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Meillet, Grammaire du Vieux- Perse, 2d ed. Geiger und A. Kuhn; Strassburg Hinz, ZDMG Williams Jackson. Johnson, Gram. Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch; Marburg King and R. MB Gr. Meillet, Grammaire du Vieux Perse; Paris Nyberg, Rel. Nyberg, Die Religionen des alten Iran, deutsch von H. Schaeder; Leipzig Oppert, Les Inscriptions des Achemenides; Paris Prasek, Geschichte der Meder und Perser, vol. II; Gotha Rawlinson, JRAS vol. Reichelt, Aw. Scheil, Inscriptions des Achem6- nides, supplement et suite, in Memoires etc.

Cuneiform Supplement; Nash- ville Ancient Persian Lexicon and Texts; Nashville VS or Vdt. I; Nashville XXIX, no. Die Keilinschriften der Achii- meniden; Leipzig Bang, Die altpersischen Keilinschriften in IJmschrift und tlbersetzung, 1. Lieferung; Leipzig Lieferung, Nachtrage und Be- richtigungen; Leipzig Other abbreviations are readily understood; they include those for modern scholars and their works when only slightly shortened, for Greek and Latin authors and their works, for names of languages, for grammatical terms.

A small v indicates a copy with variant orthog- raphy. A Roman numeral after a gap indicates a special part of the inscription. Phrases or words are designated after a gap: By two numerals, indicating column and line. By one numeral, indicating line. By 0, indicating a line preceding those previously known and numbered. By f after the line-number, indicating that the phrase or word runs over into the next line. Note also the following indications: The lack of a number where it is expected indi- cates that the inscription consists of one line only.

PART I. Old Persian is the name applied to the Persian language used in the cuneiform inscrip- tions of the Achaemenian dynasty; it can be localized as the language of southwestern Persia, or Persis in the narrower sense, and was the vernacular speech of the Achaemenian rulers. The OP inscriptions are commonly accompanied also by translations into Elamite and Accadian, en- graved in other types of cuneiform writing, and sometimes by an Aramaic version or an Egyptian hieroglyphic version. Linguistically, OP belongs to the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian or Aryan, which is one of the main divisions of the Indo- European family of languages.

The Iranian Languages 1 are, like many other sets of languages, divisible on a chrono- logical basis into three periods: Old Iranian, Middle Iranian, and New 2 Iranian. They were spread in ancient times over the territory bounded by the Persian Gulf on the south, by Mesopo- tamia and Armenia on the west, and by the Caucasus Mountains; to the east of the Caspian Sea they extended considerably to the north of the present boundary of Iran and Afghanistan, into the Pamir plateau of Turkestan, and thence approximately along the course of the Indus River to the Gulf of Oman.

This is even today approximately the area of Iranian-speaking peoples, although at all periods there have been islands of non-Iranian speech within it, and islands of Iranian speech outside it. Old Iranian includes two languages repre- sented by texts, Old Persian and Avestan, and a number of other dialects which are but very slightly known. West, Gdr. Horn, Gdr. They are mainly inscriptions of Darius the Great b. Avestan is the language of the Avesta or sacred writings of the Mazdayasnians, known also as Parsis i. Persians and as Zoroastrians or followers of Zoroaster, the prophet who pro- claimed the religion.

It consists linguistically of two parts: an older part containing the Gafla's or metrical sermons of Zoroaster himself, and the Later Avesta, differing in a number of linguistic features from the GaOa's. Zoroaster himself came from the northwest, but his successes in convert- ing to his faith were made in the northeast, in Bactria; it is therefore disputed as to whether Avestan is a northwestern or a northeastern lan- guage.

It is noticeable that it agrees rather with Median than with OP, but this is not decisive. Among the less known Old Iranian lan- guages the most important was Median, known only from glosses, place and personal names, and its developments in Middle Persian, apart from borrowings in OP, which are of considerable im- portance for the understanding of OP itself. Others were the language of the Carduchi, pre- sumably the linguistic ancestor of modern Kurd- ish; Parthian, the language of a great empire which contended against Rome in the time just before and after the beginning of the Christkn era; Sogdian in the northeast, the ancestor of the medieval Sogdian; Scythian, the language or languages of the various tribes known in OP as Saka, located to the east of the Caspian and north of Parthia and Sogdiana, but also to the west of the Caspian on the steppes north of the Euxine Sea.

Middle Iranian includes the Iranian di- alects as they appear from about b. Arsacid Pahlavi was the official language of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, which ruled from B. It is represented in some bilingual in- scriptions alongside the Sasanian Pahlavi, where it is often called Chaldaeo-Pahlavi or Parthian; by the parchment manuscripts of Auroman; and by certain Manichaean texts from Turf an IV.

It is also called Northwest Pahlavi, and appar- ently was developed from a dialect which was almost or quite identical with that of Media. The Sasanian or Southwest Pahlavi was the official language of the Sasanian dynasty, which ruled from a.

It is known from some rock- inscriptions of the kings in the general region of Persepolis, datable in the 3d and 4th centuries, some being accompanied by a translation into Arsacid Pahlavi or even by a second translation into Greek; from some texts on Egyptian papyri, of about the 8th century; from many religious texts preserved by the Zoroastrians III ; and from some of the Manichaean texts found at Turfan. In inscriptional form it can be observed in legends on coins, seals, and gems, until near the end of the 7th century. It appears to have developed from Old Persian or from a very similar dialect.

The 'Book-Pahlavi' includes the writings preserved by the Zoroastrians of Persia and India, forming a very considerable body of literature divisible into 1 translations of parts of the Avesta, with commentary, 2 texts on other religious subjects, 3 texts on other than religious topics. They represent both Sasanian and Arsa- cid Pahlavi. They are written in an alphabet derived from that of Aramaic, and, like all the early Pahlavi writings and inscriptions, contain an extremely high percentage of Semitic words; but many of these were to be read with the Ira- nian equivalents, even as we write id est and say 'that is', viz.

The manuscripts found at Turfan, in the early years of the 20th century, give us texts that are mostly of the 8th and 9th centuries, though some of them go back almost to the beginning of the Christian era. These texts represent several dialects, including the Arsacid and the Sasanian types, the Sogdian known also from a trilingual inscription of Kara-Balgassun , and a dialect known as 'Eastern Iranian', perhaps a derivative of northeastern Scythian, in which there are texts of the Buddhists of Khotan.

The notable peculiarity of these Turfan texts is that they are written in relatively pure Iranian, without the Semitic writings for the words which are to be spoken by the Iranian equivalent. Among the earliest traces of Pahlavi, how- ever, are certain legends in Greek characters on coins of Indo-Scythic rulers of the Turaska dy- nasty in northwestern India, belonging to the first two Christian centuries. New Iranian includes the Iranian lan- guages from about a. The languages of this period are the following: I.

Persian, the national language of Persia to this day, spoken in numerous varying dialects throughout the empire; some of the aberrant di- alects may go back to different dialects of an- tiquity, but the language as a whole seems to come from the general types of the Old Persian and the Avestan. The most highly esteemed literary Persian is the dialect of Shiraz. Pushtu, sometimes called Afghan, the national language of Afghanistan.

Baluchi, the language of Baluchistan. The dialects of the Pamir, in the northeast. The Caspian dialects, to the south and west of the Caspian Sea; probably derived from ancient Scythian. The Kurdish dialects, apparently derived from the ancient Carduchian; now spoken by various tribes in western Persia and in the neighboring parts of the Turkish Republic.

The Ossetic dialects, in the general re- gion of the Caucasus; derived from the Scythian of Southern Russia. The Yagnobi or dialect spoken in the valley of the Yagnob, in the northeast; appar- ently derived from ancient Sogdian. All but the last division consist of varying dialects.

The Persians in Bombay and its vicinity, usually called Parsees, speak the Indie language known as Gujrati or Gujerati. Dialect Mixtuke in the Old Peesian Inscriptions. Like most or perhaps all other series of documents, the OP inscriptions are not in pure OP dialect, free from admixture from outside. Lebanon', Hatdita- name of an Armenian betray their non- Iranian character by the I; a few words lack a convincing IE etymology, such as si'kabrus' 'car- nelian', Qarmil 'timber', yakd a kind of wood , skovMS 'weak, lowly', or are obvious borrowings, such as maSka- 'inflated skin' from Aramaic.

But the main outside influence is that of the Median dialect, seen in phonetic and lexical differences, perhaps also in variant grammatical forms. Aramaic also seems to have had a certain influence on the phrasing and the syntax. There is no evidence that OP itself, at the time of the inscriptions, possessed a literature of any kind apart from these inscriptions themselves.

The Median Dialect was the language of the great Median Empire, which at the death of Cyaxares in extended from the Indus to the Aegean Sea; the last Median ruler was Astyages, son of Cyaxares, who in' was conquered and deposed by his grandson Cyrus, son of Cambyses King of Persis and of Mandane daughter of Astyages.

The new ruler naturally took over the Median chancellery and the Median royal titles, and their influence is still seen in the language of the OP inscriptions of Darius and his followers. OP Woeds showing Median Peculiari- ties are the following, which are here listed in groups, according to their meanings and uses; fuller discussion will be found in the phonology and in the Lexicon, s.

Place-Names: Asagarta 'Sagartia', a district of Media, with s in asa- from k if it means 'stone'. Two East Iranian names, outside the Median territory, show non-OP phonetics identical with those of Median: Baxtrtf 'Bactria', with tr retained after a spirant. Zra'ka 'Drangiana', with z from g or gh. Personal names: taxma- 'brave', with x retained before m, in the names of the Mede Taxmaspada and of the Sagartian Cicataxma. UvaxUra 'Cyaxares', a king of the Median line, with Ir retained after a sibilant.

Words in the official titles: xMyaOiya 'king', with 0j from ti. Technical words of the religion: ziira 'evil', with z from gh. Varka-zam- ' month of the Wolf -Men', with z from g; but the entire word is merely re- stored after the Elamite. Miscellaneous: masc. ParSava with 0; the name seems to have been imposed by an outside source. Dialect Mixture in the OP Fokms may be regarded as uncertain, though in the verbs there are alternative forms used apparently without distinction of meaning: thus impf.

Only the peculiar plural aniyaha bagaha 'the other gods', with double endings like Vedic Skt. Of the two words for 'good', naiba- is a religious term, and va h u- is found only in proper names. Of the two for 'earth', zam- which would have Med. On some other points, the usages of Pahlavi seem to inform us: nom.

Aramaic Influence. Aramaic, a Semitic language, was the international language of south- western Asia from the middle of the eighth cen- tury B. As OP had no developed literary style at the time of the inscriptions, it is to be expected that the style of the inscriptions should reflect the style of Aramaic ; and it does. Tedesco, Le Monde oriental The Script of the Old Persian In- scriptions is, as we have said, of the cuneiform type: that is, the characters are made of strokes which can be impressed on soft materials by a stylus having an angled end.

The OP inscrip- tions, being on hard materials, must have been made with engraving tools with which the strokes impressed on soft materials were imitated. There was no tradition from antiquity as to the signifi- cance of the characters, nor was any OP inscrip- tion accompanied by a version in a previously known system of writing; modern scholars were therefore obliged to start from the very beginning in the task of decipherment.

Early Steps in the Decipheement. OP inscriptions and writing are mentioned in a num- ber of ancient authors, from Herodotus onward, and are remarked upon and described by certain modern travelers early in the seventeenth century, who published parts of inscriptions from Per- sepolis in the accounts of their travels.

The first inscription to be published in complete form was DPc, given by Chardin in Better copies of several were given in by Carsten Xiebuhr, who recognized that the inscriptions were com- posed in three systems of writing, and that the writing ran from left to right: the direction of the writing was shown by two copies of XPe with somewhat differing line-divisions.

Tychsen in discovered that the three systems of writing represented three different languages, and that a recurring diagonal wedge in the simplest of the three types was a word-divider; but he wrongly assigned the inscriptions to the Parthian period. Friedrich Miinter in inde- pendently identified the word-divider, and thought that a frequently recurring series of characters must be the word for 'king'; he as- signed the inscriptions to the Achaemenian pe- riod.

Grotefend of Frankfurt in ap- plied himself to the problem of the decipherment, and by a comparison of DPa and XPe in Xie- buhr's copies he made the first real progress. He assumed that the inscriptions were inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings, that they consisted es- sentially of the names and titles of the kings, and that those in the simplest type of writing were in Persian, closely resembling the language of the Avesta.

He was helped by Silvestre de Sacy's recent decipherment of the royal titles in Pahlavi, '. He decided upon Darius, whose father Hystaspes had not been king, rather than upon Cyrus, since Cyrus and his father Cambyses had names be- ginning with the same letter' whereas the cor- responding two names in the inscriptions began with different characters; he thought the name of Artaxerxes to be too long. But his reliance on the later pronunciations misled him sorely, and of the 22 different signs in DPa and XPe he got only 10 correctly, and even for two of these he admitted two values each o and e, p and b.

Apart from the three names, 'king' and 'great' were the only words which he identified correctly; later he identified the name 'Cyrus' in CMa. But the remainder of his read- 1 A. Johnson, Jr. Rogers, History of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. After a gap of twenty-one years other scholars took up the task, but progress was mainly in identifying individual characters and single words. The notable steps in the decipherment were the following: Lassen in supplied the vowel a after many consonants; that is, he realized that these consonants had an inherent a.

Oppert at the same time discovered that diphthongs were indicated by i or u after a consonant with inherent a, and that n and m were omitted before consonants. Summary of the Decipherment. The de- tail of the decipherment can best be portrayed in tabular form. The Old-Persian Syllabary. The in- scriptions composed in the Old Persian language are inscribed on various hard materials in a syllabary, each character having the value of a vowel or of a consonant plus a vowel.

There is no conclusive evidence how the Akkadian characters were utilized and how the new characters received OP values; though several scholars have advanced theories. The extant in- scriptions are largely those of Darius I and of Xerxes, and it is tempting to ascribe the inven- tion to the orders of Darius when he wished to record the events of his accession, on the Rock of Behistan; but there are three inscriptions of Cyrus, as well as one each purporting to be of Ariaramnes and of Arsames.

These last two may have been set up as labels to small monuments or other objects of a later period; 2 the orthography points to approximately the time of Artaxerxes II. The transcription here used differs in 1 For a critique of these theories, see Wb. KIA lv-Ix. JAOS The gold tablet A a Hc may have been a third in the same series; all three are in Old Persian only. ZDMG Klio 8. The other three known inscriptions of Cyrus the Great are in Akkadian; but Strabo We need attach no importance to the identification of the languages by Onesicritus, but the account indicates that Cyrus had inscriptions engraved in more than one language; in which case it is unlikely that his own vernacular was omitted.

IS i u without mark of length KT, Wb. Some scholars also regularly indicate omitted h and n by raised letters or by letters in paren- thesis, or the omitted n by a tilde over the pre- ceding vowel. A few other variations are found, but it is hardly worth while to list them. The Repkesentation of a in OP Writ- ing.

The Representation of i and u in OP Writing. The i is occasionally omitted after an i-inherent consonant, and the u after a u-inherent con- sonant; there are the following examples, in the normalization of which we indicate the omission by printing the inherent vowel as a raised char- acter: v'dbis DB 1. Arrriniyaiy four times in DB; also -mm-, fva-diy A 2 Sd 3; but jiva, jwahya, ajlmtam, jiva twice each, in inscriptions of Darius and Xerxes.

M'dra, M'tra, and also MU[ra], in late inscrip- tions. P 8; Vahyav'Sdapaya Sd. Nabuk'dracara DB 1. Kud'-ruS DB 2. The i is omitted after an a-inherent consonant, three times in inscriptions of Darius, and four times in those of Artaxerxes II; we may indicate this by a raised o: Babfrauv DBi 11;- elsewhere Babirauv. Written Indication or Length of i and u was at most sporadic, and is not abso- lutely certain even where it seems to be meant.

Perhaps in the verbs the longer writings should be normalized niyjdvayam, etc. The last word gives the clue to the origin of this usage: asn. Cilyil and gen. The reason for this is that the nom. The Combination h'i was peculiar, since it could normally be used only for the value hai, not for hi.

Before an enclitic, the -y of -hy for -hi disappeared: paribarah'-dis DB 4. Both types of writing are exemplified in maniydhay DPe 20, maniydiy XPh 47, for maniydhaiy. The Persistence of Vowel f into OP 1 makes difficulties in the normalization. The name aftam" is jiama, though the characters might equally well stand for ArMma; and those who would normal- ize with r as a vowel, write 'rMrna, using the sign for the glottal stop to represent the character which elsewhere has the vowel value o.

To avoid the necessity of making decisions in cases where there is no evidence, the normalization here employed is ar alike for phonetic ar and for phonetic f, and for those instances where we do not have proof of the value, which may also be ara or ra. The evidence which may determine the phonetic value consists of the following kinds: I. The evidence of etymological comparison: since OP r comes only from older r, it is testified to by correspondence with r or its products in other languages; notably 1 with Skt.

The evidence of borrowed words: OP words appear in Elamite with ir or ur for r, and with or for ar; but there are occasional incon- sistencies. There are also some borrowed words in Armenian, and a few in Arabic from Pahlavi , which have differences reflecting the distinction in OP between y and or. But sometimes the various items of evi- dence contradiet one another, and then a decision must be made as to which line of evidence is stronger. Mrd has -ar- by analogy to other forms of the verb fair-. Purg, Arab. Mi-ir-qa-nu-ia-ip 'Hyrcanians', Phi. Gurgan, Gk. Old Persian ar seems to be established in the following: By the Elam.

By the Avestan and Skt. Karkd, Gk. Kope, Kopucoi; Elam. Old Persian aro seems to be established in the following: By cognates in Skt. By Elamite and other transcriptions: Arakadrih or Ark-? By transliterations: Patigrabam; -dra- in Nabu- kudracara; Zraka, Gk. Old Persian graphic or of uncertain value. OP graphic or cannot be evaluated with certainty in the following: Ablaut grades uncertain: Ardummtf, for which the Elam.

Adequate cognates lacking: arjanam, BarmiS. Old Persian ar before y and v. In this position OP r cannot be demonstrated with cer- tainty. In some words there is testimony to the value ar. The sequence -ariy- is found in Ariya and compounds , where Elam. The correspond- ing Skt. In this verb then there was in these forms a vowel between the k and the r; either a full vowel or the reduced vowel shwa secundum or t , which assumed the full value of a short vowel in Indo-Iranian.

It is likely that the other two verbs had the same formation. Thus there is no sure support for the sequence Ti in OP. For OP -ants- we find the following ex- amples: haruva-, once written jra-haravam; Skt. Old Persian final i. Regularly in the -ahyd genitive of the month name, before rnahyd: Viyaxnahyti mdhyd DB 1.

Sometimes in other genitives standing before the nouns on which they depend: UvaxMrahyd taumdyd DB 4. Four times before an initial vowel, all in one short passage DB 3. The unwritten consonants may be represented by raised letters in normalized tran- scription, when desirable: thus hya! Any long con- sonants which had developed by assimilation had been shortened in Iranian; even the doubles that came from enclisis were graphically reduced to singles: apiUm DB 1.

In DSk 4 there is what seems to be a ligature for AM-ha. The ideograms, without addition of syllabic characters, stand for the nominative singular; 1 Final s after! Thus ace. The use of ideograms had its limitations in time and place, to judge by the extant inscrip- tions. The other texts are too brief or defective to warrant special remark. In general, then, more ideograms appear in later texts, and they were more used at Susa than elsewhere.

Few texts have any irregularity in this respect, and few use both ideogram and full writing for the same word; there are the following exceptions: DSe contains all five words, with a regular use of XS, and the rest in full, except that after four occurrences of Auramazdd and its forms AM is found in line 50 restored but certain. A s Sc seems to have XS and xfoyaSiya; but this is a much mutilated text, and also the in- scriptions of Artaxerxes II are not accurately written.

Numerals: The cardinals are not written in full except aim- 'one' in a formulaic phrase , but are indicated by signs: 1, a single long vertical wedge; 2, two short vertical wedges, one above the other; 3, two short verticals with a long vertical to the right, and so on; 10, an angle with point to the left; 20, two small angles, one above the other; , two short horizontal wedges meeting at their points, above a single vertical wedge.

Smaller units are placed to the right of larger units. But the ordinals are written in full, with the regular characters. The cuneiform characters for the numerals are given at the end of the Lexicon, where their oc- currences also are listed. The Separation of Words is made in OP by a word-divider, which in the Behistan text has the form of an angle with the point to the left, and in other texts is a single slanting wedge running from upper left to lower right. H; elsewhere it does not stand at the be- ginning, but it stands at the end of DPd, of some copies of XPd, of A s Pa, and of some of the items in A?

It is frequently lacking between words in Scheil's texts from Susa, notably in DSa, DSc, DSd, DSg, DSi, DSj, DSy, A 2 Sd; these texts have been published not in mechanical reproduc- tions, but only in hand-drawn copies, but the reliability of the copyist is confirmed by similar omissions in DSy, our text of which has been read from a carbon rubbing of the original. The gen. Auramazdaha is replaced in XPc 10 by Aurahyti, Mazdaha, with declension of both parts of the compound, but no divider.

The en- clitic pronoun diJ is preceded by a divider in DB 4. At DB 5. There is also variation between the phrasal ad- verb paradraya and the prepositional phrase para : draya. But in Fragment Theta of DSf, the. The Normalization of OP Texts. Then in normalizing: 2 'Cf. ZfA Especially note the normal writings a final -d -ly -w for phonetic -i -f -u.

The vowel characters i and u become i or l, u or u; or the second part of a diphthong. The consonantal characters with inherent i and u, if standing before i or u, lose the in- herent vowel. Raised i u a are used in the normalized text to show: a i and u, to show i- and M-inherent char- acters after which the i and u failed to be written. On these, one should consult the Lexicon, where divergent views are cited under the words concerned.

The Reduction of OP to Writing. The scribes, in analyzing the OP words into sounds, must have spoken the words slowly, prolonging them until the sound-units could be clearly dis- tinguished and receive each a symbol. P 24 cf. Perhaps [va]rtaiyaiy DB 4. Variations in Consonants sometimes appear in the writing, though this can usually be explained as the product of special causes: lateness, dialect, borrowing from other languages.

Xsayarcahya A'Sa 2 bis, for XhyarSa etc. Ardaxcaka AVsa for Artaxkqd. Other variants are explained in the phonology as being due to admixture of Median forms; cf. The Erhoes op Writing can be divided into the following heads: 1. Some examples might be classified under more than one of these headings, but will be arbitrarily assigned to the places which are most appro- priate. As will be seen, most of these errors be- long to late inscriptions, that is, after those of Xerxes.

For by this time the development to Middle Persian was under way; sounds were undergoing changes, new words and meanings were coming in, the final syllables were being lost. OP had ceased to be a vernacular, and the scribes who composed the inscriptions had no experience of the language as it had been.

They were thrown back upon the use of words and forms found in the older records, the use of which they often failed to understand. The result was inevitably an inaccurate orthography, most notably in the final syllables. Metathesis op Chabacters. DarayavahauS nom. XPf 25, DarayavauS gen. XPf the original copy had -ifufr in both places, and the corrector, finding the error in 28, made the insertion in the word where it stood in Haxamarfhya A'Sa 3, with -tfireaif- for -ifarrfTf-.

Omissions op Charactebs: The omis- sions fall into several classes. Parsaiiy AsH 3. The -i- may be omitted in final -aiy: Auramazdd-tay DB 4. The character 0, representing the augment, seems to be lacking in avahar[da] DB 2. On an apparently unaugmented marda DB 5.


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Final m is lacking in iya DB 4. For all but the last, the forms with -m are found in other passages. Miscellaneous characters are lacking as follows; for brevity we put the omitted value in the word, in parenthesis: Auramaz d dm DB 1. A serious haplography occurs, according I to Bv. MSLP Addition op Characters: in almost all examples the addition is of the character a: avajaniyd DB 1. WZKM Parsa AmH 5, for Pdrsa. Doublet forms, one with and the other without the character a, sometimes occur, where doubt may exist as to whether two pronunciations ac- tually existed, or one of the two writings is erroneous: wdipaiiyam DB 1.

IV, Lg. Alteration of Chaeactees by omis- sion or addition of a steoke sometimes occurs, altering the value; the error may be either in original engraving, or in the reading by the modern observer: I. Apl P 11; see Lexicon. The stroke is in excess: agaubatd DB 3. Miscellaneous Ereoes of Writing are in the following: I. All the words on Seals b, c, d, e; uncertain. Errors in Syntax may be either the product of an intentional writing of a form other than that called for by the use of the word in its context, or the product of a fortuitous miswriting which accidentally yields a form not called for by the context.

Those occurring in the OP inscrip- tions may be classified as follows: I. The labels of the throne-bearers in DN and A? P are sometimes written with the plural of the ethnic, or with the province-name for the ethnic; we give the examples, with a literal translation: DN xv iyam : Saka : Hgraxa[vda] 'this is the Pointed-Cap Scythians'. DN xxix iyam : Maciyd 'this is the men of Maka'. P 9 iyam : Zrakd 'this is the Drangians'. P 14 iyam : Saka : hawmavarga 'this is the Amyrgian Scythians'. P 23 iyam : Yauna 'this is the Ionians'. P 24 iyam : Saka : paradraiya 'this is the Scythians across the sea'.

P 26 iyam : Yauna : takabara 'this is the Ionian sg. DN xvi [iyam : Bd]biruS, A? P 16 iyam : BabiruS 'this is Babylon'. Miscellaneous errors concerned with cases and genders: AmH 2 Parsa for loc. AsH 2 Parsa, nsm. XPh 33 mo for avam dahyavam. AM hya nsm. A 2 Sc 4f [i]mam asf. Iyam adagainam. Sd 3 imam asf. A 2 Ha 7 imam asm. A'Pa 22f imam usMandm aSagamm for nom. A 3 Pa 26 tya mam karta perhaps for mam kartam. Neologisms in the Later Inscriptions, that is, after Xerxes, may perhaps be counted as errors, though susceptible of explanation.

There are the following, all new formations for the genitive — presumably after the gen. Artaxikgahya: HaxamanUahya AmH 3f. Darayavaukhya in A'l, A! Diphthongs: short: ei oi ai di eu ou au du long: eioiai euouau III. Consonants: voiceless voiced non- aspi- non- asp, rate asp. I have omitted from this list a Brugmann's p ph 5 Sh, 1 sounds of problematic nature which are posited to explain the occurrence of dental stops in Greek corresponding to sibilants in other IE languages; b Sturtevant's z and preaspirated continuants, 2 which also explain only certain peculiarities of development in Greek; c Brug- mann's sh and zh' from s after voiceless and voiced aspirated stops, no distinctive product of which appears in any IE language; d short and long vocalic n and v, since they were non- phonemic, and so rare that they seem not to occur in the extant words of OP.

The dental clusters were clusters consisting 'Brugmann, Gdr. The following clusters of two consonants occur initially before vowels: xr xs dr dv fr br sk st sp zr hy; ly only in the stem lya- see Lex. The only initial cluster of three is xsn. In the clusters nk. In final position only single consonants are found, and of these only m r I are written; but peculiarities of the script show that final t, d, n from n and nt , h from s after pAr.

Absolutely final a in OP was written -d; that is, with addition of the character a, as though it were lengthened. USoiiu 'I give', subj. Apl , Konig Burgbau These views are not supported by the OP orthography cf. In hadis and -mmU the a varies with a short vowel, which indicates another origin; the prob- lem is too complicated for adequate discussion here.

Mddn 'to see', Skt. Apparently pIE f became OP u before n, though this value is seen only in forms of kar- 'make, do'; and this peculiar development is rather to be attributed to the influence of other verbs with u in the root before the -nau- suffix: 1 pAr. When x of either origin is expected to stand before a vowel, it must be either as con- sonant r, or as the reduced vowel -f consonant r. Before a vowel or j or y,, pIE n and m must, 1 Lg.

When final in the word, pIE n and m became pAr. But if -rp, was the ending of the ace. OP abara-m, Skt. Ir or ur, the latter two became a in OP and Skt. A few examples only can be recognized with some probability, on the basis of the Skt. The ambiguity of OP! Mi, Gk. Also vaindhy, Skt. These diphthongs are less frequent of occurrence than the i-diphthongs, and the distinction of them from one another is more difficult because of the lack of obvious evidence.

OP kauja 'mountain', A v. Ahuro Mazdh, Skt. The pIE Short Diphthongs n and au always develop like pIE ai and au, from which they can be distinguished only by etymological considerations; they originated only as zero- grades of long diphthongs. Similarly, pIE o be- came pAr. An almost certain example is seen in the present stem paya- apayaiy 'I protected'; pati-payauvd 'do thou protect thyself as a variant of po- paiuv 'may he protect', etc. Similarly, if the xsnau- of d-xbiautiy 'he satis- fies' cf. The pIE Long Diphthongs appear in OP as ai and au, corresponding to the short diphthongs ai and au; they are easily identified by their writings, except when they are initial, in which position they are ambiguous with the short diphthongs.

There are the following oc- currences: uvaipasiyam 'his own', cf. Baigarcais, gen. But ai in gen. Cispdis and Cicixrdil is only graphic, cf. The pIE palatal stops became pAr. The pIE labiovelars lost their labializa- tion, and with the pIE velars formed a new series of velars q qh g gh. The new series of velars split into two series, according to the nature of the following sounds: palatal c ch g" g'h , if standing before pIE I 1 i; velars fc kh g gh , if standing before other sounds. In plnd. Though this change did not take place in pAr. It is to be remembered that at virtually all times the old general process which worked in pIE continued to operate: that voiced stops and z became voiceless if they came to stand be- fore voiceless stops or s, and voiceless stops and s became voiced if they came to stand before voiced stops or z.

From the pIE stops, therefore, pAr. Details, including the developments of the palatal' sibilants and the additions to and exceptions from these general formulations, will appear in the following paragraphs; it is to be noted that i is the only consonant before which the pAr. The common representations of these sounds in other languages are: pIE p, Skt. Trarijp, Lt.

OP gen. OP b is mostly from pIE bh; for pIE b was an extremely rare sound, and its only prob- able occurrence in OP is in d-big-na-, second component of Bagdbigna-, if this is a participle to the root in Skt. Si 'beyond', Gk. In 'yet', Lt.

Account Options

OP mawfl-, ABiyabauhu-, gai9d-, fradara-, mi9ah-, see Lex. OP raxDatw, an imv. OP from pAr. OP d from pAr. OP hadd 'with', Skt. With Skt. Mi-, Gk. There are also numerous instances of OP 8 d which are not traceable with certainty to IE origins, or are demonstrably borrowings from non-IE sources. Among these are taka- 'shield, round hat' in laka-bara-, tacara- 'palace', dipi- 'inscription' see Lex. Dritya- graphic for iritiya- , cf. OP nofo- 'bow', of uncertain etymology, in vaga- bara- 'bowbearer'.

The variant orthographies represent in part differences of dialect, and in part the variant pronuncia- tions of a foreign word incompletely assimilated to the phonetic pattern of the dialects in which it was being used. That the product of plr. Or was in OP a sibilant is shown by the orthography of borrowed words. Thus the g of Ciga"taxma- is represented by S in Elam.

1. Ordinary Avestic:

H- it-ra-an-tah-ma is based on the Median form of the name, since he was a native of Sagartia in Media. OP Arta-xfaga, Elam. Elephantine 'rtxkS, Lydian artaMassa. OP Vau-misa for -miga see above , Elam. OP Agina, Elam. OP Agiyddiya-, Elam. Su-h-an, whence also Akk.

This seems to have been the development also in Median, as in the name of the Mede Vvaxitra- 'Cyaxares', Elam. The name of the northeastern province Bactria, Gk. Biurpa, likewise shows a non-OP form in Baxtrii, Elam. Finally, OP uh-bdri- 'camel-borne', by comparison with Av. OP haUyam 'true', Skt, satydm. OP um-mar'siyuS see Lex. OP uva-pasiya- 'belonging to one's self, from pAr.

Old Persian and Middle Iranian epigraphy – Encyclopaedia Iranica

The preposition aBiy seems to be a sandhi doublet of atiy; see Lex. For the retention of in tya- and its forms, see Lex. On, which remained in Avestan but became OP sn; thus the pAr. In two words 9 is found where d is expected: OP Banuvaniya 'bowman', where Skt. No likely solution of this variation has as yet been sug- gested. The province name Kalpatuka shows an unassimilated -tp-, established by the Elam.

Final Dentals were weakened and did not appear in the writing of OP. After a, it is likely that they disappeared entirely; 1 for hydparmn seems to be abl. Final -d disappeared after i, as in the end. OP -a'? After u the final t seems to be retained as I in OP akunaui 'he made', adarsriatd 'he dared', Skt. D properly lost the prior dental by dis- similation, and in fact do have this development in Iranian and in Greek; but in Indie they in most instances lost the sibilant and in Italic the second dental, through analogies of various kinds.

OP st, Skt. OP z I, Skt. OP zd, Skt. Further changes of analogical nature took place in a number of these combinations, es- pecially that the participle to a root in dh, which has -dzdh- from -dh-t-, often remade this in 1 Cf. Kent, Lg. OP 6ika 'rubble, broken stone', see Lex. Parkwa 'Parthia' and Ptirsa 'Persia', where the and the s seem to reverse the local values of k; both provinces were apparently named by rulers of non-loeal origin.

For materials on these words, see Lex. OP h'zanam for ace. Tedesco, Le Monde Oriental His conclusion is based on the. IV ; but the Turfan documents are of the 3d century a. With such a gap in time the variation seen in OP can hardly be con- sidered valid testimony to a preliminary stage of the development seen in the Turfan texts. The length of the vowel, which is not in point here, is probably due to analogical extension from the s-aorist active, where the long ablaut-grade was a regular formation in pIE, but may not have extended to the participle until pIE had split into the separate branches.

OP aOa n ga- 'stone' and with Med. This xhi remained unchanged initial in Av. See Lex. Geigcr , does not convince me. On Avestan -an- for expected -H-, as in vasna 'by the favor', asne 'near', see Bthl. Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik 1. Thumb, Handbuch des Sanskrit 1. The sounds therefore reached the follow- ing stage in pAr. IV; and gh and gh, where not so changed, often became Skt.

Velars pAr. In plr. Examples of these developments will be given in the following sections; but while words con- taining these sounds are of frequent occurrence in OP, it is often impossible to distinguish be- tween original velars and original labiovelars, because we have no cognate in a non-Aryan language where alone they are distinguished. Not infrequently also the words occur only in Iranian, where we cannot distinguish between original voiced non-aspirates and original voiced as- pirates. Heer 'army'.

OP iVafoi, a province, but ethnic Maciya, with palatalization because the suffix began with the palatal sound. OP Akavjaciya. So also other instances of k and c in OP, though many of them are in words with very scanty etymological parallels, and others are obvious borrowings from other languages, such as maSka- 'inflated skin', Katpatuka 'Cappa- docia', Kusa- 'Ethiopia'. Where pAr. Corresponding to Skt. Mrghd-s, Gk. Druj-im 'Devil'. Jormus 'hot'. Other examples of g and j could be added, but these are adequate. OP xs is of various sources, and should be discussed in association with s from similar clusters.

The origins which call for discussion, and the correspondences, are the following: 1 pIE qp, Av. OP xs, Skt. OP s, Skt.


  1. WikiZero - Özgür Ansiklopedi.
  2. Reapers gale: a tale of the Malazan book of the fallen 7.
  3. traduire de.
  4. About This Item;
  5. Multicriteria Design: Optimization and Identification (Applied Optimization).
  6. Persian Alphabet.
  7. Origin uncertain no sure cognates outside Aryan : OP xfap- 'night', Skt. OP Buxra- man's name , Av. OP perf.

    Persian Language and Literature (Ancient)

    OP tau h ma- 'family', cf. Perhaps in OP amaxmata see Lex. Other examples of earlier k before con- sonants are found in the province-name Baxtri- 'Bactria', the month-name Viyaxna-, and the imv. Bagdbigna- a man's name, see Lex. But pIE -yh-to-, becoming -gdho-, pTr. For OP developments of pAr. In borrowed names of persons and places, r is of frequent occurrence; e. Akird 'Assyria', Arabdya 'Arabia', Ufratu- 'Euphrates', Armina 'Armenia', Karkd 'Carians', in which the forms in other languages assure the r as original at the time of borrowing.

    Lebanon', Dvhdla- a district in Babylonia, ,' and hald- a district in Assyria. OP m remains before n and final, and before enclitics: kamnam, jiyamnam, ace. Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik l. Thus OP aBaha may agree with Skt. OP n was of frequent occurrence in personal and place names, some at least being non-Iranian. OP Unwritten Medial Nasals. Ka m pa"da a district in Media, Elam. Vi'dajarna 'Intaphernes', Elam. Sku'xa a Scythian rebel, Elam.

    Hindu-, Skt. OP Final n. OP n was not written when final: loc. OP yadalaiy 'he worships', Skt. OP darayatiy 'he holds', Skt. OP vayam 'we', Skt. OP draya 'sea', Av. Note pAr. OP loc. OP ace. Swam, Skt. OP danuvaniya 'bowman', cf. But pIE 14 was lost after labial stops: OP' 2d sg. IV; pAr. Final s was subject in Aryan to various sandhi developments other than -S and 4; these are best seen in Sanskrit.

    The developments of plr. OP avdstdyam 'I restored', cf. OP s is more commonly of other origins: Med. OP fraikyam 'I sent', Skt. OP uska- 'dry', Av. OP gausa- 'ear', Skt. OP adarhaus' 'he dared', Skt. OP arh- 'male' in Arhama- 'Arsames', Skt. OP nom. So also the enclitic pronoun -saiy -Urn -Mm -US is generalized in the form which developed after a final i or u of the word to which it was attached; cf.

    OP vdhara- 'spring' in Bura-vdhara-, Skt. OP amiy 'I am', LAv. OP amdxam 'of us', Av. Harahivatis, Skt. In the name Vi'da-farnah- 'Intaphernes', the second element is identical with Av. There are other words with h, which are of uncertain etymology or are borrowed from other languages: Andhild, usually written Anahaia, the name of a goddess with apparently an Iranian name based on an unidentifiable root; Haldita-, an Armenian; Ei'dul, a province-name from Indie, but with Iranian development of the initial s.

    When it is desirable to indicate this unwritten h, we use a raised h or a raised s, 1 as may be more convenient. But OP abaraHa, Skt. After a, there is no evidence of the survival of h as an unwritten sound in OP: OP gen. OP npf. The inst. OP Nom. We may assume that raucabis' is from raucah-bhis, that the h became voiced before the voiced stop and was lost in OP, but in Av. A similar replacement is seen in zura-kara- 'evil- doer', where the h is lost before the voiceless stop; cf.

    Names of non-Iranian places: Zazana-, Zuzahya-, Izala-. But the zm which was retained in GAv. Further, the reduced b before liquid, nasal, or semivowel, became a in pAr. Ab, I intentionally omit Sturtevant's pIE z coming from pIH s with a preceding y the third laryngeal, which was voiced. Notes to the Table: 1 Similarly, pIE el etc. Apart from details, the vowel grades in the first two columns of the pIE belong by origin to accented syllables, those in the first to primarily accented syllables and those in the second to secondarily accented syllables; they are known as normal grades or accented grades.

    Those in the next three columns of the pIE belong by origin to unaccented syllables; those in the third column are known as zero grades, and those in the fourth and fifth as reduced grades. Those in the last two columns of the pIE have acquired length through special circumstances, such as con- traction of the initial vowel of a verb with the vocalic augment, the marking of a derivative noun from a verbal root, the indication of the causative stem of a verb, or the indication of the nominative singular of a noun sometimes ex- tended to the accusative singular and the nomin- ative plural ; they are known as long grades, and originally bore respectively the primary and the secondary accent.

    When the Persian king Darius I the Great r. It consists of thirty-six signs indicating syllables and eight ideograms for the words "king", "country" 2x "good", "god", "earth", and " Ahuramazda " 3x. This alphabet was mainly used for the set of royal texts that is known as the " Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions ". The last text in this "Aryan script" can be dated to the fourth century BCE. The Persian cuneiform script was deciphered by Henry Rawlinson in the summer of