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SaaS is used to deliver the services on the Internet and can be consumed by the developers and small business markets. PaaS provides the set of tools and services so that the applications can be built on it by the developers. IaaS is the combination of software and hardware and the applications can be migrated to it.

The main contribution of this survey includes as: A comprehensive study to highlight security threats related to each cloud service model. An explanation to differentiate cloud service models as compared with traditional applications and services. Issues and challenges are identified in each cloud service model to open research directions for researchers, security administrators, and cloud vendors. Moreover, we introduce the main contribution of this work through the division and classification of security issues at each cloud layer.

We present the taxonomy as well. This section also indicates how our work differs from existing approaches. The security concerns and solution directives in SaaS cloud are discussed in Section 2. The security model for PaaS cloud is explored in Section 3. The security paradigms and their solution directives in the IaaS model are presented in Section 4. Finally, we conclude the paper.

Detail literature summaries of existing surveys in the area of cloud service delivery are discussed in Table I. In this model, customers have no or little control over infrastructure, storage, application data, and servers. Users have no control over underlying cloud infrastructure, such as, servers, networks, and storage. This taxonomy describes and examines the major security threats in each cloud layer. We also provide an overview of existing security approaches, issues, and vulnerabilities.

Moreover, we thoroughly investigate and propose appropriate solutions to these threats. Therefore, SaaS mainly relies on PaaS to deliver its services to end users. The virtualization layer is used for good resource distribution and utilization because of the multitenant behavior of SaaS Figure 2. Software services are provided on demand. A single instance runs on the server side, and many users and organizations use such services simultaneously.

SaaS offerings differ considerably from enterprise applications Table II. Users obviate using SaaS services due to cloud data security and confidentiality. Outsourced data can be encrypted for confidentiality and security. An end user has minimal or no responsibility to run and to protect his applications. SaaS providers are responsible for protecting requested applications on their personal data centers before delivering these applications to the cloud.

As discussed in the preceding texts, customers access SaaS services through a thin client, which is often known as a Web browser, by connecting to the Internet. Therefore, security threats target service providers. The responsibility of these providers to provide all necessary security solutions is increased. In the following sections, the major security concerns in the SaaS cloud model are investigated in details, along with potential solutions.

Thereby, any security vulnerability in traditional Web applications is automatically inherited by these applications. Therefore, the potential concern in cloud computing involves securing application layers because the Web application layer is the primary target for malicious attackers.

Threats attack this layer directly. Applications on cloud are highly dynamic One way to protect SaaS applications is to install firewall tools. This model guarantees information security by implementing the trust model, which controls dimensions of private data so that only authorized users can access data. This security management model facilitates the integration of SaaS applications into available security control without altering target applications. In this mode, a tenant can define, customize, and enforce security requirements without having to revert to application providers for security and maintenance.

The security management model Orange is proposed by Chou and Oetting 37 to secure the entire development life cycle of the SaaS integrated system.


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The authors highlight the importance of enhancing the data and system security of the SaaS model before integrating this model into the existing IT infrastructure. Then, the researcher addresses the specific security risk for each category and defines security from two perspectives, that is, the technical and management views of SaaS applications. This protocol is stateless; thus, it can facilitate session hijacking because cloud applications require session handling. Security points are applied to each layer.

The authors of Ref. However, these existing methods fail to highlight actual modeling variability among tenants Cloud service providers can also modify user data on cloud storage This modification, whether intentional or not, affects the quality and behavior of cloud services; hence, this process should be ceased to address the integrity and availability of data and software. Meanwhile, many system development models 37 , 41 have been developed to address the integration of SaaS applications, but this process remains a challenging task.

Cloud vendors must always remain online because users can access the data at any time.

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In traditional enterprise applications, data owners and service providers are normally located at the same place; however, this scenario does not fit cloud computing. One way to securely access user data from an untrusted cloud is to encrypt data using cryptography techniques The data owners handle their keys and disclose the code only to authorized users. In this mode, even cloud service providers cannot decrypt the keys because they have no access to data decryption keys. The secure socket layer protocol is widely used to encrypt communication between clients and servers over the Internet.

The technique proposed by Kumar et al. Not even the cloud providers can steal the data because they have no control.

Cloud Computing - Methods and Practical Approaches | Zaigham Mahmood | Springer

The major benefit of this approach is that in the event of security breach on the side of the cloud storage provider, the data remain secure because the provider does not have the encryption keys. Furthermore, a number of attributes is stored in ciphertext form. Thus, the data are encrypted using an arbitrary string as a key. The approaches presented in Refs. Techniques such as homomorphic encryption can also secure the safety of user data. These assessment measures enable customers to monitor their set standards regularly.

Access control policies based on data attributes can also be combined with encryption. Data privacy and data sharing in a public cloud remains an open issue in shared cloud environments. One way to address this issue is to encrypt data before sending to the cloud. However, crypto analytic methods have recently been developed that limit the functionalities of cryptography approaches. Nonetheless, these approaches are also limited in several aspects; for instance, they may introduce heavy computation overhead into cloud servers. As a result, application performance declines and server expenses increase.

Implementing strong security checks on these two points can protect user data from theft and misuse However, these standards are inadequate to protect the data center fully because they are based on old service delivery models and are insufficient for cloud architecture.

Security, privacy, resiliency, multiple disaster recovery leverage, and geographically disparate data centers have been established across multiple regions. By contrast, geolocation laws, such as the European Union Data Protection Act, require sensitive data to remain local. This act states that data should remain within the European economic area. Other countries are also proposing jurisdiction laws to restrict the number of SaaS data centers in a single local geographical location. Meanwhile, the need for physical and virtual data center security continues to increase in cloud environments.

Therefore, traffic flow must be secured among the physical elements and in virtual data center networks. Traditionally, most data centers rely on firewalls and physical access controls to protect sensitive data. Cloud Security Alliance guides the reduction of security risks when adopting different cloud services. Clients must determine the correct level of data center security assurance and security certification for their companies. A homomorphic token can be used to optimize security in data storage. This approach protects data from modification and shields them against byzantine cryptosystems A typical enterprise has either hundreds or thousands of users.

A similar number of users may be using SaaS applications at one time in the SaaS cloud model. Users can access all systems without having to present their credentials each time. When users log in on a single machine, they can access related services through the SSO facility. Identity management control IDM components provide identity services for users and organizations. A core component protects security and privacy to alleviate problems associated with cloud computing. Cloud vendors must guarantee different types of user security, authentication, and authorization process for IDM and SSO.

Private and sensitive data can be protected throughout their lifecycles. This mechanism can apply identified data to untrusted hosts. This method uses the active bundle, which is a middleware that enforces user policies to authenticate cloud services. The authors of Refs.

However, these schemes still lack adequate security and do not address access control for cloud users. In a shared cloud environment, customers may have multiple accounts on several virtual machines VMs supported by many service providers. In this regard, IDM provides an efficient way to access cloud services securely. TTP can also be used to generate optimal solutions for identifying the entities of service providers.

Authentication is the process of identifying an individual, typically by entering an ID and a password Multifactor authentication is increasingly popular in shared cloud environments because this process depends on multiple implementations of two or more classes of human authentication. The increase in the number of cloud users generates more identities and authentication mechanisms for users logging into SaaS systems. SaaS cloud providers typically handle such mechanisms with two generic approaches 61 : Centralized authentication system; and Decentralized authentication system.

The authentication screen in the SaaS cloud is activated by entering a username, a password, and an authentication API that is provided by SaaS vendors. The user information screen is thus generated. This screen also provides the number of users, the number of common user components, and the number of total transactions conducted on SaaS applications However, traditional authentication mechanisms in shared technology burden thin clients A virtual private network agency 47 suggested the construction of secure backend channels and the provision of readers with anonymous access to clouds.

Users are required to perform other actions aside from merely entering a username and a password in multilevel authentication 64 , The referenced work enhances the authentication model by supporting several national eID solutions. Moreover, the authors argue that their method will be the first eID framework to be applied across Europe in the future.

The authors of 67 structure the basic concepts of cloud computing and security issues. They also propose an integrated authentication mechanism called the cloud cognitive authenticator. Figure 4 provides a comprehensive and complex view of strong cloud computing authentication components. Various design approaches are adopted in this model. All cloud resources are logged, including computing, networks, and storage entities.

This information is stored in multiple secure locations to secure them from unprivileged access. This standard authenticates components over cloud systems. Moreover, the key management interoperability protocol designed by Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards is also employed to address improved security solutions. Aside from these traditional encryption techniques, digital signatures are another new method of authenticating systems on an untrusted domain. With PaaS, a developer 31 , 69 : Can develop personal applications without installing and purchasing any software; and Can deploy those applications without having any special system administration skills.

In a PaaS environment, developers can focus solely on application development while service providers manage maintenance and load balancing. Thus, PaaS has a significant edge over other platforms in the future enterprise market. PaaS platforms also affect the development of traditional enterprise applications significantly. As discussed previously, PaaS provides a software execution environment for customers without requiring them to buy servers, storage, or networks. Security is the most important feature of PaaS services, particularly when customers wish to save data onto the PaaS platform.

PaaS providers must implement encryption techniques to provide services without disruption. Cloud vendors use several types of encryption technique to protect platforms from malicious attackers. In the following section, the major security threats to PaaS cloud are presented. Developers who utilize PaaS can develop their own applications on local machines and deploy these applications on a cloud platform without possessing any specific system administration skills Thus, two main security aspects are associated with PaaS cloud: Security of the PaaS platform itself; and Security of the application deployed on the PaaS platform.

PaaS platforms include a programming framework that is used to access and utilize additional applications as building blocks. A common problem with PaaS providers is with regard to integration with other cloud services. Enterprise companies may encounter this major issue while transitioning applications to cloud. PaaS integration not only affects its business customers but also affects SaaS services. SaaS and PaaS limit the range of middleware, deployment tools, and integration tools. Therefore, application components must connect to one another to stabilize the workflow of Web application development and to improve the efficiency of user productivity tools.

Data integration platforms 72 integrate data among different cloud platforms. Data are shared across platforms without revealing individual information. Data sharing mechanisms are important in this process because they enable different applications to communicate with one another through a data service portal. Integration among different cloud providers utilizes cloud resources more effectively. Nevertheless, service integration is necessary for cloud vendors to provide facilities.

SLA documents help define the rules regarding pieces of information that need to be migrated across different cloud platforms. Thus, cloud consumers cannot migrate their enterprise applications to other cloud platforms. In some cases 12 , the programming languages that are used to develop enterprise applications differ based on the application being migrated. This difference is caused by the variation in API providers They build collaborative relationships with cloud providers and consumers by anticipating the database, storage, and application framework.

Microsoft has engaged in this activity for decades; however, vendors require exceptional skills and infrastructure. Enterprises lack the skill and infrastructure to run legacy applications over cloud. This limitation is attributed to the fact that the security and availability of general cloud services depend on the security of these basic APIs. This open service infrastructure facilitates the deployment of applications over multiple heterogeneous cloud platforms. Likewise, the authors of Ref. This framework details the reconfiguration, dynamic migration, and interoperability of applications across multiple cloud layers.

The framework also facilitates the reconfiguration of applications and of middleware during runtime. The ranking criteria used by Dandria et al. The criteria presented by Paraiso et al. Moreover, FraSCAti does not provide the mechanism that automates the selection of services and of applications.

All computations are performed manually. Focus should be on application contents and modules. Furthermore, main services such as monitoring and logging should be tracked. The security model of cloud providers should be analyzed continuously.


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The security dependency chain associated with API should be determined. PaaS cloud provides users with a platform on which they can run application components. In PaaS cloud computing, several users can use cloud services simultaneously. As a result, malicious users have numerous opportunities to interfere with and disrupt the normal execution of PaaS container components. Furthermore, the data are shared between multiple customers and organizations. This occurrence implies that cloud providers must ensure the privacy, integrity, and consistency of data. The quality of cloud services can also be affected.

These two layers are the authorization server and the authorization client API. Authorization can be granted with the placement of a digital signature between an authorization server and the API of an authorized client. The assumption that cloud providers are aware of traffic is reasonable. Nonetheless, these methods also exhibit disadvantages For example, data center operations may not be efficient because of the variation in bandwidth demands among different tenants.

Moreover, isolation should be considered over running services and APIs. The cost, services, and framework of each cloud layer vary depending on the interface method applied. Currently available PaaS platforms are relatively immature, and the infancy of the market enhances risk. This market immaturity increases cost and compromises the service and quality of cloud products. Figure 5 shows the major barriers encountered by adopting cloud computing, and technical immaturity is the most significant barrier among these factors. The cloud environment continues to fail in terms of building trust between cloud vendors and their customers.

A TTP authenticates users using common authentication measures, such as usernames or passwords. Key points in providing appropriate services are securing data through transmission, Web services, and data delivery to end users. This auditor ensures security and privacy in a cloud computing environment. Nonetheless, these options depend completely on the customer's choice of whether they wish to avail of these facilities or not.

This work studies batch auditing and develops a mathematical model for security. Such works determine the ideal public auditability of cloud data storage; however, these approaches remain infeasible because of the immaturity and inconsistent behavior of cloud. Platform attestation 86 is another important feature of trusted cloud computing.

SaaS is used to deliver the services on the Internet and can be consumed by the developers and small business markets. PaaS provides the set of tools and services so that the applications can be built on it by the developers. IaaS is the combination of software and hardware and the applications can be migrated to it. The main contribution of this survey includes as: A comprehensive study to highlight security threats related to each cloud service model. An explanation to differentiate cloud service models as compared with traditional applications and services.

Issues and challenges are identified in each cloud service model to open research directions for researchers, security administrators, and cloud vendors. Moreover, we introduce the main contribution of this work through the division and classification of security issues at each cloud layer. We present the taxonomy as well.

This section also indicates how our work differs from existing approaches. The security concerns and solution directives in SaaS cloud are discussed in Section 2. The security model for PaaS cloud is explored in Section 3. The security paradigms and their solution directives in the IaaS model are presented in Section 4. Finally, we conclude the paper. Detail literature summaries of existing surveys in the area of cloud service delivery are discussed in Table I. In this model, customers have no or little control over infrastructure, storage, application data, and servers.

Users have no control over underlying cloud infrastructure, such as, servers, networks, and storage. This taxonomy describes and examines the major security threats in each cloud layer. We also provide an overview of existing security approaches, issues, and vulnerabilities. Moreover, we thoroughly investigate and propose appropriate solutions to these threats. Therefore, SaaS mainly relies on PaaS to deliver its services to end users.

The virtualization layer is used for good resource distribution and utilization because of the multitenant behavior of SaaS Figure 2. Software services are provided on demand. A single instance runs on the server side, and many users and organizations use such services simultaneously. SaaS offerings differ considerably from enterprise applications Table II.

Users obviate using SaaS services due to cloud data security and confidentiality. Outsourced data can be encrypted for confidentiality and security. An end user has minimal or no responsibility to run and to protect his applications. SaaS providers are responsible for protecting requested applications on their personal data centers before delivering these applications to the cloud.

As discussed in the preceding texts, customers access SaaS services through a thin client, which is often known as a Web browser, by connecting to the Internet. Therefore, security threats target service providers. The responsibility of these providers to provide all necessary security solutions is increased. In the following sections, the major security concerns in the SaaS cloud model are investigated in details, along with potential solutions.

Service delivery models of cloud computing: security issues and open challenges

Thereby, any security vulnerability in traditional Web applications is automatically inherited by these applications. Therefore, the potential concern in cloud computing involves securing application layers because the Web application layer is the primary target for malicious attackers. Threats attack this layer directly. Applications on cloud are highly dynamic One way to protect SaaS applications is to install firewall tools.

This model guarantees information security by implementing the trust model, which controls dimensions of private data so that only authorized users can access data. This security management model facilitates the integration of SaaS applications into available security control without altering target applications. In this mode, a tenant can define, customize, and enforce security requirements without having to revert to application providers for security and maintenance.

The security management model Orange is proposed by Chou and Oetting 37 to secure the entire development life cycle of the SaaS integrated system. The authors highlight the importance of enhancing the data and system security of the SaaS model before integrating this model into the existing IT infrastructure. Then, the researcher addresses the specific security risk for each category and defines security from two perspectives, that is, the technical and management views of SaaS applications. This protocol is stateless; thus, it can facilitate session hijacking because cloud applications require session handling.

Security points are applied to each layer. The authors of Ref. However, these existing methods fail to highlight actual modeling variability among tenants Cloud service providers can also modify user data on cloud storage This modification, whether intentional or not, affects the quality and behavior of cloud services; hence, this process should be ceased to address the integrity and availability of data and software. Meanwhile, many system development models 37 , 41 have been developed to address the integration of SaaS applications, but this process remains a challenging task. Cloud vendors must always remain online because users can access the data at any time.

In traditional enterprise applications, data owners and service providers are normally located at the same place; however, this scenario does not fit cloud computing. One way to securely access user data from an untrusted cloud is to encrypt data using cryptography techniques The data owners handle their keys and disclose the code only to authorized users. In this mode, even cloud service providers cannot decrypt the keys because they have no access to data decryption keys.

Cloud Testing : An Overview

The secure socket layer protocol is widely used to encrypt communication between clients and servers over the Internet. The technique proposed by Kumar et al. Not even the cloud providers can steal the data because they have no control. The major benefit of this approach is that in the event of security breach on the side of the cloud storage provider, the data remain secure because the provider does not have the encryption keys.

Furthermore, a number of attributes is stored in ciphertext form. Thus, the data are encrypted using an arbitrary string as a key. The approaches presented in Refs. Techniques such as homomorphic encryption can also secure the safety of user data. These assessment measures enable customers to monitor their set standards regularly. Access control policies based on data attributes can also be combined with encryption. Data privacy and data sharing in a public cloud remains an open issue in shared cloud environments. One way to address this issue is to encrypt data before sending to the cloud.

However, crypto analytic methods have recently been developed that limit the functionalities of cryptography approaches. Nonetheless, these approaches are also limited in several aspects; for instance, they may introduce heavy computation overhead into cloud servers. As a result, application performance declines and server expenses increase.

Implementing strong security checks on these two points can protect user data from theft and misuse However, these standards are inadequate to protect the data center fully because they are based on old service delivery models and are insufficient for cloud architecture. Security, privacy, resiliency, multiple disaster recovery leverage, and geographically disparate data centers have been established across multiple regions.

By contrast, geolocation laws, such as the European Union Data Protection Act, require sensitive data to remain local. This act states that data should remain within the European economic area. Other countries are also proposing jurisdiction laws to restrict the number of SaaS data centers in a single local geographical location. Meanwhile, the need for physical and virtual data center security continues to increase in cloud environments. Therefore, traffic flow must be secured among the physical elements and in virtual data center networks.

Traditionally, most data centers rely on firewalls and physical access controls to protect sensitive data. Cloud Security Alliance guides the reduction of security risks when adopting different cloud services. Clients must determine the correct level of data center security assurance and security certification for their companies. A homomorphic token can be used to optimize security in data storage. This approach protects data from modification and shields them against byzantine cryptosystems A typical enterprise has either hundreds or thousands of users.

A similar number of users may be using SaaS applications at one time in the SaaS cloud model. Users can access all systems without having to present their credentials each time. When users log in on a single machine, they can access related services through the SSO facility. Identity management control IDM components provide identity services for users and organizations.

A core component protects security and privacy to alleviate problems associated with cloud computing. Cloud vendors must guarantee different types of user security, authentication, and authorization process for IDM and SSO. Private and sensitive data can be protected throughout their lifecycles. This mechanism can apply identified data to untrusted hosts.

This method uses the active bundle, which is a middleware that enforces user policies to authenticate cloud services. The authors of Refs. However, these schemes still lack adequate security and do not address access control for cloud users. In a shared cloud environment, customers may have multiple accounts on several virtual machines VMs supported by many service providers. In this regard, IDM provides an efficient way to access cloud services securely. TTP can also be used to generate optimal solutions for identifying the entities of service providers.

Authentication is the process of identifying an individual, typically by entering an ID and a password Multifactor authentication is increasingly popular in shared cloud environments because this process depends on multiple implementations of two or more classes of human authentication. The increase in the number of cloud users generates more identities and authentication mechanisms for users logging into SaaS systems.

SaaS cloud providers typically handle such mechanisms with two generic approaches 61 : Centralized authentication system; and Decentralized authentication system. The authentication screen in the SaaS cloud is activated by entering a username, a password, and an authentication API that is provided by SaaS vendors. The user information screen is thus generated. This screen also provides the number of users, the number of common user components, and the number of total transactions conducted on SaaS applications However, traditional authentication mechanisms in shared technology burden thin clients A virtual private network agency 47 suggested the construction of secure backend channels and the provision of readers with anonymous access to clouds.

Users are required to perform other actions aside from merely entering a username and a password in multilevel authentication 64 , The referenced work enhances the authentication model by supporting several national eID solutions. Moreover, the authors argue that their method will be the first eID framework to be applied across Europe in the future. The authors of 67 structure the basic concepts of cloud computing and security issues. They also propose an integrated authentication mechanism called the cloud cognitive authenticator.

Figure 4 provides a comprehensive and complex view of strong cloud computing authentication components. Various design approaches are adopted in this model. All cloud resources are logged, including computing, networks, and storage entities. This information is stored in multiple secure locations to secure them from unprivileged access.

This standard authenticates components over cloud systems. Moreover, the key management interoperability protocol designed by Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards is also employed to address improved security solutions. Aside from these traditional encryption techniques, digital signatures are another new method of authenticating systems on an untrusted domain. With PaaS, a developer 31 , 69 : Can develop personal applications without installing and purchasing any software; and Can deploy those applications without having any special system administration skills.

In a PaaS environment, developers can focus solely on application development while service providers manage maintenance and load balancing. Thus, PaaS has a significant edge over other platforms in the future enterprise market. PaaS platforms also affect the development of traditional enterprise applications significantly. As discussed previously, PaaS provides a software execution environment for customers without requiring them to buy servers, storage, or networks.

Security is the most important feature of PaaS services, particularly when customers wish to save data onto the PaaS platform. PaaS providers must implement encryption techniques to provide services without disruption. Cloud vendors use several types of encryption technique to protect platforms from malicious attackers. In the following section, the major security threats to PaaS cloud are presented. Developers who utilize PaaS can develop their own applications on local machines and deploy these applications on a cloud platform without possessing any specific system administration skills Thus, two main security aspects are associated with PaaS cloud: Security of the PaaS platform itself; and Security of the application deployed on the PaaS platform.

PaaS platforms include a programming framework that is used to access and utilize additional applications as building blocks. A common problem with PaaS providers is with regard to integration with other cloud services. Enterprise companies may encounter this major issue while transitioning applications to cloud. PaaS integration not only affects its business customers but also affects SaaS services. SaaS and PaaS limit the range of middleware, deployment tools, and integration tools. Therefore, application components must connect to one another to stabilize the workflow of Web application development and to improve the efficiency of user productivity tools.

Data integration platforms 72 integrate data among different cloud platforms. Data are shared across platforms without revealing individual information. Data sharing mechanisms are important in this process because they enable different applications to communicate with one another through a data service portal. Integration among different cloud providers utilizes cloud resources more effectively. Nevertheless, service integration is necessary for cloud vendors to provide facilities. SLA documents help define the rules regarding pieces of information that need to be migrated across different cloud platforms.

Thus, cloud consumers cannot migrate their enterprise applications to other cloud platforms. In some cases 12 , the programming languages that are used to develop enterprise applications differ based on the application being migrated. This difference is caused by the variation in API providers They build collaborative relationships with cloud providers and consumers by anticipating the database, storage, and application framework. Microsoft has engaged in this activity for decades; however, vendors require exceptional skills and infrastructure.

Enterprises lack the skill and infrastructure to run legacy applications over cloud. This limitation is attributed to the fact that the security and availability of general cloud services depend on the security of these basic APIs. This open service infrastructure facilitates the deployment of applications over multiple heterogeneous cloud platforms.

Likewise, the authors of Ref. This framework details the reconfiguration, dynamic migration, and interoperability of applications across multiple cloud layers. The framework also facilitates the reconfiguration of applications and of middleware during runtime. The ranking criteria used by Dandria et al. The criteria presented by Paraiso et al. Moreover, FraSCAti does not provide the mechanism that automates the selection of services and of applications. All computations are performed manually.

Focus should be on application contents and modules. Furthermore, main services such as monitoring and logging should be tracked. The security model of cloud providers should be analyzed continuously. The security dependency chain associated with API should be determined. PaaS cloud provides users with a platform on which they can run application components. In PaaS cloud computing, several users can use cloud services simultaneously. As a result, malicious users have numerous opportunities to interfere with and disrupt the normal execution of PaaS container components.

Furthermore, the data are shared between multiple customers and organizations. This occurrence implies that cloud providers must ensure the privacy, integrity, and consistency of data. The quality of cloud services can also be affected. These two layers are the authorization server and the authorization client API.

Authorization can be granted with the placement of a digital signature between an authorization server and the API of an authorized client. The assumption that cloud providers are aware of traffic is reasonable. Nonetheless, these methods also exhibit disadvantages For example, data center operations may not be efficient because of the variation in bandwidth demands among different tenants. Moreover, isolation should be considered over running services and APIs. The cost, services, and framework of each cloud layer vary depending on the interface method applied.

Currently available PaaS platforms are relatively immature, and the infancy of the market enhances risk. This market immaturity increases cost and compromises the service and quality of cloud products. Figure 5 shows the major barriers encountered by adopting cloud computing, and technical immaturity is the most significant barrier among these factors. The cloud environment continues to fail in terms of building trust between cloud vendors and their customers.

A TTP authenticates users using common authentication measures, such as usernames or passwords. Key points in providing appropriate services are securing data through transmission, Web services, and data delivery to end users. This auditor ensures security and privacy in a cloud computing environment.

Nonetheless, these options depend completely on the customer's choice of whether they wish to avail of these facilities or not. This work studies batch auditing and develops a mathematical model for security. Such works determine the ideal public auditability of cloud data storage; however, these approaches remain infeasible because of the immaturity and inconsistent behavior of cloud. Platform attestation 86 is another important feature of trusted cloud computing. No—I want to keep shopping.

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