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The seat system itself and its connection to the vehicle structure must be of a certain compliance in order to keep the loads imparted to the occupants by forces and shocks as low as possible. All measures taken to protect the occupants must be highly responsive. After 0.
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After 10 milliseconds, initial movements of the dummy caused by the introduction of forces and shocks can be observed. Initial vehicle move- ments occur after appr. Computer simulation has proved to be an effective tool in developing mine-proof vehicles. The numerical simulation of the dynamic effects of a mine blast on the vehicle structure makes it possible as early as during the concept phase to predict the structural behaviour and to assess the effectiveness of different design approaches and their effects on the occupants. The dummies used during these tests included the Hybrid III 50 th dummies, which were developed and validated for the motor industry.
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Figure 5 shows the stress values of a dummy which are today evaluated with respect to the probability of injury. Experimentally determined are specifically data for material mod- els, e.
The data and models obtained can be used to perform complete vehicle simulations for the purpose of verifying and optimizing mine protection. A comparison of the dummy stress values obtained with complete vehicle simu- lations with the values measured during qualification tests shows a high level of agreement. Fig- ure 6 shows a comparison of the calculated and measured vertical g loads acting on the pelvic area of a Hybrid dummy during a mine blast under a vehicle.
During the devel- opment phase, the calculation engineer and design engineer consult each other to make sure that the CAD model of the vehicle stucture can be meshed easily. In this way, it is possible to avoid the frequently considerable effort required to generate a intermediate surface model capable of being meshed. This is where the vehicle equipment relative to mine protection e.
Also car- ried out as part of ANSYS is the installation of the dummy in the model as well as the correct ori- entation of the limbs. A great deal of attention must be given to those components that are located between the inner and the outer vehicle floor. These components, such as the transfer box, tank or floor liner, reduce the load on the mine protection floor by their very mass shock absorption when they are hit and accelerated by a dynamically denting floor structure.
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However, in conjunction with the simulation, they also represent a good opportunity for design and optimization. For the usual model sizes of The FE model for the explicit dynamic analysis shows a very high level of detail and a high mesh quality. This FE model can therefore also be used without any major effort to conduct implicit static structural analyses or modal analyses. It can be used to calculate the effective energy, the local and time-related impulse of the mine and to derive load conditions for the simulation.
Loads created by a mine blast are introduced into the vehicle structure in the form of a pressure distribution on the vehicle floor variable in terms of time and location. In this case, time-variable pressure loads are applied to the vehicle underfloor in a radial pattern starting from the centre of the blast, Figure 7. Figure 7: Pressure distribution of a mine blast at mm distance from the floor freely positioned in a steel collar The time-variable pressure distribution is determined as a function of type of mine, type of em- placement, soil condition, underbody ground clearance, shape of the underbody and radial distance from the centre of the blast.
The pressure distribution is calculated by means of the SHAMRC program, an explicit simulation program 2D-Euler Code operating with higher-order finite differences.
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The calculated mine load cases have been validated through simulated blast tests with steel plates and vehicle structures. In the complete vehicle simulation, the decoupling between the load simulation and then structural response analysis is possible, in those cases where loads occur instantaneously as in the case of mine blasts, when boundary conditions ambient geometry vary only slightly during the period of load introduction. While the dynamic vehicle floor deformation takes on the maximum value after appr. The peak pressure at the centre of the blast even has only an effective period of up to 0.
The interaction between the propagation of the detonation fumes and underfloor deformation can therefore be neglected in a first approximation. This permits the separation between load simula- tion and simulation of the structural response.
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Components e. Depending on the position and ori- entation of the feet or lower legs, injuries to occupants may result if the necessary safety distance from the inner floor is not sufficient or if the contacting structure is too stiff. As can be seen, the inner floor of the vehicle is still heavily deformed owing to the coupling effects in the intermediate floor area. While the left foot of the driver is not notably stressed, the right foot is exposed to distinct but still negligible loads.
Based on such considerations, the blast simulations make it possible to largely analyse the interaction between the vehicle outer floor, intermediate floor components and inner floor in order to be able to take suitable measures for structural optimization. The dummies are used to define the necessary safety distance footrests between feet and inner floor or to de- termine non-critical crew stations.