He met the prince regent at Shiraz on 15 June, and wisely refused to bate a jot of the utmost state, however trivial, which Persian etiquette prescribed for the reception of the highest envoys. This, however, caused long delay and much ceremonial stickling, and it was not until 23 Sept. It then proceeded to Teheran, and on 16 Nov. Malcolm was presented to the shah.
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He opened his negotiations by offering presents on a scale so profuse that his extravagance has been repeatedly and severely commented on, but he found the Persian court childishly open to such influences, and believed himself able by these means not merely to advance the negotiations, but materially to abbreviate the stay and consequent expense of the mission in the country.
The chief minister, Hadjee Ibrahim Khan, was appointed to represent the shah, and with him two treaties were arranged, which were signed on 28 Jan. The first was a commercial treaty providing for unrestricted trade and the cession to the East India Company of the islands of Kishm, Anjam, and Khargh in the Persian Gulf, with liberty to establish factories on the coast or in the interior of Persia.
The political treaty engaged the shah to assist in curbing the anticipated aggressions of the ameer, Zemaun Shah, and bound him to exclude the French from Persia, the company guaranteeing him ships, troops, and stores in the event of a French invasion. The treaties, though signed by Malcolm and Hadjee Ibrahim, were not formally executed by their respective governments, and some doubt remained as to their binding effect. The treaties themselves were never actively put in force, but the impression produced on the Persian court and policy by Malcolm's first mission was undoubtedly salutary.
He returned by way of Baghdad, in order to impress an anti-Gallic policy upon its Turkish governor. The mission, though disapproved by the court of directors, had been conducted to Lord Wellesley's highest satisfaction. Malcolm was at once summoned to Calcutta to undertake temporarily the private secretaryship to the governor-general, and, after encountering an almost fatal storm on his passage, reached Calcutta early in July, and proceeded in August up the Ganges with Lord Wellesley on his tour of investigation into the affairs of Oudh.
In the winter he was hastily despatched to Madras on a confidential mission to induce Edward Clive [q. Although this arrangement obliged Malcolm to forego his own appointment to the Mysore residency, which had been promised and all but formally given to him, he executed his task with fidelity and address, and returned without complaint to his post of acting private secretary in March He travelled by way of Hyderabad and Poonah in order to confer with the residents at those courts in view of coming changes affecting the nizam and the peishwah.
Between Poonah and Bombay he was detained for a couple of days a prisoner by a local chief, who had seized and fortified the Bhore Ghaut, in anticipation of an immediate conflict between Holkar and Scindiah. He reached Bombay on 10 Oct. There he had to deal with a grave difficulty arising out of the recent murder of Hadjee Khalil Khan, the Persian ambassador, by some British sepoys who had quarrelled with the ambassador's attendants. Malcolm satisfactorily settled the disastrous business, and despatched Lieutenant Charles William Pasley [q.
His letters produced the desired effect, and the shah was easily appeased for the murder of his ambassador on the receipt of a substantial indemnity. Malcolm returned to Calcutta in December, and expected immediately to proceed to take up his appointment as resident at Hyderabad. But at this juncture the expected Mahratta war broke out. On 31 Dec. He found himself able to work cordially and effectually as political agent to his old friend Wellesley, but he was much harassed by severe and repeated attacks of dysentery and fever all through the summer, and was further embarrassed, in face of the ambiguous and menacing attitude of the Mahratta chiefs, by the undefined character of his own powers.
He was officially only resident at Mysore, but actually representative of the governor-general himself at the headquarters of General Wellesley. On the outbreak of war with Scindiah in August he was so ill that he was reluctantly obliged to proceed to Bombay, leaving Mountstuart Elphinstone as Wellesley's political assistant, and did not return to camp till the middle of December.
He thus, to his great regret, missed being present at Assaye and Argaum. Though his health had again broken down, he at once plunged into the negotiations for peace, and the treaty of peace, which was signed on 30 Dec. He then was despatched to Scindiah's camp at Boorhanpore to conclude a supplemental treaty, and was presented to the maharajah on 12 Jan.
The negotiations proceeded very slowly, and the treaty was not concluded until 27 Feb. Malcolm, supported to some extent by General Wellesley, was strongly of opinion that Scindiah was morally, if not technically, entitled to the possession of Gwalior, and he went far towards committing the company to Scindiah in this direction. He thus incurred the severe displeasure of Lord Wellesley, who considered him insufficiently firm in resisting the demands and the pretensions of the Mahratta chiefs, and communicated his censure 22 April He proceeded to the coast to recruit, and remained unoccupied at Vizagapatam till November, when he rejoined General Wellesley, and proceeded with him to Mysore.
During the whole time of his negotiations with Scindiah he had still been nominally resident at Mysore, discharging his duties by deputy. It was at the beginning of that he resumed charge of the residency, but in March Lord Wellesley again summoned him to Calcutta, and despatched him at the beginning of May upon another mission to Scindiah, who had permitted insults and outrages to the acting-resident to pass unpunished.
He proceeded to Lord Lake's camp, and remained in summer quarters at Muttra during the hot season. He was with Lord Lake until the end of the year, advocating in his correspondence with the governor-general, and enforcing to the best of his ability, that policy of vigorous and prompt measures against Scindiah and Holkar which he believed to be the best guarantee of ultimate peace. While still remaining with the army in its pursuit of Holkar he negotiated the treaty by which Gohud and Gwalior were ceded to Scindiah, and at the same time he arranged for the reduction of the large and costly bodies of irregular troops which had been taken over by the company from various native chiefs, and were now found to be an intolerable burden upon the exchequer.
He treated with the agents of the Sikh chiefs, who were to be detached from the cause of Holkar, and when Holkar, driven for refuge into the Punjab, sent envoys to solicit peace, it was Malcolm who received them and negotiated the treaty of 7 Jan. He remained at headquarters till June following, occupied with the principal direction of the grants of pensions, gratuities, and lands for services rendered in the war and with other administrative business, minute but onerous and important, resulting from three campaigns; nor was it until April , and after a stay of almost six months in Calcutta, that he returned to Mysore.
Malcolm had never been thrifty, and his numerous costly missions had, in spite of extra allowances, considerably impoverished him. His health was shaken by overwork and exposure, and he was in need of repose. On 4 July he married Charlotte, younger daughter of Colonel Alexander Campbell of the king's 74th regiment, afterwards created a baronet and K. But Malcolm soon grew weary of the settled and peaceful administration of Mysore and became ambitious of the command of an expedition to Bussorah.
As a lieutenant-colonel of three years' standing he was of sufficient rank to command the force, some fifteen hundred men, the despatch of which he suggested, and thus he could unite the military and diplomatic functions in one hand. No expedition, however, was sent, but at this juncture Lord Minto, anxious after the peace of Tilsit to establish whatever barriers diplomacy could set up against a French and Russian advance from the west towards India, decided to send missions to Lahore, Cabul, and Teheran, and for the last he selected Malcolm.
There was, however, difficulty in obtaining the sanction of the court of directors to this appointment. Malcolm had the reputation at the India House of having been extravagant on his former missions, and of being, however able and energetic, too bold and too much committed to the policy of the Wellesley school.
Eventually Sir Harford Jones [see Brydges, Sir Harford Jones ] was named ambassador, and Malcolm, pending his arrival in the East, was despatched to the Persian Gulf with a somewhat general commission of observation. He sailed for Bombay in the Culloden on 17 Feb. His force, nominally an escort but really available for operations, consisted of three frigates and about five hundred marines and sepoys.
From 10 May to 11 June he remained at Bushire, and despatched a mission to Teheran, but found himself entirely unable to overcome the French influence which predominated there. His messengers were forbidden to advance beyond Shiraz, and he was himself referred to the provincial viceroy of Fars.
He accordingly quitted Persia, worsted and indignant, and reached Calcutta on 22 Aug. On his advice Lord Minto now resolved to occupy the island of Karrack as a warning to Persia and a check to French influence. Malcolm's expedition was first postponed and then abandoned, and in May he embarked for Madras. At this juncture the Madras mutiny occurred, and shortly after his arrival Malcolm was despatched by Sir George Barlow to Masulipatam to deal with the revolt, which had broken out in that important military station against the authority of Colonel Innes, who was in command of the Madras European regiment there.
Reaching Masulipatam, he found the garrison in a state of open and bold mutiny, and on the point of marching to join the subsidiary force at Hyderabad. It was loth even to admit him within the lines. He promptly delivered Colonel Innes from the garrison, convened a meeting of the officers, reasoned with them, and, while declining himself to give any pledge or assurance, prevailed on them to abandon for the present their intention of marching to Hyderabad.
His principal object was to gain time, and in this he succeeded; but his proceedings were not approved by Sir George Barlow. He was superseded by General Pater, and on his return to Madras was coldly received. Barlow pursued the opposite policy of sternness and severity, and it met with success. Malcolm took the earliest opportunity of returning to diplomatic employment, and was again despatched to Persia in the end of the year see Malcolm's justificatory pamphlet, Observations on the Disturbances in the Madras Army in , Sailing from Bombay on 10 Jan.
It was completed on 6 March, though he did not take his departure for Teheran till 15 April. The intricacies of Persian etiquette had occasioned this delay, but when he proceeded on his journey he was received not only with pomp, but with cordiality. At Teheran he was embarrassed by the presence of Sir Harford Jones, the king's ambassador to Persia, who exercised in that capacity superior authority over the mere envoy of the governor-general, and was exasperated by want of success in his mission and want of support from the East India Company.
It was only after considerable negotiation that they were able to meet as friends and co-operate in politics. After Malcolm had been received with welcome and warmth by the shah, the news arrived that the British government, wishing to keep diplomatic relations with Persia in its own hands, and to withhold them from those of the governor-general, had appointed Sir Gore Ouseley ambassador to the court of the shah.
His official position being thus extinguished, Malcolm decided to quit Persia at once, in spite of the shah's desire to retain him as a military adviser during the impending war with Russia. The order of the Lion and Sun of Persia having been created for his especial decoration, he was allowed to depart with that and other high honours at the end of July.
He returned by way of Baghdad, where his presence and escort protected the British residency during a civil war between an incoming and an outgoing pacha, and he reached Bombay at the end of November. The sole result of this long and costly mission was the creation of a Persian order for the envoy by the shah, and the introduction of potatoes into Persia by the envoy see Harford Jones , Mission to the Court of Persia ; Morier , Travels through Persia , ; Lord Minto in India , While occupied upon his history he also composed a justification of his conduct at Masulipatam during the mutiny in the Madras army.
MALCOLM, Sir John (), of Warfield, nr. Wokingham, Berks. | History of Parliament Online
It was entrusted to Sir James Mackintosh for publication in England, and, by Malcolm's express desire, this took place before he himself arrived in England on furlough in July Malcolm now remained at home for nearly five years. During this time he formed various literary connections Smiles , Memoir of John Murray , i. Shortly after his arrival he was knighted, received permission to wear the insignia of the order of the Lion and Sun in England, and in April was made a K. His views on the treatment of the Indian army were considered by the board of control, and he was examined before the House of Commons on various Indian topics in April Owing to his various missions and his careless habits he found himself in embarrassed circumstances.
He remained for some time in great uncertainty as to his future plans. As an Indian officer he was debarred from European service. He failed to obtain, if indeed he really sought, the succession to Jonathan Duncan [q. His friends at the board of control went out of office without doing anything for him, and the Duke of Wellington, though his intimate friend, had no patronage available for him.
By returning to India he was certain very shortly to obtain the command of a regiment as colonel on full pay, and his chance of political employment was good. Though forty-six years of age he was hale and vigorous. He decided to separate himself from his family, and sailed for India in October January He did not land in India until 17 March , some days after the utmost statutory limits of his five years' furlough had been reached.
He was well received by the governor-general, Lord Moira [see Hastings, Francis Rawdon ], and, a new Mahratta war being in prospect, he expected early employment. He was soon appointed a brigadier in Sir John Doveton's Deccan army, and during the enforced military inactivity of the hot season he was directed to visit the principal native courts as agent to the governor-general, and to confer with their respective residents. He reached Hyderabad on 24 July, Poonah on 4 Aug. Having thus visited the courts of the nizam, the peishwah, and the bhoonsla within a few months, he joined the army at Hussingabad, on the banks of the Nerbudda; and thence, having communicated with General Adams, who was in command of that division, he made his way to join his own division, the third of the Deccan army, at Hurda on 29 Oct.
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He at once made preparations for an immediate forward movement against the Pindarees, and on 15 Nov. Though nominally a war for the extirpation of the Pindarees, the doubtful fidelity of the native states on the one hand, and the overpowering military preparations of the company on the other, seemed to presage its conversion into a renewed struggle with the Mahratta confederacy.
While Malcolm was still operating against the bands of Pindarees on the Nerbudda, open war broke out at Poonah and Nagpore, in spite of his diplomatic visits to those courts a few months before. In November a revolution took place at Indore, which caused Holkar's forces to be numbered among the enemies of the English. Malcolm, who had been pursuing without success the Pindaree chief Cheetoo, was recalled and joined Sir Thomas Hislop [q.
After fruitless negotiation between Malcolm and the envoys of Holkar's durbar, the English army moved on, and on 21 Dec. Malcolm, in command of an advanced guard of horse, dispersed the enemy's cavalry, which were posted so as to menace the English in flank while crossing the Sepree, and then, with two leading brigades, began the engagement before the main body had completed the crossing. He had hardly been in the field since he was a boy; he had never commanded in the field at all. Without waiting to form his two brigades he waved his hat and led his leading files against the enemy at the run.
In spite of their deadly fire the enemy's batteries were carried with the bayonet. Throughout Malcolm exposed himself in front of his men more like a subaltern than a general. He saved his life, as he won the battle, as much by good luck as by skill, headed the pursuit with two light battalions, and continued it for several miles. The victory, though complete, was bloody, and it was won by the valour of the sepoy, and not by the tactics of the commander.
After Christmas he was despatched, with a mixed force of cavalry and light artillery, towards the north-west in pursuit of the flying enemy. He marched swiftly from Mundissore to Narghur, and thence back to Mundissore, and there on 31 Dec. While still concluding his arrangements for the settlement of Holkar's government, he was engaged with his division in operations against Jeswunt Rao Bhao, a rebel viceroy of Scindiah's, pursued him into Mewar, and received his surrender on 14 Feb.
During the following months he was busy in negotiations, having for their object the general pacification of the central states, preceded by, and based upon, the voluntary surrender of the peishwah. He offered him twenty-four hours in which to choose whether to accept the British offer of a pension in return for the abdication of the throne of Poonah, or to be treated as an enemy. The peishwah had little choice, entirely hemmed in as he was by the British forces, and on the 3rd he surrendered.
His forces were gradually disbanded, and the war was at an end. None the less it was the opinion of the governor-general that the surrender had been extravagantly bought, and that Malcolm had again been characteristically lavish of public money. The peishwah's pension, before he died, cost the Indian exchequer two millions sterling. Badjee Rao departed for Hindostan, and Malcolm remained to organise the administration of his kingdom. Before the peishwah had started a mutiny broke out among his Arab followers, which needed prompt suppression. Malcolm established cantonments at Mhow, and began the task of the reclamation of Malwah.
His design was to reduce into order those provinces of the late prince of Poonah which had been for two generations a prey to anarchy, and then, unless meantime appointed governor of Bombay, to sail for England at the end of Choose your country's store to see books available for purchase. Through his writings, the leading East India Company servant, Sir John Malcolm helped to shape the historical thought of British empire-building in India.
This book uses his works to examine the intellectual history of British expansion in South Asia, and shed light on the history of orientalism and indirect rule and the formation of British power. Niall Ferguson. India: A History. John Keay. Unfinished Empire. John Darwin. Daniel Hannan. The Invention of Tradition. Eric Hobsbawm. Inventing Freedom. A Concise History of Modern India. Barbara D.
The Chaos of Empire. Jon Wilson. Ashley Jackson. David Cannadine. John Morrill. The Discovery of Ancient India. Upinder Singh. A New History of England. Jeremy Black. Philip J. The Ruling Caste. David Gilmour. Imperial Meridian. Liberalism, Imperialism, and the Historical Imagination. Theodore Koditschek. Maharajah of Bikaner. Hugh Purcell. The Lords of Human Kind. Victor Kiernan. Robin Winks. Cricket in Colonial India — Boria Majumdar.
Sujit Sivasundaram. The Lion's Share. Bernard Porter. From Autocracy To Integration. Lucien D Benichou. Indians in Britain. Shompa Lahiri. The Stillbirth of Capital. Siraj Ahmed. Mixed-Race and Modernity in Colonial India. Adrian Carton. India under Colonial Rule: Douglas M. The Insecurity State. Mark Condos. Angma Dey Jhala. Decentring Empire. Durba Ghosh. India Ian Copland. East India Company , The. Philip Lawson. A History of the British Isles. Kenneth L. Britain's Imperial Muse. Arvind Sharma.
Malcolm, John (DNB00)
Empire Ways. Professor Bernard Porter. Vice in the Barracks. From the Ruins of Empire. Pankaj Mishra. Graham Chapman. Liberty or Death. Patrick French. The Geopolitics of South Asia. Graham P. Britain and Empire, Dane Kennedy. Andrew Robinson. A History of Bangladesh. Willem van Schendel. William III. Empires of the Imagination. Holger Hoock. Law, Disorder and the Colonial State.
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