As the main practice, rest within the state of uncontrived mind with undistracted recognition. As the conclusion, recognize whatever appears as your own mind and train your awareness with skill. Relying upon the sequential arising of experiences, exert yourself in meditation until conceptual mind is exhausted. There are two ways in which experiences arise: as unfavorable experiences and as favorable experiences. As for the first: All unfavorable experiences—whatever they are, such as dullness, agitation, illness, fear, fright, or doubt—arise from your meditation.
Therefore, recognize them to be experiences. Without abandoning them, meditate, taking those very things as the object of your view and meditation. Based on that, the experience of the essence, emptiness, arises. Based upon that, the experience of attaining realization arises. Based upon that, the experience of turning away from attachment arises.
Gampopa Teaches Essence Mahamudra: Interviews with his heart disciples, Dusum Khyenpa and others
With that sequential arising of experiences, you should exert yourself in practice without any complacency. Merely seeing the essence is not sufficient—you must meditate in order to attain realization. Merely attaining realization is not sufficient—you must meditate in order to turn away from attachment. Merely turning away from attachment is not sufficient—you must meditate so that, through the liberation of conceptual mind into dharmata, conceptual mind is exhausted, phenomena are exhausted, and you awaken.
Sign in. However, this situation would not last: The explosive developments were interrupted in the mid-ninth century as the Empire began to disintegrate, leading to a century-long interim of civil war and decentralization about which we know little; the early Vajrayana , transmitted from India to Tibet may be differentiated by the specific term "Mantrayana". From this basis, Vajrayana was established in its entirety in Tibet. From the eighth until the eleventh century, this textual tradition was the only form of Buddhism in Tibet.
Langdarma persecuted monks and nuns, attempted to wipe out Buddhism, his efforts, were not successful. A few monks escaped to Amdo in the northeast of Tibet, where they preserved the lineage of monastic ordination; the period of the th centuries saw increasing popularity of a new class of texts which would be classified as the Dzogchen "Mind series". Some of these texts present themselves as translations of Indian works, though according to David Germano , most are original Tibetan compositions; these texts promote the view that true nature of the mind is empty and luminous and seem to reject traditional forms of practice.
An emphasis on the Dzogchen textual tradition is a central feature of the Nyingma school.
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From the eleventh century onward, there was an attempt to reintroduce Vajrayana Buddhism to Tibet; this saw new translation efforts which led to the foundation of new Vajrayana schools which are collectively known as the Sarma "New translation" schools because they reject the old translations of the Nyingma canon. It was at that time that Nyingmapas began to see themselves as a distinct group and the term "Nyingma" came into usage to refer to those who continued to use the "Old" or "Ancient" translations. Nyingma writers such as Rongzom and Nyangrel were instrumental in defending the old texts from the critiques of the Sarma translators and in establishing a foundation for the mythology and philosophy of the Nyingma tradition.
Rongzom Chokyi Zangpo was the most influential of the 11th century Nyingma authors, wr.
The Very Essence of Mind, Mahamudra, the One Sufficient Path by Gampopa
After that he known as a great scholar in Tibet , Mongolia and India and was proficient in the five great sciences of Buddhist philosophy, grammar and sacred Sanskrit literature as well as the minor sciences of rhetoric , poetry and astrology , he is considered to be the fourth Sakya Forefather and sixth Sakya Trizin and one of the most important figures in the Sakya lineage. His father was his mother Machig Nyitri Cham. Sakya Pandita was the nephew of Jetsun Dragpa Gyaltsen , became the principal disciple of this prominent scholar.
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He was instructed in the sutras and tantras by Dragpa Gyaltsen and mastered Sanskrit and three Inner Asian languages. Legend has it that he visited Kyirong in Nepal on his way back, there defeated a brahman Shastri in a debate on logic, he overcome his opponent in a contest of supernatural powers. As he wanted to show his fellow Tibetans the peculiar dress of Indian Brahmin priests, he brought the Shastri to Tibet where the unlucky loser was killed by the protective deities of the land; the Shastri's head was tied to a pillar of the great temple in Sakya which remained until modern times.
He acceded as dansa chenpo or abbot-ruler of Sakya upon the death of his uncle Dragpa Gyaltsen in According to Tibetan historiography , Genghis Khan subjugated a king of Tibet in and sent a letter to the Sakya abbot. After the death of Genghis Khan in , the Tibetans stopped sending tribute; this is, however, a legend without historical foundation. In he sent an invasion force under Dorta into Tibet; the Mongols reached the Phanyul Valley north of Lhasa , killing some monks and destroying and looting monasteries and towns.
The Gyal Lhakhang Monastery went up in flames and many monks of the Reting Monastery were slaughtered by the horsemen; the Drigung Monastery was saved, ostensibly since the Mongols believed that a sudden avalanche of stones could be attributed to the supernatural powers of the lamas. According to L.
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According to J. Chang, it was rather the Drigung abbot. Chronicles assert that Dorta sent message to Prince Godan and enumerated the four foremost sects and lamas of Tibet: Kadam, Taklung and Sakya. Godan drew the conclusion that Sakya Pandita was an important and wise lama who could show the road to salvation, ordered to send a letter of "invitation" and presents to him; the actual reason for selecting the Sakya might have been that the sect was specialized in magic rituals that resonated with Mongol beliefs, was prominent in spreading Buddhist morality.
In fact, recent research has shown that the letter of summons sent by Godan is a fabrication. Sakya Pandita was indeed summoned to come to Godan's royal camp at Liangzhou in ; the cleric left Sakya in the company of his two young nephews, the ten-year-old Phagpa and six-year-old Chakna Dorje. As he continually preached sermons along his way he did not arrive at Prince Godan's camp until He is said to have cured Prince Godan of a serious illness leprosy.
In return, he was given "temporal authority over the 13 myriarchies of Central Tibet. Tibetan historians quote a long letter by his hand to the various clerical and temporal lords in Tibet in In order to spare Tibet from devastating invasions, he wrote, it was necessary that the local regimes unconditionally accepted Mongol overlordship.
A census was to be taken, the lords must henceforth carry out the administration in consultation with envoys dispatched by Sakya and in accordance with Mongol. This bodhisattva is variably depicted and portrayed in different cultures as either male or female. In Japan this figure is known as Kannon.
Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down"; the word loka is absent from the name. It was thought that this was due to a lack of fluency, as Guanzizai indicates the original Sanskrit form was Avalokitasvara, "who looks down upon sound". It is now understood, the original form, is the origin of Guanyin "Perceiving sound, cries". In late imperial China , these early esoteric traditions still thrived in Buddhist communities.
Deity yoga Deity yoga is a practice of Vajrayana Buddhism involving identification with a chosen deity through visualisations and rituals, the realisation of emptiness. According to the Tibetan scholar Tsongkhapa , deity yoga is what separates Buddhist Tantra practice from the practice of other Buddhist schools. Deity yoga involves the generation stage and the completion stage. In the generation stage, one dissolves the mundane world and visualizes one's chosen deity, its mandala and companion deities, resulting in identification with this divine reality. In the completion stage, one dissolves the visualization of and identification with the yidam in the realization of sunyata or emptiness.
Completion stage practices can include subtle body energy practices; the purpose of Deity yoga is to bring the meditator to the realization that the yidam or meditation deity and the practitioner are in essence the same, that they are non-dual. According to John Powers. The fact that the deity is a reflection of qualities inherent in the practitioner is what makes this practice different than mere deluded or wishful thinking. The yidam appears in a mandala and the practitioner visualizes himself or herself and their environment as the yidam and mandala of their Deity Yoga practice; this visualization method undermines a habitual belief that views of reality and self are solid and fixed, enabling the practitioner to purify spiritual obscurations and to practice compassion and wisdom simultaneously: Deity Yoga employs refined techniques of creative imagination and photism in order to self-identify with the divine form and qualities of a particular deity as the union of method or skilful means and wisdom.
Representations of the deity, such as a statues, paintings, or mandalas, are employed as an aid to visualization in both the Generation Stage and the Completion Stage of Anuttarayoga Tantra. The mandalas are symbolic representations of sacred enclosures, sacred architecture that house and contain the uncontainable essence of a yidam. Mandalas are used as an aid in realizing the inner ground: xternal ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, this unity finds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing that adamantine plane of being on which the aspirant to Buddhahood wishes to establish himself.
The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala. In Tantric Buddhism , the generation stage is the first phase of Deity yoga, it is associated with the'Father Tantra' class of anuttara-yoga-tantras of the Sarmapa or associated with what is known as Mahayoga Tantras by the Nyingmapa. One practices oneself in the identification with the meditational Buddha or deity by visualisations, until one can meditate single-pointedly on being the deity.
According to Tsongkhapa , throughout the various stages of visualization one is to maintain the cognition of emptiness and "one trains in everything to appear as like illusions". Reginald Ray writes that during the process of yidam visualization, the deity is to be imaged as not solid or tangible, as "empty yet apparent", with the character of a mirage or a rainbow.
In the generation stage of Deity Yoga, the practitioner visualizes the "Four Purities" which define the principal Tantric methodology of Deity Yoga that distinguishes it from the rest of Buddhism : Seeing one's body as the body of the deity Seeing one's environment as the pure land or mandala of the deity Perceiving one's enjoyments as bliss of the deity, free from attachment Performing one's actions only for the benefit of others Front generation is a form of meditative visualization employed in Tantric Buddhism in which the yidam is visualized as being present in the sky facing the practitioner as opposed to the self-identification that occurs in self generation.
According to the Vajrayana tradition, this approach is considered less advanced, hence safer for the sadhaka , is engaged more for the ri. Drepung Monastery ' Drepung Monastery , located at the foot of Mount Gephel , is one of the "great three" Gelug university gompas of Tibet. The other two are Sera Monastery.
Drepung is the largest of all Tibetan monasteries and is located on the Gambo Utse mountain, five kilometers from the western suburb of Lhasa. Freddie Spencer Chapman reported, after his trip to Tibet, that Drepung was at that time the largest monastery in the world, housed 7, monks, "but sometimes as many as 10, monks.
All three were reestablished in exile in the s in Karnataka state in south India. Drepung and Ganden are in Mundgod and Sera is in Bylakuppe. Drepung Monastery was founded in by Jamyang Choge Tashi Palden, one of Tsongkhapa's main disciples, it was named after the sacred abode in South India of Shridhanyakataka. Drepung was the principal seat of the Gelugpa school and it retained the premier place amongst the four great Gelugpa monasteries.
Drepung was known for the high standards of its academic study, was called the Nalanda of Tibet, a reference to the great Buddhist monastic university of India.
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Old records show that there were two centres of power in Drepung: the so-called lower chamber associated with the Dalai Lamas-to-be, the upper chamber associated with the descendants of Sonam Drakpa , an illustrious teacher who died in ; the estate of the Dalai Lamas at Drepung Monastery, called Ganden Phodrang, had been constructed in by Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo, retrospectively named and counted as 2nd Dalai Lama.
The name of the Tibetan government established by the 5th Dalai Lama came from the name of this estate. It seems to be accepted that Dragpa Gyaltsen was the fourth holder of the gzims khang gong ma incarnation line. According to Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center gzims khang gong ma 04 grags pa rgyal mtshan has been his "primaryTitle".
Since the search for his reincarnation has been banned, he has been the last one. Chapman reported that in the late s Drepung was divided into four colleges, each housing monks from a different locality: "one being favoured by Khampas, another by Mongolians , so on. Drepung is now divided into what are known as the seven great colleges: Gomang, Deyang , Gyelwa or Tosamling and Ngagpa, it can be a somewhat useful analogy to think of Drepung as a university along the lines of Oxford or the Sorbonne in the Middle Ages , the various colleges having different emphases, teaching lineages, or traditional geographical affiliations.
According to local sources, today the population at the monastery in Lhasa is about monks, due to population capping enforced by the Chinese government. However, the institution has continued its tradition in exile with campuses in South India on land in Karnataka given to the Tibetan community in exile by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The monastery in India today houses over 5, celibate monks, with around 3, at Drepung Loseling and some 2, at Drepung Gomang. Drepung monastery was shut down by Chinese authorities on 14 March , after monk-led protests against C. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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YouTube Videos. Tibetan family in Kham attending a horse festival. Rishabhanatha , the founder of Jainism attained nirvana near Mount Kailash in Tibet. Standing Buddha statue at the Tokyo National Museum. One of the earliest known representations of the Buddha , 1st—2nd century CE. The Buddha teaching the Four Noble Truths. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda , Bihar, India. Looking at the east entrance from Central Park West. This building was built in , and it opened in It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves "the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India.
The 14th Dalai Lama meeting with U. President Barack Obama in Due to his widespread popularity, the Dalai Lama has become the modern international face of Tibetan Buddhism. Vajradhara Holder of the Thunderbolt or Tibetan Dorje Chang with his consort, Sino-Tibetan culture, early 19th century, copper alloy, black and red lacquer, gilt. The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Statue of Padmasambhava , a central mytho-historical figure of the Nyingma tradition, Bhutan. Part of the Dzogchen text The cuckoo of awareness, from Dunhuang.