Manual Origen of Alexandria: His World and His Legacy

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Origen produced the Hexapla , the first critical edition of the Hebrew Bible, which contained the original Hebrew text as well as five different Greek translations of it, all written in columns, side-by-side. He wrote hundreds of homilies covering almost the entire Bible, interpreting many passages as allegorical. Origen taught that, before the creation of the material universe , God had created the souls of all the intelligent beings. These souls, at first fully devoted to God, fell away from him and were given physical bodies.

Origen was the first to propose the ransom theory of atonement in its fully developed form and, though he was probably a Subordinationist , he also significantly contributed to the development of the concept of the Trinity. Origen hoped that all people might eventually attain salvation , but was always careful to maintain that this was only speculation. He defended free will and advocated Christian pacifism. Origen is a Church Father [14] [15] [16] [17] and is widely regarded as one of the most important Christian theologians of all time.

In , the emperor Justinian I condemned him as a heretic and ordered all his writings to be burned. The Second Council of Constantinople in may have anathemized Origen, or it may have only condemned certain heretical teachings which claimed to be derived from Origen. His teachings on the pre-existence of souls were rejected by the Church. Almost all information about Origen's life comes from a lengthy biography of him in Book VI of the Ecclesiastical History written by the later Christian historian Eusebius c. Origen was born in either or AD in Alexandria. In , when Origen was "not yet seventeen", the Roman emperor Septimius Severus ordered Roman citizens who openly practiced Christianity to be executed.

When he was eighteen years old, Origen was appointed as a catechist at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. According to Eusebius, as a young man, Origen was taken in by a wealthy Gnostic woman, [38] who was also the patron of a very influential Gnostic theologian from Antioch , who frequently lectured in her home.

Sometime when he was in his early twenties, Origen sold the small library of Greek literary works which he had inherited from his father for a sum which netted him a daily income of four obols. Eusebius claims that, as a young man, following a literal misreading of Matthew , in which Jesus is presented as saying "there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuch for the sake of the kingdom of heaven ", Origen went to a physician and paid him to surgically remove his genitals in order to ensure his reputation as a respectable tutor to young men and women.

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Since the beginning of the twentieth century, some scholars have questioned the historicity of Origen's self-castration, with many seeing it as a wholesale fabrication. In sharp contrast, McGuckin dismisses Eusebius's story of Origen's self-castration as "hardly credible", seeing it as a deliberate attempt by Eusebius to distract from more serious questions regarding the orthodoxy of Origen's teachings.

In his early twenties, Origen became less interested in being a grammarian [52] and more interested in being a rhetor-philosopher. Meanwhile, Origen began composing his massive theological treatise On the First Principles , [54] a landmark book which systematically laid out the foundations of Christian theology for centuries to come. In the autumn of , the Roman emperor Caracalla visited Alexandria. Origen obeyed Demetrius's order and returned to Alexandria, [58] bringing with him an antique scroll he had purchased at Jericho containing the full text of the Hebrew Bible. Lietzmann concludes that Origen probably only knew the Hebrew alphabet and not much else; [60] whereas, R.

Hanson and G. Bardy argue that Origen had a superficial understanding of the language, but not enough to have composed the entire Hexapla. Origen also studied the entire New Testament, [58] but especially the epistles of the apostle Paul and the Gospel of John , [58] the writings which Origen regarded as the most important and authoritative. Origen repeatedly asked Demetrius to ordain him as a priest, but Demetrius continually refused.

Eusebius reports that, as a result of Demetrius's condemnations, Origen decided not to return to Alexandria and to instead take up permanent residence in Caesarea. Demetrius raised a storm of protests against the bishops of Palestine and the church synod in Rome itself. Demetrius died in , within less than a year after Origen's departure from Alexandria. During his early years in Caesarea, Origen's primary task was the establishment of a Christian School; [76] [77] Caesarea had long been seen as a center of learning for Jews and Hellenistic philosophers, [76] but, until Origen's arrival, it had lacked a Christian center of higher education.

With the establishment of the Caesarean school, Origen's reputation as a scholar and theologian reached its zenith [76] and he became known throughout the Mediterranean world as a brilliant intellectual. Not only Christians, but also pagans took a fascination with Origen. In , approximately three years after Origen began teaching in Caesarea, Alexander Severus, who had been tolerant towards Christians, was murdered [83] and the new emperor Maximinus Thrax instigated a purge of all those who had supported his predecessor.

He preached regularly on Wednesdays and Fridays, and later daily. Sometime between and , Origen visited Athens, where he completed his Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel and began writing his Commentary on the Song of Songs. Origen was an extremely prolific writer.

Origen of Alexandria (185—254 C.E.)

By far the most important work of Origen on textual criticism was the Hexapla "Sixfold" , a massive comparative study of various translations of the Old Testament in six columns: [] Hebrew , Hebrew in Greek characters, the Septuagint , and the Greek translations of Theodotion a Jewish scholar from c. Origen composed homilies covering almost the entire Bible. There are , and possibly , homilies of Origen that are extant either in Greek or in Latin translations. The homilies were preached in the church at Caesarea, with the exception of the two on 1 Samuel which were delivered in Jerusalem.

Nautin has argued that they were all preached in a three-year liturgical cycle some time between and , preceding the Commentary on the Song of Songs , where Origen refers to homilies on Judges, Exodus, Numbers, and a work on Leviticus. Lorenzo Perrone of the Bologna University and other experts confirmed the authenticity of the homilies. Origen is the main source of information on the use of the texts that were later officially canonized as the New Testament.

Origen's commentaries written on specific books of scripture are much more focused on systematic exegesis than his homilies. Of the original twenty-five books in Origen's Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew , only eight have survived in the original Greek Books , covering Matthew Origen also composed a Commentary on the Song of Songs , [] in which he took explicit care to explain why the Song of Songs was relevant to a Christian audience.

In this commentary, he excelled himself. Citations in Origen's Philokalia include fragments of the third book of the commentary on Genesis. There is also Ps. Of the non-extant commentaries, there is limited evidence of their arrangement.

Origen of Alexandria

Origen's On the First Principles was the first ever systematic exposition of Christian theology. It is an apologetic work defending orthodox Christianity against the attacks of the pagan philosopher Celsus , who was seen in the ancient world as early Christianity's foremost opponent. In the book, Origen systematically refutes each of Celsus's arguments point-by-point [13] [] and argues for a rational basis of Christian faith.

Between —, while in Caesarea in Palestine, Origen wrote On Prayer , of which the full text has been preserved in the original Greek. The papyri discovered at Tura in contained the Greek texts of two previously unknown works of Origen. Lost works include two books on the resurrection, written before On First Principles , and also two dialogues on the same theme dedicated to Ambrose. Eusebius had a collection of more than one hundred letters of Origen, [] and the list of Jerome speaks of several books of his epistles.

Except for a few fragments, only three letters have been preserved. The Dialogus de recta in Deum fide , the Philosophumena attributed to Hippolytus of Rome , and the Commentary on Job by Julian the Arian have also been ascribed to him. Origen writes that Jesus was "the firstborn of all creation [who] assumed a body and a human soul. Origen was the first to propose the ransom theory of atonement in its fully developed form, [] although Irenaeus had previously proposed a prototypical form of it. Origen may or may not have believed in the Platonic teaching of metempsychosis "the transmigration of souls"; i.

Olson, however, dismisses the view that Origen believed in reincarnation as a New Age misunderstanding of Origen's teachings. Origen believed that, eventually, the whole world would be converted to Christianity, [] "since the world is continually gaining possession of more souls. Origen was an ardent believer in free will [] and he adamantly rejected the Valentinian idea of election.

Origen was an ardent pacifist [] [] [] [] and, in his Against Celsus , he argued that Christianity's inherent pacifism was one of the most outwardly noticeable aspects of the religion. Origen bases every part of his theology on the Christian scriptures [] [] [] [] and never appeals to Platonic teachings without having first supported his argument with a firm scriptural basis.

According to Origen, there are two kinds of Biblical literature, which are found in both the Old and New Testaments: historia "history, or narrative" and nomothesia "legislation or ethical prescription". Origen saw the "spiritual" interpretation as the deepest and most important meaning of the text [] and taught that some passages held no literal meaning at all and that their meanings were purely allegorical. Origen's conception of God the Father is apophatic —a perfect unity, invisible and incorporeal, transcending all things material, and therefore inconceivable and incomprehensible.

He is likewise unchangeable and transcends space and time. But his power is limited by his goodness, justice, and wisdom; and, though entirely free from necessity, his goodness and omnipotence constrained him to reveal himself. This revelation, the external self-emanation of God, is expressed by Origen in various ways, the Logos being only one of many. The revelation was the first creation of God cf.

The Logos is the rational creative principle that permeates the universe.

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While the Logos is substantially a unity, he comprehends a multiplicity of concepts, so that Origen terms him, in Platonic fashion, "essence of essences" and "idea of ideas". Origen significantly contributed to the development of the idea of the Trinity. Nonetheless, Origen was a Subordinationist , [] [] [] [] meaning he believed that the Father was superior to the Son and the Son was superior to the Holy Spirit, [] [] [] a model based on Platonic proportions.

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  6. Origen is often seen as the first major Christian theologian. For centuries after his death, Origen was regarded as the bastion of orthodoxy [18] [] and his philosophy practically defined Eastern Christianity. Both orthodox and heterodox theologians claimed to be following in the tradition Origen had established. The first Origenist crisis began in the late fourth century AD, coinciding with the beginning of monasticism in Palestine. Epiphanius asked John, the bishop of Jerusalem to condemn Origen as a heretic. John refused on the grounds that a person could not be retroactively condemned as a heretic after the person had already died.

    In , Epiphanius wrote to John of Jerusalem, again asking for Origen to be condemned, insisting that Origen's writings denigrated human sexual reproduction and accusing him of having been an Encratite. In , the Origenist crisis reached Egypt. Theophilus labelled Origen himself as the "hydra of all heresies" [] and persuaded Pope Anastasius I to sign the letter of the council, which primarily denounced the teachings of the Nitrian monks associated with Evagrius Ponticus.

    The Second Origenist Crisis occurred in the sixth century, during the height of Byzantine monasticism. The Protoktistoi appealed to the Emperor Justinian I to condemn the Isochristoi of heresy through Pelagius, the papal apocrisarius. In , during the early days of the Second Council of Constantinople the Fifth Ecumenical Council , when Pope Vigilius was still refusing to take part in it, despite Justinian holding him hostage, the bishops at the council ratified an open letter which condemned Origen as the leader of the Isochristoi.

    The bishops drew up a list of anathemata against the heretical teachings contained within The Three Chapters and those associated with them. As a direct result of the numerous condemnations of his work, only a tiny fraction of Origen's voluminous writings have survived. Jerome's Latin translations of Origen's homilies were widely read in western Europe throughout the Middle Ages [] and Origen's teachings greatly influenced those of the Byzantine monk Maximus the Confessor c. The most prominent advocate of Origen during the Renaissance was the Dutch humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus — , who regarded Origen as the greatest of all Christian authors [] and wrote in a letter to John Eck that he learned more about Christian philosophy from a single page of Origen than from ten pages of Augustine.

    In the seventeenth century, the English Cambridge Platonist Henry More — was a devoted Origenist [] and, although he did reject the notion of universal salvation, [] he accepted most of Origen's other teachings. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the third-century Christian scholar.

    For for the pagan philosopher with the same name, see Origen the Pagan. For other uses, see Origen disambiguation. For the controversy over Origen's ideas, see Origenist Crises. Probably Alexandria , Egypt. Probably Tyre , Phoenice present-day Lebanon. Biblical hermeneutics Christian apologetics Christian theology Textual criticism. Allegorical interpretation of the Bible Apocatastasis Asceticism Christian pacifism Free will Incorporeality of God Logos theology Preexistence of souls Ransom theory of atonement Subordinationism Universalism Purification after death [1].

    Clement of Alexandria and Josephus. We may say, then, that the uniqueness of the soul's body is an image of its uniqueness of mind. This is the first inkling of the development of the concept of the person and personality in the history of Western thought. The restoration of all beings apokatastasis is the most important concept in Origen's philosophy, and the touchstone by which he judges all other theories.

    His concept of universal restoration is based on equally strong Scriptural and Hellenistic philosophical grounds and is not original, as it can be traced back to Heraclitus, who stated that "the beginning and end are common" Fragment B , tr. Barnes , p. Considering that Origen's later opponents based their charges of heresy largely on this aspect of his teaching, it is surprising to see how well-grounded in scripture this doctrine really is.

    Origen's main biblical proof-text is 1 Corinthians , especially verse 28, which speaks of the time "when all things shall be subdued unto him [Christ], then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all " KJV, my emphasis. This scriptural notion of God being "all in all" panta en pasin is a strong theological support for his theory of apokatastasis.

    There are, of course, numerous other passages in scripture that contradict this notion, but we must remember that Origen's strength resided in his philosophical ability to use reason and dialectic in support of humane doctrines, not in the ability to use scripture in support of dogmatical and anti-humanistic arguments.

    Origen imagined salvation not in terms of the saved rejoicing in heaven and the damned suffering in hell, but as a reunion of all souls with God. While Origen's lengthy treatise On First Principles contains numerous discussions of a wide variety of issues relevant to the Christianity of his day, as well as to broader philosophical concerns, certain key themes do emerge that are of universal and timeless value for philosophy. These themes are: free will; the educational value of history; and the infinity and eternal motion becoming of human beings. Origen's conception of freedom, as discussed above, was not the same as modern conceptions.

    This is not to say that his conception was wrong, of course. For Origen recognized freedom only in reason, in rationality, which is precisely the ability to recognize and embrace the good, which is for him God. Irrationality is ignorance, the absence of a conception of the good. The ignorant person cannot be held responsible for his ignorance, except to the extent that he has been lazy, not applying himself to the cultivation of reason. The moral dimension of this conception of freedom is that ignorance is not to be punished, but remedied through education.

    Punishment, understood in the punative sense, is of no avail and will even lead to deeper ignorance and sin, as the punished soul grows resentful, not understanding why he is being punished. Origen firmly believed that the knowledge of the good God is itself enough to remove all taint of sin and ignorance from souls. A 'freedom' to embrace evil the absence of good would have made no sense to Origen who, as a Platonist, identified evil with enslavement and goodness with freedom.

    The soul who has seen the good, he argued, will not fall into ignorance again, for the good is inspiring and worthy of eternal contemplation see Commentary on Romans 5. Origen may rightfully be called the first philosopher of history, for, like Hegel, he understood history as a process involving the participation of persons in grand events leading to an eventual culmination or 'end of history'. Unlike mainstream Christian eschatology, Origen did not understand the end of history as the final stage of a grand revelation of God, but rather as the culmination of a human-divine co-operative process, in which the image and likeness of God humanity is re-united with its source and model, God Himself see Against Celsus 4.

    This is accomplished through education of souls who, having fallen away from God, are now sundered from the divine presence and require a gradual re-initiation into the mysteries of God. Such a reunion must not be accomplished by force, for God will never, Origen insists, undermine the free will of His creatures; rather, God will, over the course of numerous ages if need be, educate souls little by little, leading them eventually, by virtue of their own growing responsiveness, back to Himself, where they will glory in the uncovering of the infinite mysteries of the eternal godhead On First Principles 2.

    A common motif in Platonism during, before, and after Origen's time is salvific stasis , or the idea that the soul will achieve complete rest and staticity when it finally ascends to a contemplation of the good. We notice this idea early on in Plato, who speaks in the Republic c-d, c-e of a state of pure contemplation from which the philosopher is only wrenched by force or persuasion. Influenced indirectly by Plotinus, and more directly by later Neoplatonists both Christian and pagan , the Christian theologian St.

    Maximus the Confessor elaborated a systematic philosophical theology culminating in an eschatology in which the unique human person was replaced by the overwhelming, transcendent presence of God see Chapters on Knowledge 2. Origen managed to maintain the transcendentality of God on the one hand, and the dynamic persistence of souls in being on the other.

    He did this by defining souls not by virtue of their intellectual content or, in the Plotinian sense, for example, by virtue of their 'prior' or higher, constitutive principle but rather by their ability to engage in a finite manner with the infinite God. This engagement is constitutive of the soul's existence, and guarantees its uniqueness. Each soul engages uniquely with God in contemplating divine mysteries according to its innate ability, and this engagement persists for all eternity, for the mysteries of the godhead are inexhaustible, as is the enthusiastic application of the souls' intellectual ability.

    Throughout this article, Origen's importance has largely been linked to his melding of philosophical insights with elucidations of various aspects of the Christian fatih. Yet his importance for Hellenistic philosophy is marked, and though not quite as pervasive as his influence on Christian thought, is nevertheless worth a few brief remarks.

    His role in the formation of Christian doctrine is more prominent, yet, because of its problematical nature, will be treated of only briefly. Origen's debt to Hellenistic Greek philosophy is quite obvious; his influence on the development of later pagan philosophy is - at least from the perspective of most contemporary scholarship - rather less obvious, but it is there.

    His trinitarian doctrine, for example, consisted of a gradation of influence beginning with the Father, whose influence was of the most general, universal kind, binding together all things; the influence of the Son extended strictly to sentient beings; the Holy Spirit's influence extended only to the 'elect' or saints who had already achieved salvation Dillon, in D. O'Meara, ed. This conception found later expression in Proclus' Elements of Theology Proposition 57 , where he elucidates this formulation: "Every cause both operates prior to its consequent and gives rise to a greater number of posterior terms" tr.

    For Origen, the pre-existent souls, through their fall, gave rise to a history over which both the Father and the Son came to preside, while the Holy Spirit only enters into human reality to effect a salvific re-orientation toward God that is already the result of an achieved history. The Holy Spirit, then, may be understood as the final cause, the preparatory causes of which are the Father and Son, the mutual begetters of history.

    A bit later, the pagan philosopher Iamblichus reversed this Origenian notion, claiming that the influence of the divine became stronger and more concentrated the further it penetrated into created reality, extending in its pure power even to stones and plants. In this sense, the Holy Spirit, limited as it is according to Origen to interaction with the saints alone, gives way to the universal power of the Father, which extends to the furthest reaches of reality.

    Iamblichus saw no reason to divide the divinity into persons or emanative effects; rather, he saw the divinity as operative, in varying degrees, at every level of reality. At the lowest level, however, this power is most effective, imparting power to plants and stones, and providing support for the theurgical practice advocated by Iamblichus Olympiodorus, Commentary on Alcibiades I, A; Psellus, Chaldaean Expositions a; Dillon, ed.

    O'Meara , p. Origen's ideas, most notably those in the treatise On First Principles , gave rise to a movement in the Christian Church known as Origenism. From the third through the sixth centuries this movement was quite influential, especially among the monastics, and was given articulate - if excessively codified form - by the theologian Evagrius Ponticus c. It is to be noted that the spirit of philosophical inquiry exemplified by Origen was largely absent from the movement bearing his name.

    A far more creative use of Origen's concepts and themes was made by Gregory of Nyssa d. Chapters 26 and After the posthumous condemnation of Origen and Origenism in the fifth century, it became increasingly difficult for mainstream theologians to make use of his work. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite 5th or 6th Century C. In the seventh century, Maximus the Confessor ca. Maximus changed the historicism of Origen into a more introspective, personal struggle to attain the divine vision through asceticism and prayer, the result being a total subsumption of the person by the godhead.

    This was Maximus' vision of salvation: the replacement of the ego by the divine presence see L. Thunberg , p. While there is much that may be called brilliant and even inspiring in Maximus' philosophical theology, this loss of the centrality of the person - as unique, unrepeatable entity - in the cosmic process of salvation led to the loss of a sense of co-operation of humanity and God, and sapped Christianity of the intellectual vigor that it displayed in the period leading up to the establishment of a theocratical Byzantine state. Thankfully, Origen's legacy was not lost.

    He was an inspiration to the Renaissance Humanists and, more recently, to certain Existentialist Christian theologians, notably Nicolas Berdyaev whose insistence on the absolute autonomy and nobility of the person in the face of all objectifying reality is an echo across the ages of the humanism of Origen. Berdyaev himself admits Origen's influence on his thought as well as that of Gregory of Nyssa and insists that the doctrine of hell and the eternal suffering of sinners is not compatible with authentic Christianity.

    He also places a great importance on history, and even broaches a modern, de-mythologized conception of metempsychosis in terms of a universal, shared history of which all persons are a part, regardless of their temporal specificity. History, according to Berdyaev and in this he follows Origen binds all of humanity together. No soul will be saved in isolation; all must be saved together, or not be saved at all. Berdyaev wrote numerous works, a few of the most important are Slavery and Freedom Eng.

    Origen was an innovator in an era when innovation, for Christians, was a luxury ill-afforded. He drew upon pagan philosophy in an effort to elucidate the Christian faith in a manner acceptable to intellectuals, and he succeeded in converting many gifted pagan students of philosophy to his faith. He was also a great humanist, who believed that all creatures will eventually achieve salvation, including the devil himself. Origen did not embrace the dualism of Gnosticism, nor that of the more primitive expressions of the Christian faith still extant in his day.

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    Rather, he took Christianity to a higher level, finding in it a key to the perfection of the intellect or mind, which is what all souls are in their pure form. The restoration of all souls to a purely intellectual existence was Origen's faith, and his philosophy was based upon such a faith. In this, he is an heir to Socrates and Plato, but he also brought a new conception into philosophy - that of the creative aspect of the soul, as realized in history, the culmination of which is salvation, after which follows an eternal delving into the deep mysteries of God.

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    Edward Moore Email: patristics gmail. Elias School of Orthodox Theology U. Origen of Alexandria — C. Origen's Life and Times Origen was, according to Eusebius, "not quite seventeen" when Septimius Severus' persecution of the Christians began "in the tenth year of [his] reign," Ecclesiastical History ; tr. His Intellectual Heritage: Pagan, Jewish and Christian Origen's debt to Holy Scripture is obvious; he quotes the bible at great length, often drawing together seemingly disparate passages to make a profound theological point.

    The Philosophical System of Origen Origen was the first systematic theologian and philosopher of the Christian Church. The Trinity Origen begins his treatise On First Principles by establishing, in typical Platonic fashion, a divine hierarchical triad; but instead of calling these principles by typical Platonic terms like monad, dyad, and world-soul, he calls them "Father," "Christ," and "Holy Spirit," though he does describe these principles using Platonic language. Here is Origen explaining the status of the Holy Spirit, in a passage preserved in the original Greek: The God and Father, who holds the universe together, is superior to every being that exists, for he imparts to each one from his own existence that which each one is; the Son, being less than the Father, is superior to rational creatures alone for he is second to the Father ; the Holy Spirit is still less, and dwells within the saints alone.

    Souls and their Fall According to Origen, God's first creation was a collectivity of rational beings which he calls logika. Multiple Ages, Metempsychosis, and the Restoration of All Origen did not believe in the eternal suffering of sinners in hell. Important Themes in Origen's Philosophy While Origen's lengthy treatise On First Principles contains numerous discussions of a wide variety of issues relevant to the Christianity of his day, as well as to broader philosophical concerns, certain key themes do emerge that are of universal and timeless value for philosophy. Free Will Origen's conception of freedom, as discussed above, was not the same as modern conceptions.

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    5. Education and History Origen may rightfully be called the first philosopher of history, for, like Hegel, he understood history as a process involving the participation of persons in grand events leading to an eventual culmination or 'end of history'. Eternal Motion of Souls A common motif in Platonism during, before, and after Origen's time is salvific stasis , or the idea that the soul will achieve complete rest and staticity when it finally ascends to a contemplation of the good.

      Origen's Importance in the History of Philosophy Throughout this article, Origen's importance has largely been linked to his melding of philosophical insights with elucidations of various aspects of the Christian fatih. Hellenistic Philosophy Origen's debt to Hellenistic Greek philosophy is quite obvious; his influence on the development of later pagan philosophy is - at least from the perspective of most contemporary scholarship - rather less obvious, but it is there. Christianity Origen's ideas, most notably those in the treatise On First Principles , gave rise to a movement in the Christian Church known as Origenism.

      Concluding Summary Origen was an innovator in an era when innovation, for Christians, was a luxury ill-afforded. Origen, On First Principles , tr. Butterworth New York: Harper and Row Origen, Commentary on John , tr. Origen, Commentary on Matthew , tr. Origen, Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans Books , tr. Scheck Washington, D. French New York: Harper and Brothers Berdyaev, Nicholas, Slavery and Freedom , tr. Berdyaev, Nicholas, Truth and Revelation , tr. French New York: Collier Books Chadwick, H.

      Crouzel, H. Worrall T. Clark Ltd. Dillon, J. Hardy, E. Jonas, H. Kannengiesser, C. Kelly, J. Louth, A.