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All Journals. New Titles. Pick and Choose. Literature Updates. For Members. For Librarians. RSS Feeds. Chemistry World. Education in Chemistry. Open Access. Historical Collection. You do not have JavaScript enabled. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site or access our non-JavaScript page. Volume 49, Previous Article Next Article. From the journal: Discussions of the Faraday Society. Liquid-liquid equilibria in multicomponent polymer systems. You have access to this article. Please wait while we load your content Something went wrong. Try again?

Cited by. Back to tab navigation Download options Please wait Article type: Paper. DOI: Download Citation: Discuss. For example, c r o s s - l i n k e d copolymers of polycarbonate and polychloroprene have been prepared i n the presence of molybdenum and manganese carbonyls as i n i t i a t o r s Most IPNs are heterogeneous systems comprised of one rubber and one glassy phase. Segregation of hard segments.

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PLATZER Multicomponent Polymer Systems on mechanical properties and thus y i e l d s either high impact strength or reinforcement that are both dependent on phase c o n t i n u i t y. Thermoset IPNs are characterized by suppressed creep and flow and were pioneered by L. F r i s c h 38b , and coworkers, i n A t y p i c a l example 37 i s an elastomer such as butadiene or e t h y l aerylate c r o s s - l i n k e d with divinylbenzene as the f i r s t polymer.

Hosokawa Polymer Systems

The i n i t i a t o r i s potassium for butadiene, and benzoin for the other monomers. Simultaneous IPNs are formed by homogeneously mixing together monomers, prepolymers, l i n e a r polymers, i n i t i a t o r s , and crosslinkers. The r e s u l t a n t urethane prepolymer was then mixed with polystyrene to form an IPN.

One of the f i r s t mechanical thermoplastic IPNs was that prepared by Exxon Chemical and made by melt blending ethylene-propylene E-P copolymer or EPDM w i t h p o l y p r o p y l e n e i n the presence of a s m a l l amount of peroxide as c r o s s - l i n k i n g agent. Their properties, and therefore t h e i r end uses, are strongly dependent on the degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the components.

Compatible Polyblends. Very few p a i r s of polymers are completely compatible. The best known example i s the polyblend of p o l y p h e n y l e n e oxide poly-2,6-dimethyl-l,4-phenylene oxide with high-impact polystyrene 41 , which i s s o l d under the trade name of Noryl.

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  6. These compatible blends e x h i b i t p h y s i c a l properties that are intermediate to those of the components. Most p o l y b l e n d s are heterogeneous and consist of a polymeric matrix i n which another polymer i s embedded. In c o n t r a s t to copolymers i n which the components are l i n k e d by strong covalent bonds, the components i n polyblends adhere together only through van der Waals forces, d i p o l e i n t e r a c t i o n , or hydrogen bonding. These are prepared to improve c e r t a i n physical properties.

    Nanostructured and multicomponent polymer systems- NANOMULPOL

    Blends that d i s p l a y an intermediate degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y are u s u a l l y based on random copolymers r a t h e r than matched c o m p o s i t i o n s and have been termed mechanically compatible This combination i s selected to toughen b r i t t l e polymers with elastomers.

    M i s c i b i l i t y 43 between the two components plays an important r o l e. A more uniform polyblend of higher impact strength can be obtained by b l e n d i n g s t y r e n e homopolymer e i t h e r w i t h a g r a f t polymer of styrene on polybutadiene or with an SBS terblock polymer. ABS went through an analogous development. The impact resistance of polypropylene at low temperature has been improved by p o l y b l e n d i n g w i t h EPDM or E-P rubber to make possible the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s material i n the automotive indust r y.

    The low-temperature properties of polyamides such as nylon 6 and n y l o n 66 have been improved by p o l y b l e n d i n g w i t h e t h y l e n e copolymers or s p e c i a l l y grafted polybutadiene P o l y c a r b o n a t e i s being blended w i t h ABS to lower the V i c a t softening temperature and to make i t more thermoformable Polyblends i n which both phases are r i g i d are made w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of improving melt flow and mechanical properties or for the purpose of reducing shrinkage.

    Polyblends i n which both components are soft are mixtures of various elastomers. For example, treads of automobile t i r e s are made of a polyblend of SBR with either natural rubber or cis-polybutadiene. Composites may be c l a s s i f i e d into four groups, as shown i n Table I I.

    In modern composites, such as i n the case of epoxy r e s i n s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h carbon f i b e r s 51 , the polymer matrix has only a secondary function: to separate the i n d i v i d u a l f i b e r s from one another and to t r a n s f e r energy to the f i b e r surface; the fibers almost completely withstand the mechanical load. F i l l e d and reinforced polymeric materials may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o four groups, as shown i n Table I I.

    Reinforced Thermoplastics. To o b t a i n good adhesion between the i n o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s and the m a t r i x , m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l s i l a n e s are added as coupling agents and provide the necessary binding force of the same magnitude as the secondary forces i n polyblends.

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    The polymeric matrix i t s e l f must have a higher elongation than the r e i n f o r c i n g material i n order to use the strengthening effect completely. S i x t y - f i v e years ago, i n a paper presented before the American Chemical Society, L. Baekeland 55 discussed the usefulness of phenol-formaldehyde resins that, when compounded with wood f l o u r , could be molded. Powdered minerals such as s i l i c a or china c l a y are often used to improve water resistance.

    Reinforced Thermosets. In contrast to f i l l e r s that do not enhance the strength of thermosets, g l a s s f i b e r , mat, and c l o t h are capable of increasing the strength of phenolics, unsaturated polyesters, and epoxies s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table IV. Novel composites are approaching the strength of s t e e l. The s t i f f n e s s of the composite i s even more i n f l u e n c e d by the reinforcing material.

    Table I I I. Reinforced Unreinforced with Short Glass Fibers 1. Table IV. Klempner, D. Wall, F. Ham, G.


    May, F. Alfrey, T. Mayo, F. Harwood, H. Gaylord, N. Johnston, N. Mark, H. Ceresa, R. Battaerd, H. Stannett, V. Platzer, N. Molau, G. A - l , , Stein, D.

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    Swarc, M. Nature , , Dunlop Company Ltd. Phillips Petroleum Company; U. Patent 3 , Hendricks, W. Eschwey, H. Morton, M. Cooper, S.