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Apologies for absence 2. Approval of minutes Approval of minutes published in the September issue of Microbiologist of the 80th Annual Meeting held in Dublin in Matters arising from the previous minutes. The results of this survey have guided the direction of many of our new initiatives. Online meeting booking and online grant application are two facilities requested by members and delivered by us. Our Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn pages enhance the online experience for members and potential new members alike. All completed surveys will be entered into a prize draw. Absoud; J. Adetula; M.

Afanasjeva; F. Akinwole; A. Al-Khayatt; T. Anwar; S. Askin; A. Atuonwu; A. Awadh; N. Bamford; N. Barratt; A. Bartholomew; A. Basit; S. Batters; S. Bhandare; Z. Bi; L. Birse; R. Birtles; R. Borne; C. Brand; J. Broadbent; M. Bruser; M. Burgess; S. Butt; A. Caparnagiu; K. Carolan; H. Carr; P. Cassel; A. Chappell; K. Chopra; C. Churchwood; H. Ciesielczuk; R. Colledge; L. Conlon; F. Corby; G. Cotton; J. Deacon; O.

Diribe; S. Doll; K. Dougal; J. Douglas; C. Duignan; S. Dunsmore; G. Elliott; O. Elwick; L. Farrell; S. Farrell; M. Febrer; S. Fell; D. Fitzhenry; R. Fogerty; R. Fuchs; L. Furness; C.


Gallina-Ramos; Z. Geberehiwot; A. Gillett; F. Gosney; J. Gouriet; L. Gray; K. Guest; M. Gurbo; L. Hall; F. Hassard; M. HassoAgopsowicz; N. Haughton; T. Hill; K. Holland; A. Hurpaul; W. Ind; H. Jacobs; A. Jaffer; B. Kainth; V. Kajander; V. Karpuk; S. Kelly; J. Khalid; B. Khan; S. Khanom; F. King; J. Knight; A. Knight; P. Krol; M. Kurpiewski; B. Lane; D. Lecky; H. Levitt; Y. Li; V. Logina; A. Lyne; L.

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Ryan; E. Sadler; A. Salad; A. Salunkhe; M. Sanjeevan; I. Shabbir; P. Shanmuganathan; S. Shao; L. Sharif; N. Siddique; S. Silvera; H.

Simmonds; D. Small; R. Soriano; B. Standen; R. Steel; H. Strudwick; Y. Syeda; E. Tapp; J. Tejpal; C. Tong; S. Valderama; G. Wallwork; A. Ward; S. Watkins; J. Watts; T. White; K. Whitehead; J. Williams; S. Wilson; G. Yemba; H. Yesilkaya; H. Yeung; A. Yusef; B. For further information visit:. These are all important, but increasingly, a key topic of discussion has been publishing. Learned societies have long histories of publishing high-quality scientific journals, books and reports.

The surplus from publishing is often used to fund membership activity, engage the public, provide career and educational support, and to offer the high-level scientific oversight which these societies do so well. Journal publications — using a peer review system to ensure quality and credibility — are a key part of the way the UK disseminates scientific research and knowledge, usually via university and other library systems.

But a challenge to this long-established route is the argument that the public often has to pay twice to access this knowledge: once through the public funding of research, and then again through the need to pay for the journals which disseminate the outcomes. Government and other funders of research think it is time to change this model, to ensure anyone can access scientific publications funded through public money with no charge. This sounds eminently sensible, but does the ideology match the reality of publishing?

As ever, the answer is not straightforward. If these publications are available for free, then how will they be edited, formatted, presented and stored in an accessible way? Someone will have to pick up the cost even if it is not a traditional subscriber. There are two open access systems that could allow the public to see articles for free.


Firstly there is Gold Open Access, where the author pays a fee to cover publication; the money to support this might well have been included by funders in a grant. Then there is Green Open Access, where an author deposits the final draft of an article or data in a. To construct a viable financial model for the latter system is tricky: how is the infrastructure paid for and maintained, and can we really risk losing the value of professional publications in terms of quality control, format, style and presentation?

Both Green and Gold systems are already operating in a limited way and many publishers, including learned societies, offer the option of Open Access Publications or a hybrid of Open Access and traditional publishing. It is clear that Open Access of some colour is here to stay, and there is an urgent need to produce a viable and sustainable financing mechanism to ensure a rosy future.

But learned societies are concerned. Although many make their publications available for free after a set period anyway, if Green Open Access took off in a substantial way, subscriptions would fall and the drop in income could threaten the substantial charitable work they do. And even switching to the Gold system, which seems more likely, will lead to a period of change that will need to be carefully managed.

What the Society and our Member Organizations would like is recognition from Governments that the changes in publishing are complex: learned societies have a critical role to play as charities in education, public policy and professional development, as well as being key publishers. Policymakers need to take account of that as publishing models evolve. And before we start redesigning publishing, is it really an issue for the public as Open Access supporters claim? Who are the thronging masses who want to read specialist science publications? If there is such demand it has passed me by.

And interlibrary loans for people with a real interest are still there. Open Access is a different model. But the jury is out on whether it is a better model. This article first appeared in The Biologist, Vol. Microbial Biotechnology The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Microbial Biotechnology during January and February Marine genomics: at the interface of marine microbial ecology and biodiscovery.

Heidelberg, K. Crystal ball — Bacterial persistence increases as environmental fitness decreases. Hong, S. Strategies for discovery and improvement of enzyme function: state of the art and opportunities. Kaul, P. Bio-palladium: from metal recovery to catalytic applications. De Corte, S. Journal of Applied Microbiology The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Journal of Applied Microbiology during January and February Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.

Hammer, K. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Dorman, H. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Lambert, R. Dunaliella biotechnology: methods and applications. Hosseini Tafreshi, A. Gilmour, A. Letters in Applied Microbiology The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Letters in Applied Microbiology during January and February Antifungal activity of thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity.

Nostro, A. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum species reduces intestinal permeability in experimental biliary obstruction. White, J. Rapid extraction of bacterial genomic DNA with guanidium thiocyanate. Pitcher, D. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Satish, S. Environmental Microbiology The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Environmental Microbiology during January and February Beyond the Venn diagram: the hunt for a core microbiome.

Shade, A. Bacterial species may exist, metagenomics reveal. Caro-Quintero, A. Omics for understanding microbial functional dynamics. Jansson, J. Targeted metagenomics: a high-resolution metagenomics approach for specific gene clusters in complex microbial communities. Suenaga, H. Proteomics of extremophiles.

Burg, D. Environmental Microbiology Reports The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Environmental Microbiology Reports during January and February Maximize your impact for less! Did you know that Corporate Members get a discounted rate to maximize their impact by advertising on the back cover, inside back cover and inside front cover of Microbiologist?

Volume 86, Issue 6, May 2010

Bakermans, C. Climate change: a catalyst for global expansion of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Paerl, H. Metagenomic analysis of the coral holobiont during a natural bleaching event on the Great Barrier Reef. Littman, R. Quorum-sensing quenching by rhizobacterial volatiles. Chernin, L. Powering microbes with electricity: direct electron transfer from electrodes to microbes.

Lovley, D. With a targeted circulation in excess of 2, copies, Microbiologist is an effective way to reach decision-makers in industry, academia and public services, both in the UK and worldwide. The day began with the Denver Russell Memorial Lecture before two taster presentations for the afternoon sessions on Microbiological safety of imported foods and Microorganisms and climate change.

He began by paying tribute to Professor Denver Russell, whose work has contributed a significant amount of knowledge to the field. He went on to provide an historical look at biocides including mummification, fumigation using burning juniper branches against the plague, and the use of chlorine to prevent childbed fever by Semmelweis in the mids. JeanYves then went on to talk about the varying degrees of susceptibility of different organisms to biocide activity.

The adaptation of microorganisms was described, through the formation of spores, protozoal encystation and the formation The repeated exposure of microorganisms to low concentrations of biocides decreases their susceptibility to biocide treatment: very low concentrations of biocides change the susceptibility profiles of pathogens — but does this matter? Jean-Yves explained that in practice the increased use of biocides on surfaces and in products can promote antibiotic resistance. Sampling methods. In the HPA carried out sampling on 3, imported foodstuffs, examples of contaminants found were Salmonella spp.

Result interpretation is also an important part of the work conducted by the HPA in monitoring imported food with both European and HPA guidelines being used for this analysis; the European guidelines do not cover all food types and thus the HPA have compiled a more comprehensive list including testing parameters.

Next Andrew Nichols from the University of Plymouth discussed climate change and communicable diseases and what the risks are! The main dramatic weather conditions that can have an impact on infectious diseases are: heatwaves, storms, floods, fires and droughts. The effects of these are observed in agriculture, fisheries, ecosystems, economies, health and well-being. The diseases resulting from these changes in climate can be brought about via water, vector or food, although the impact in the UK is low.

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Water can result in an increased risk of disease due to flooding and heavy rainfall when combined with increased temperature, which can lead to outbreaks of toxic algal blooms, and cholera. Increasing ambient temperatures and flooding can also support vector species such as malaria. Outbreaks in countries, such as Greece, that are not commonly associated with malarial disease have been observed in recent years. Increases in temperature can also lead to increases in diarrhoeal diseases, in particular, salmonellosis.

Surveillance, early warning systems, policy responses and risk assessments should go some way to the control of infectious diseases caused by climate change. Katie Laird Following a break for lunch and a chance to visit the trade show, delegates split into two groups for the afternoon sessions.

SfAM meetings secretary, Andy Sails, chaired the afternoon session addressing the Microbiological safety of imported foods. Although HPA guidelines are used in addition to EC regulations for imported foods, exotic foods may not be adequately covered. Sue presented a case study of a local resident wishing to commercially produce a mudfish paste and a raw crab product. Despite samples passing tests for microbiological safety the production processes were deemed to be unsatisfactory, so the products were considered to be high-risk.

Oriental bean curds which are fermented using Bacillus cereus pose a dilemma as this organism may consequently be present in numbers which are classed as unsatisfactory. A further complication associated with B. Some of these are used for wrapping ready-to-eat foods and some are chewed rather than ingested.

In both of these situations, however, the leaves have the potential to transmit pathogenic organisms to consumers. The final group of products described by Sue involved contamination with Salmonella species. Christine Little, HPA Colindale, then spoke about Salad days — foodborne outbreaks due to imported fruit and vegetables: hazards, vehicles and sources.

She explained that although the number of outbreaks associated with fruit and uncooked vegetables is smaller than those associated with meat products, the size of each outbreak can be substantially larger. The year-round demand for fresh fruit and vegetables in the UK has resulted in them being sourced from many different countries through highly complex supply chains. Christine used two specific UK outbreaks to illustrate some of the pertinent issues. The outbreak of Salmonella Bareilly was found to be linked to consumption of bean sprouts. By examining the UK bean sprout distribution network the problem was traced back via caterers to a wholesale producer.

The second example was the outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg which arose from contamination of pre-packed fresh basil grown in Israel. This typified the situation where those affected do not recall the consumption of minor ingredients of a dish. Two prospective population-based studies of infectious intestinal disease conducted 15 years apart iid1 and iid2 were described. Following an initial telephone survey, participants were followed up for a year. Those who developed gastrointestinal symptoms were divided into two groups: one group were simply observed whilst the other had their routine clinical practice altered, including having samples taken.

The results indicated that the observed decrease in cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis is real. This decrease has been attributed to the success of industry-led control interventions.

Sarah then concentrated on Salmonella outbreaks associated with eggs. Recent online publication of foodborne outbreaks listed by type of cuisine has revealed a high odds ratio for Salmonella infections associated with raw shell eggs if the eggs are sourced from outside of the UK. This is compatible with the finding that UK flocks have a much lower prevalence of Salm. Enteritidis than those from other EU member states. The CFA was formed in in response to concerns regarding Listeria in foods. Kaarin emphasized some features of the food products that CFA regulate, such as having short shelf lives, being predominantly multicomponent, UK made and hand wrapped.

Traceability was cited as a non The traceability of raw materials is at the level of field identification, rather than just producer or country of origin. Kaarin concluded by saying that standards which are implemented to assure chill temperatures must be appropriate. Louise Hill-King Afternoon session B provided the opportunity for four eminent speakers to present their thoughts and data regarding the highly topical field of microbes and climate change. The first presentation by Dave Reay of the University of Edinburgh set the scene for the following presentations.

He highlighted the pivotal, yet often overlooked role of microbes in sculpturing our climate and the possibilities for harnessing this ability to manipulate the global climate. During his talk, he overviewed the magnitude of our algae-filled oceans and their role in CO2 cycles. Through increased understanding of geoengineering we have the potential to harness these microbial contributions to our evolving world.

Dietary changes influence microflora and consequently gaseous emissions. Combined forces of climate, human demographics, politics and economics, technology and societal factors all These complex interacting factors all contribute to the evolving dynamics of infectious diseases providing new niches and opportunities for emerging infectious episodes.

These complex interacting forces resulting in the new emergence of infection were illustrated with examples such as Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus CCHFV and its tick vector, Hyalomma marginatum, in Turkey and the Balkans, and the incursions of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes into temperate regions and subsequent new foci of infection with chikungunya virus. This theme was further developed by Paul Gale, also from the AHVLA, who focussed on vector-borne viruses and the driving forces that influence their dynamics within Europe.

Modelling studies have predicted that we will see incursions of infections such as CCHFV, Rift Valley Fever virus and African horse sickness from their current endemic regions. The example of CCHFV was further explored to model how these infections were being predicted to expand, such as through the spread of ticks on migratory birds. Tools such as the Geographical Information System GIS contribute towards these modelling efforts, further facilitated through European networking initiatives such as Epizone.

The session concluded with a switch in emphasis, this time looking from the perspective of the pathogen. Paul Hoskisson from the University of Strathclyde explored pathogen adaptation to their changing planet. He discussed how extreme virulence was likely to reflect recently emerged pathogens and that through co-evolution with their host, they would eventually adapt to less virulent forms. During his talk he also explored the largely anthropogenic forces that result in the emergence of novel pathogens through exertion of selective forces on the complex ecological microbial dynamics. Royal Society of Medicine, London Professor Lee will present: Systems metabolic engineering for a green chemical industry.

It has been 20 years since the term metabolic engineering was officially introduced. Microorganisms isolated from nature are often inefficient, so metabolic engineering has been employed to improve microbial performance. Recently, metabolic engineering has become more powerful and is now essential in developing superior microorganisms formed from the integration of systems biology with synthetic biology. In his lecture, Professor Lee will present the general strategies for metabolic engineering of microorganisms.

These will be accompanied by many successful examples, including the production of chemicals, fuels. Systems metabolic engineering will also be introduced as an essential technology in making any bioprocess competitive. The lecture will begin at 6. There will be a drinks reception following the lecture. If you wish to attend the lecture, please contact emlecture sfam.

Didier Pittet, University Hospital in Geneva. Bacterial resistance and cross-resistance: overrated story or real concern? Recent advances in antibiotic resistance in Ps. Wednesday 4 July Session 3 continued: Bioremediation Session 2 continued: Natural and experimental adaptation in bacteria Moderate levels of regular exercise seem to reduce our susceptibility to illness compared with an inactive lifestyle Matthews et al.

Immune function and infection risk Infections of the nose, throat, windpipe trachea or the two airways that branch from the trachea as it reaches the lungs bronchi are the most common infections that people acquire. These upper respiratory tract infections URTIs include the common cold, sinusitis and tonsillitis.

The more severe and feverish symptoms of flu are caused by an influenza virus. The average adult has two to three URTIs each year and young children have twice as many. We are constantly exposed to the viruses that cause these infections, but some people seem more susceptible to catching URTIs than others. Every day our immune system protects us from an army of pathogenic microbes that bombard the body.

These factors can suppress the immune system, making a person more vulnerable to infection. Researchers have found a link between moderate regular exercise and reduced frequency of URTIs compared with a. A one-year study of over adults found that participating in one to two hours of moderate exercise per day was associated with a one third reduction in the risk of getting a URTI compared with individuals that had an inactive lifestyle Matthews et al. Other studies have shown that when 40 minutes of moderate exercise is repeated on a daily basis there is a cumulative effect that leads to a longterm improvement in immune response.

Other factors that were correlated with a reduction in URTI risk included a high intake of fruit, being married, being male, having a moderate or high level of fitness and having a low level of mental stress. Figure 1.