Corrective actions allow you to specify automated responses to metric alerts, saving administrator time and ensuring issues are dealt with before they noticeably impact users. A corrective action is, therefore, any task you specify that will be executed when a metric triggers a warning or critical alert severity. In addition to performing a corrective task, a corrective action can be used to gather more diagnostic information, if needed. By default, the corrective action runs on the target on which the event has been raised. A corrective action can also consist of multiple tasks, with each task running on a different target.
Administrators can also receive notifications for the success or failure of corrective actions. Corrective actions for a target can be defined by all Enterprise Manager administrators who have been granted Manage Target Metrics or greater privilege on the target. For any metric, you can define different corrective actions when the metric triggers at warning severity or at critical severity. Corrective actions must run using the credentials of a specific Enterprise Manager administrator.
For this reason, whenever a corrective action is created or modified, the credentials that the modified action will run with must be specified. Metric Extensions let you extend Enterprise Manager's monitoring capabilities to cover conditions specific to your IT environment, thus providing you with a complete and comprehensive view of your monitored environment. Metric extensions allow you to define new metrics on any target type that utilize the same full set of data collection mechanisms used by Oracle provided metrics.
For example, some target types you can create metrics on are:. Once these new metrics are defined, they are used like any other Enterprise Manager metric. For more information about metric extensions, see Chapter 9, "Using Metric Extensions". User-Defined Metrics Pre c.
If you upgraded your Enterprise Manager 12 c site from an older version of Enterprise Manager, then all user-defined metrics defined in the older version will also be migrated to Enterprise Manager 12 c. These user-defined metrics will continue to work, however they will no longer be supported a future release. If you have existing user-defined metrics, it is recommended that you migrate them to metric extensions as soon as possible to prevent potential monitoring disruptions in your managed environment.
Blackouts allow you to support planned outage periods to perform scheduled or emergency maintenance.
When a target is put under blackout, monitoring is suspended, thus preventing unnecessary alerts from being sent when you bring down a target for scheduled maintenance operations such as database backup or hardware upgrade. Blackout periods are automatically excluded when calculating a target's overall availability. A blackout period can be defined for individual targets, a group of targets or for all targets on a host. The blackout can be scheduled to run immediately or in the future, and to run indefinitely or stop after a specific duration.
Blackouts can be created on an as-needed basis, or scheduled to run at regular intervals. If, during the maintenance period, you discover that you need more or less time to complete maintenance tasks, you can easily extend or stop the blackout that is currently in effect. EM CLI is often useful for administrators who would like to incorporate the blacking out of a target within their maintenance scripts. When a blackout ends, the Management Agent automatically re-evaluates all metrics for the target to provide current status of the target post-blackout.
If an administrator inadvertently performs scheduled maintenance on a target without first putting the target under blackout, these periods would be reflected as target downtime instead of planned blackout periods. This has an adverse impact on the target's availability records. In such cases, Enterprise Manager allows Super Administrators to go back and define the blackout period that should have happened at that time. The ability to create these retroactive blackouts provides Super Administrators with the flexibility to define a more accurate picture of target availability.
Enterprise Manager greatly simplifies managing your monitored environment and also allows you to customize and extend Enterprise Manager monitoring capabilities. However, the primary advantage Enterprise Manager monitoring provides is the ability to monitor and manage large-scale, heterogeneous environments. Whether you are monitoring an environment with 10 targets or 10, targets, the following Enterprise Manager advanced features allow you to implement and maintain your monitored environment with the equal levels of convenience and simplicity. Monitoring Templates simplify the task of standardizing monitoring settings across your enterprise by allowing you to specify your standards for monitoring in a template once and apply them to monitored targets across your organization.
This makes it easy for you to apply specific monitoring settings to specific classes of targets throughout your enterprise. For example, you can define one monitoring template for test databases and another monitoring template for production databases. A monitoring template defines all Enterprise Manager parameters you would normally set to monitor a target, such as:.
Metrics including user-defined metrics , thresholds, metric collection schedules, and corrective actions. When a change is made to a template, you can reapply the template across affected targets in order to propagate the new changes. The apply operation can be automated using Administration Groups and Template Collections. For any target, you can preserve custom monitoring settings by specifying metric settings that can never be overwritten by a template. Enterprise Manager comes with an array of Oracle-certified templates that provide recommended metric settings for various Oracle target types.
For more information about monitoring templates, see Chapter 8, "Using Monitoring Templates". Monitored environments are rarely static—new targets are constantly being added from across your ecosystem. Enterprise Manager allows you to maintain control of this dynamic environment through administration groups. Administration groups automate the process of setting up targets for management in Enterprise Manager by automatically applying management settings such as monitoring settings or compliance standards.
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Typically, these settings are manually applied to individual targets, or perhaps semi-automatically using monitoring templates see Section 1. Administration groups combine the convenience of applying monitoring settings using monitoring templates with the power of automation. Template collections contain the monitoring settings and other management settings that are meant to be applied to targets as they join the administration group. Monitoring settings for targets are defined in monitoring templates.
Monitoring templates are defined on a per target type basis, so you will need to create monitoring templates for each of the different target types in your administration group. You will most likely create multiple monitoring templates to define the appropriate monitoring settings for an administration group.
Every target added to Enterprise Manager possesses innate attributes called target properties.
Enterprise Manager uses these target properties to add targets to the correct administration group. Administration group membership is based on target properties as membership criteria so target membership is dynamic. Once added to the administration group, Enterprise Manager automatically applies the requisite monitoring settings using monitoring templates that are part of the associated template collection. Administration groups use the following target properties to define membership criteria:.
Whenever a metric threshold is reached, an alert is raised along with a metric-specific message. These messages are written to address generic metric alert conditions. Customizing an alert message allows you to tailor the message to suit your monitoring needs. You can tailor the message to include their operational context specific to your environment such as IT error codes used in your data center, or add additional information collected by Enterprise Manager such as:.
Alert message customization allows for more efficient alert management by increasing message usability. From the target menu host target type is shows in the graphic , select Monitoring and then Metric and Collection Settings. In the metric table, find the specific metric whose message you want to change and click the edit icon pencil. Click Continue to return to the Metric and Collection Settings page. Enterprise Manager will display a message indicating the updates have succeeded.
For a typical monitoring scenario, when a target becomes unavailable or if thresholds for performance are crossed, events are raised and notifications are sent to the appropriate administrators. Enterprise Manager supports notifications via email, pager, SNMP traps, or by running custom scripts and allows administrators to control these notification mechanisms through:. A notification method represents a specific way to send notifications. When configuring a notification method, you need to specify the particulars associated with a specific notification mechanism such as which SMTP gateway s to use for e-mail or which custom OS script to run.
Super Administrators perform a one-time setup of the various types of notification methods available for use. A rule instructs Enterprise Manager to take specific action when events or incidents entity containing one important event or related events occur, such as notifying an administrator or opening a helpdesk ticket see Section 1. For example, you can define a rule that specifies e-mail should be sent to you when CPU Utilization on any host target is at critical severity, or another rule that notifies an administrator's supervisor if an incident is not acknowledged within 24 hours.
Notifications that are sent to Administrators can be customized based on message type and on-call schedule. Message customization is useful for administrators who rely on both e-mail and paging systems as a means for receiving notifications. The message formats for these systems typically vary—messages sent to e-mail can be lengthy and can contain URLs, and messages sent to a pager are brief and limited to a finite number of characters.
To support these types of mechanisms, Enterprise Manager allows administrators to associate a long or short message format with each e-mail address. E-mail addresses that are used to send regular e-mails can be associated with the long format; pages can be associated with the short format. Notifications can also be customized based on an administrator's on-call schedule. An administrator who is on-call might want to be contacted by both his pager and work email address during business hours and only by his pager address during off hours.
Enterprise Manager offers a flexible notification schedule to support the wide variety of on-call schedules. Using this schedule, an administrator defines his on-call schedule by specifying the email addresses by which they should be contacted when they are on-call. For periods where they are not on-call, or do not wish to receive notifications for incidents, they simply leave that part of the schedule blank. All alerts that are sent to an administrator automatically adhere to his specified schedule.
Enterprise Manager's monitoring functionality is built upon the precept of monitoring by exception. This means it monitors and raises events when exception conditions exist in your IT environment and allowing administrators to address them in a timely manner. As discussed earlier, the two most commonly used event types to monitor for are metric alert and target availability. Although these are the most common event types for which Enterprise Manager monitors, there are many others. Available event types include:.
By definition, an incident is a unit containing a single, or closely correlated set of events that identify an issue that needs administrator attention within your managed environment. So an incident might be as simple as a single event indicating available space in a tablespace has fallen below a specified limit, or more complex such as an incident consisting of multiple events relating to potential performance issue when a server is running out of resources.
Managing by incident gives you the ability to address issues that may consist of any number of causal factors.
For an in-depth discussion on incidents and events, see Chapter 3, "Using Incident Management". Although incidents can correspond to a single events, incidents more commonly correspond to groups of related events. A large number of discrete events can quickly become unmanageable, but handled as an assemblage of related events, incidents allow you to manage large numbers of event occurrences more effectively. Once an incident is created, Enterprise Manager makes available a rich set of incident management workflow features that let you to manage and track the incident through its complete lifecycle.
Incident management features include:. Problems pertain to the diagnostic incidents and problems stored in Automatic Diagnostic Repository ADR , which are automatically raised by Oracle software when it encounters critical errors in the software. When problems are raised for Oracle software, Oracle has determined that the recommended recourse is to open a Service Request SR , send support the diagnostic logs, and eventually provide a solution from Oracle. A problem represents the underlying root cause of a set of incidents. Enterprise Manager provides features to track and manage the lifecycle of a problem.
Incident Manager provides and easy-to-use interface that allows you to search, view, manage, and resolve incidents and problems impacting your environment. Manage incident lifecycle including assigning, acknowledging, tracking its status, prioritization, and escalation. Access in context My Oracle Support knowledge base articles and other Oracle documentation to help resolve the incident. An incident rule specifies criteria and actions that determine when a notification should be sent and how it should be sent whenever an event or incident is raised.
The criteria defined within a rule can apply to attributes such as the target type, events and severity states clear, warning or critical and the notification method that should be used when an incident is raised that matches the rule criteria. Rule actions can be conditional in nature. For example, a rule action can be defined to page a user when an incident severity is critical or just send e-mail if it is warning. A rule set is a collection of rules that apply to a common set of targets such as hosts, databases, groups, jobs, metric extensions, or self updates and take appropriate actions to automate the business processes underlying incident.
Incident rule sets can be made public for sharing across administrators.
Monitoring: Common Tasks
For example, administrators can subscribe to the same rule set if they are interested in receiving notifications for the same criteria defined in the rule. Alternatively, an Enterprise Manager Super Administrator can assign incident rule sets to other administrators so that they receive notifications for incidents as defined in the rule. In addition to being used by the notification system see Rules in Section 1. There are two types of connectors: Event connectors and helpdesk connectors.
Using the event connector, you can configure Enterprise Manager to share events with non-Oracle management systems. The connector monitors all events sent from Oracle Enterprise Manager and automatically updates alert information in the third-party management system. Centering in on the upper, left section of the home page, you notice that there are a number of tabs:. The next tab is for test performance. All services have tests involved that check and see if a service is actively running and passes either one or more tests that verify it is properly functioning and available.
The value for the last EM Console Service Test is shown above in the graph, but the real information lies lower in the performance timestamp. You can see the Collection Timestamp in the right hand window of am, which will also match the extended Web Transaction used to verify that the console is accessible if you click on the EM Console Service Test at the bottom.
The System tab displays the latest information about the status and incidents of the components connected to the service. As you can see from the screen shot above, a recent test of a non-released patch has caused some grief, this is why we test these things… : and there are a few applications components that were impacted and need to be reviewed and addressed.
Each of the components are linked on this page, so they can be easily accessed and the incident investigated. As this is the EM Console Service , there are a number of related components, 16 total, as shown in the right hand totals and you can change to the next page to display the rest of the components involved.
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The Monitoring Configuration requires a section to itself, as this has some pretty impressive links in this tab. We are going to go through each one of these, so you can get a solid understanding of what is available:. As discussed above, each component associated to the EM Console Service is displayed, along with the designation as a key component with a check mark.
By setting the analysis mode to manual, less stress is put on the system resources to collect root cause data at any issue, letting you control when the analysis is performed. The recommendation is to leave this set to manual mode for analysis collections and only to change it [again] with the blessing of Oracle Support. This is how cloud control knows that the console service and key components are up and available. A set of tests are run on a regular interval in the form of a web transaction. This means that the test logs in, verifies a result from the URL for cloud control and verifies each key component is responsive.
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A beacon is a target used to monitor service tests, primarily to measure performance of the service. As you can see, the EM Management Beacon has not done so, which results in an unavailable status. The metric value settings for the threshold are in milliseconds and if you are receiving notifications that this is beyond your response time, look at network connection, network connection between data centers, etc.
If you are concerned about page performance and want to report on this metric data, set up the with a logical value to start. For a small web server, page hits per minute would be a pretty good warning value with page hits per minute critical. Use this as a beginning base, test, rinse and repeat.