme BRP for Development in Mindanao: Focus on Mt. Community Validation The results of this study were presented to the local residents of the barangays in Mt.

    Malindang where the sampling sites were located. Simultaneous validation meetings were held on 26 February , attended by the different representatives of the different studies of the BRP Land Malindang Experience and the local community from Mansawan-Gandawan cluster and Peniel.

    The participants from the communities, which included barangay captains, barangay councilmen, local researchers, key informants, and the general community, validated the data gathered and verified species that might not have been encountered in the actual sampling activities. Insights and recommendations were drawn from the participants, and the information obtained was used in the formulation of recommendations for biodiversity conservation and management.

    Analysis of Data Turboveg 2. It can also be used for faunal data. Biodiversity Indices For each sampling site, the following biodiversity indices were considered: species richness, species diversity, and evenness. Species diversity refers to the number species richness and relative abundance of species in a biological community. Socioeconomic and Cultural Activities and the Biophysical Properties of the Ecosystem Discussions and sharing of data with the SECS group were conducted to integrate findings and relate the socioeconomic and cultural data to the findings derived from the faunal survey.

    Validation meetings with the local community had also verified data from the field. The meetings were done to present to the community the result of the recently conducted biodiversity research of the terrestrial vertebrate fauna and the whole BRP; to show to the community the different species of vertebrate fauna collected and to know from them whether the local names taken by the researchers are correct; and to know the issues and concerns of the community regarding the biodiversity research. Existing IKS was assessed by this group through interviews and focus group discussions.

    Nevertheless, the vertebrate fauna study also obtained some information on biodiversity monitoring and conservation practices through interviews with local researchers and other key informants in the communities where sampling was done. In the fall of Mr. Cole returned to the Islands and devoted nearly two years to the study of the pigmy blacks of Bataan province, the Bukidnon of North Central Mindanao, and the several tribes residing about the Gulf of Davao in Southern Mindanao.

    While the primary object of these expeditions was to gather museum collections, much time was given to the study of the mental and material culture, as well as of the language, folklore and anthropometry of the tribes visited. The results of these studies will appear from time to time in the Anthropological Series of this Museum.

    The present paper forms the first issue of Mr. Coles researches. When they reached Cebu April 7, I PI, they were informed by the king that they were welcome but that it was their custom for all ships which entered their ports to pay tribute, and that it was but four days since a junk from Ciama i. Siam laden with gold and slaves had paid tribute. The tribute was refused but friendly relations were estab- lished, rhereupon the king had refreshments of many dishes, all made of meat and contained in porcelain platters, besides many jars of wine brought in.

    When Pigafetta visited the king of Zubu Cebu, he found him seated on a palm mat on the ground, with only a cotton cloth before his privies. From another mat on the ground he was eating turtle eggs which were in to porcelain dishes, and he had four jars of palm wine in front of him covered with sweet smelling herbs and arranged vith four small reeds in each jar by which means he drank. When Pigafetta visited the king of Zubu Cebu, he found him seated on a palm mat on the ground, with only a cotton cloth before his privies With fast shipping, low prices, friendly service and over 1,, in stock items - you're bound to find what you want, at a price you'll love!

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