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To see if Z belongs to the set, we have to iterate the function using.


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What happens to the initial point Z when the formula is iterated? In the first case, it belongs to the Julia set; otherwise it goes to infinity and we assign a color to Z depending on the speed the point "escapes" from the origin. To produce an image of the whole Julia set associated with C, we must repeat this process for all the points Z whose coordinates are included in this range:. The most important relationship between Julia sets and Mandelbrot set is that while the Mandelbrot set is connected it is a single piece , a Julia set is connected only if it is associated with a point inside the Mandelbrot set.

For example: the Julia set associated with is connected; the Julia set associated with is not connected see picture below. Iterated Function System Fractals. Iterated Function System IFS fractals are created on the basis of simple plane transformations: scaling, dislocation and the plane axes rotation.

Creating an IFS fractal consists of following steps:. Sierpinski Triangle. This is the fractal we can get by taking the midpoints of each side of an equilateral triangle and connecting them. The iterations should be repeated an infinite number of times. The pictures below present four initial steps of the construction of the Sierpinski Triangle:.

First of all we have to find out how the "size" of an object behaves when its linear dimension increases. In one dimension we can consider a line segment. If the linear dimension of the line segment is doubled, then the length characteristic size of the line has doubled also. In two dimensions, if the linear dimensions of a square for example is doubled then the characteristic size, the area, increases by a factor of 4.

In three dimensions, if the linear dimension of a box is doubled then the volume increases by a factor of 8. This relationship between dimension D , linear scaling L and the result of size increasing S can be generalized and written as:. Rearranging of this formula gives an expression for dimension depending on how the size changes as a function of linear scaling:. In the examples above the value of D is an integer - 1 , 2 , or 3 - depending on the dimension of the geometry. This relationship holds for all Euclidean shapes.

How about fractals? Looking at the picture of the first step in building the Sierpinski Triangle, we can notice that if the linear dimension of the basis triangle L is doubled, then the area of whole fractal blue triangles increases by a factor of three S. Koch Snowflake. To construct the Koch Snowflake, we have to begin with an equilateral triangle with sides of length, for example, 1. In the middle of each side, we will add a new triangle one-third the size; and repeat this process for an infinite number of iterations.

The length of the boundary is -infinity. However, the area remains less than the area of a circle drawn around the original triangle.

geometry - Why are fractal geometries useful for compact antenna design? - Physics Stack Exchange

That means that an infinitely long line surrounds a finite area. The end construction of a Koch Snowflake resembles the coastline of a shore. Fern leaf Spiral Fractals applications. Fractal geometry has permeated many area of science, such as astrophysics, biological sciences, and has become one of the most important techniques in computer graphics. Nobody really knows how many stars actually glitter in our skies, but have you ever wondered how they were formed and ultimately found their home in the Universe?

Marble Marcher - A Fractal Physics Game

Astrophysicists believe that the key to this problem is the fractal nature of interstellar gas. Fractal distributions are hierarchical, like smoke trails or billowy clouds in the sky. Turbulence shapes both the clouds in the sky and the clouds in space, giving them an irregular but repetitive pattern that would be impossible to describe without the help of fractal geometry.

Fractal Geometry and Porosity

Fractals in the Biological Sciences. Biologists have traditionally modeled nature using Euclidean representations of natural objects or series. They represented heartbeats as sine waves, conifer trees as cones, animal habitats as simple areas, and cell membranes as curves or simple surfaces. However, scientists have come to recognize that many natural constructs are better characterized using fractal geometry.

Biological systems and processes are typically characterized by many levels of substructure, with the same general pattern repeated in an ever-decreasing cascade. Scientists discovered that the basic architecture of a chromosome is tree-like; every chromosome consists of many 'mini-chromosomes', and therefore can be treated as fractal. For a human chromosome, for example, a fractal dimension D equals 2,34 between the plane and the space dimension.

Self-similarity has been found also in DNA sequences. Authors: Lapidus , Michel, van Frankenhuijsen , Machiel. Number theory, spectral geometry, and fractal geometry are interlinked in this in-depth study of the vibrations of fractal strings, that is, one-dimensional drums with fractal boundary.

The Riemann hypothesis is given a natural geometric reformulation in the context of vibrating fractal strings. Complex dimensions of a fractal string, defined as the poles of an associated zeta function, are studied in detail, then used to understand the oscillations intrinsic to the corresponding fractal geometries and frequency spectra.

Explicit formulas are extended to apply to the geometric, spectral, and dynamical zeta functions associated with a fractal. Examples of such explicit formulas include a Prime Orbit Theorem with error term for self-similar flows, and a geometric tube formula. Analytical and geometric methods are used to obtain new results about the vertical distribution of zeros of number-theoretic and other zeta functions. The significant studies and problems illuminated in this work may be used in a classroom setting at the graduate level.

I appreciate that the book is useful for mathematicians, students, researchers, postgraduates, physicians and other specialists which are interested in studying the fractals and dimension theory. The book is self containing, the material organized in chapters preceding by an introduction and finally there are some interesting applications of the theory presented.


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The process starts with a single line segment and continues for ever. The first few iterations of this procedure are shown below. This demonstrates how a very simple generation rule for this shape can generate some unusual fractal properties. Unlike Euclidean shapes this object has detail at all levels.

If one magnifies an Euclidean shape such as the circumference of a circle it becomes a different shape, namely a straight line. If we magnify this fractal more and more detail is uncovered, the detail is self similar or rather it is exactly self similar. Put another way, any magnified portion is identical to any other magnified portion. Note also that the "curve" on the right is not a fractal but only an approximation of one. This is no different from when one draws a circle, it is only an approximation to a perfect circle.

Thus the limiting curve is of infinite length and indeed the length between any two points of the curve is infinite. This curve manages to compress an infinite length into a finite area of the plane without intersecting itself! Considering the intuitive notion of 1 dimensional shapes, although this object appears to be a curve with one starting point and one end point, it is not possible to uniquely specify any position along the curve with one number as we expect to be able to do with Euclidean curves which are 1 dimensional.

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Although the method of creating this curve is straightforward, there is no algebraic formula the describes the points on the curve. Some of the major differences between fractal and Euclidean geometry are outlined in the following table. Firstly the recognition of fractal is very modern, they have only formally been studied in the last 10 years compared to Euclidean geometry which goes back over years. Secondly whereas Euclidean shapes normally have a few characteristic sizes or length scales eg: the radius of a circle or the length of of a side of a cube fractals have so characteristic sizes.

Fractal shapes are self similar and independent of size or scaling. Third, Euclidean geometry provides a good description of man made objects whereas fractals are required for a representation of naturally occurring geometries. It is likely that this limitation of our traditional language of shape is responsible for the sticking difference between mass produced objects and natural shapes.

Finally, Euclidean geometries are defined by algebraic formulae, for example. Fractals are normally the result of a iterative or recursive construction or algorithm. A brief description of an 0L system will be presented here but for a more complete description the user should consult the literature. A string of characters symbols is rewritten on each iteration according to some replacement rules. Consider an initial string axiom. The first iteration interpreted graphically is The next iteration interpreted graphically is: The following characters have a geometric interpretation.

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Recent usage of L-Systems is for the creation of realistic looking objects that occur in nature and in particular the branching structure of plants. One of the important characteristics of L systems is that only a small amount of information is required to represent very complex objects. So while the bushes in figure 9 contain many thousands of lines they can be described in a database by only a few bytes of data, the actual bushes are only "grown" when required for visual presentation.

Using suitably designed L-System algorithms it is possible to design the L-System production rules that will create a particular class of plant. On every iteration each polygon is replaced by a suitably scaled, rotated, and translated version of the polygons in the generator. Figure 10 shows two such generators made of rectangles and the result after one and six iterations. From this geometric description it is also possible to derive a hopalong description which gives the image that would be created after iterating the geometric model to infinity.

The description of this is a set of contractive transformations on a plane of the form.


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To run the system an initial point is chosen and on each iteration one of the transformation is chosen randomly according to the assigned probabilities, the resulting points xn,yn are drawn on the page. As in the case of L systems, if the IFS code for a desired image can be determined by something called the Collage theorem then large data compression ratios can be achieved. Instead of storing the geometry of the very complex object just the IFS generator needs to be stored and the image can be generated when required.