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  • A Systematic Vademecum to the Vascular Plants of Puerto Rico.
  • A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico.

Once models were obtained, we checked for the presence of significant interactions between explanatory variables. Finally, odds ratios were calculated for significant variables as the ratio of the probability that an alien species were successful in the naturalization or invasion process to the probability of failure. Greater departure from 1 indicates a stronger relationship between the variable and the response Milbau and Stout Parameters Variable Description Records Invasion history Year of introduction Continuous First record of the species in the wild Type of introduction horticulture Dichotomous yes, no Introduced intentionally for horticulture i.

Corchorus hirtus (Orinoco jute)

Species richness and abundance The alien flora in PRVI consists of 1, species, represented by families and genera, and contributes to The families with the largest number of alien species in PRVI are Fabaceae species representing A total of 32 families The genera Citrus 12 species , Digitaria 11 species , Solanum 10 species , Bambusa 10 species and Hibiscus 10 species were the most diverse, while genera We also found that 55 out of the families of alien plants included at least one invasive species.

The family with the highest number of invasive species was Poaceae 35 species followed by Fabaceae 29 species , Asteraceae 9 species and Acanthaceae 8 species; Fig. Open image in new window. The majority The number of species rely almost exclusively on selfing i. For most casual species , naturalized species and invasive species species , pollination is primarily mediated by animals and to a lesser degree by wind Fig.

A Systematic Vademecum to the Vascular Plants of Sint Eustatius

This result suggests that most species, regardless of their invasion status, require a pollen vector to ensure pollination and seed-set. Propagule dispersion for most species casual: species, naturalized: species and invasive: species was primarily unspecialized followed by wind-dispersal and animal-dispersal Fig. Our data suggest an accelerated increment in the cumulative number of alien plant species since Fifty-one percent of all alien species species were first recorded between and , while species Seventy-one percent of the species considered invasive on these islands species have a long residence time as they were introduced between and Table S2 in ESM.

Regarding the type of introduction, we detected that Our analysis also shows that the majority of the alien species Other species were introduced for agriculture, forage, fodder and timber production. As to the geographical distribution, the majority of the alien species in PRVI are native to continental America Casual, naturalized and invasive species occurred in all four habitats i. Ruderal habitats i. Mature forests contain a considerably lower number of casual 1 species , naturalized 12 species and invasive species 18 species when compared to the other three habitats.

This model showed that alien species were more likely to become naturalized if they grew in semi-natural habitats, had large native distribution ranges, had a long residence time in PRVI, were introduced for horticulture and had a mixed breeding system. Parameters determining naturalization and invasion success Parameters related to invasion history, habitat preferences and species biological traits were found to influence the probability of alien species to become naturalized and invasive in PRVI.

Acknowledgments We thank M. John, US Virgin Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, No. Axelrod F A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Bello D Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico.

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    Spermatophyta 1—5. Ambio —54 Google Scholar. Bioscience — CrossRef Google Scholar. Virgin Islands. Menard S Applied logistic regression analysis, 2nd edn. Sage Publications, California Google Scholar. Milbau A, Stout JC Factors associated with plants transitioning from casual, to naturalized, to invasive. In: Nentwig W ed Biological invasions, ecological studies, vol Springer, Berlin, pp 97— Google Scholar. Taxon — CrossRef Google Scholar. In: van der Maarel E ed Vegetation ecology.

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    The flora of Statia, which surprisingly contains two endemic taxa, has had only one previous complete floristic study, that of Boldingh published in A little over 50 years later, Stoffers began a more detailed one, which was never finished. It is intended to meet the needs of botanists, ecologists, and others who wish to know which plants are now present on the island and which previously noted plants are no longer known to be present. Franklin S. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management.

    Publisher: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Customer reviews Related titles. Images Additional images. About this book This is an annotated checklist of the vascular plants presently found growing in the wild on the island of Puerto Rico that will be an invaluable aid to botanists, ecologists, foresters and any one else interested in the flora of Puerto Rico.

    Customer Reviews Review this book. Current promotions. The Sunflower Family. More Info. Aster and Brachyactis Asteraceae in Oklahoma. Sarraceniaceae of North America.