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For example, Finn Fordham's genetic approach to Finnegans Wake uncovers Joyce's "ironization of uni- versal history" and his "critique of how universalization appeared in flawed attempts to justify imperialist policy" In Fordham's view, the "[t]ranshistoricism" of Joyce's texts is precisely the effect of a continuity between particularities across time This is not Hegelian totalization but a kind of "[t]ransepochal pattern hunting" that results in a "mockery of universalization" , The London school appears to have learned the lessons of Michel Foucault, for while it "aims at exactitude," it is also "attentive to the possibility of historical discontinuities, ruptures, breaks" Just as often, though, Joyce's texts give evidence of surprising histori- cal continuities and connections, as is evident in Wim Van Mierlo's essay, which argues that "Joyce's high notions of exile" were part of a long history of emigration in Ireland, from voyaging saints like St.

Brendan to the "heyday of the Celtic Tiger" , All rights to reproduction in any form are reserved. This content downloaded from Anne Fogarty offers a different vision of continuity in her lucid analysis of the political subtleties in Joyce's "Ivy Day in the Committee Room. By looking at newspaper treatments of Ivy Day, specifically the debates over the symbolic value of the ivy leaf itself, from to , Fogarty demonstrates that the "cult of Parnell," through the ten- sion created by in Pierre Nora's terms3 archive memory and cultural memory, was an effective site of "ongoing political debates" The "'thwarted dialectic' of Parnell's politics" , nicely illustrated in the ambivalence of Joe Hynes's recitation of "The Death of Parnell," contributes to the enigmatic historical continuities of Joyce's story.

Fogarty is quite right to insist on context, despite the "provisional" nature of historicist readings My concern, though, is that analy- sis of context can become an end in itself. The potential problem with the "London method" is that it comes perilously close to insisting on the priority of historical information. The editors may claim that "histori- cal information Happily this is not the case in most of the essays, though only about half-Fogarty's and those by Richard Brown, Clare Hutton, Katherine Mullin, and Gibson-satisfyingly fulfill the warrant outlined in the introduction.

These essays succeed primarily because historical context is evoked in support of readings that illustrate, in surprising and original ways, the relations between Irish and English culture. Brown, for example, argues a point about Joyce's relation to English literature that may be self-evident to the reader alert to Joyce's liter- ary influences; but he makes the larger point, one not always evident and, in fact, frequently ignored, that "Joyce found, in several versions of English and British nationality and cultural identity"-specifically, the songs of the Elizabethan lutenist John Dowling and the works of Daniel Defoe-"primary and enabling models of cultural expression and resistance" Mullin's consideration of obscenity and vigi- lance societies in Ireland, England, and America similarly challenges conventional notions of nation and ethnicity.

Joyce, James Augustine Aloysius (–), writer | Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

She argues that Irish fears of English vice were misplaced, that obscenity is a "fugitive cultural form" that cannot be localized and thus demonized as an English or French phenomenon Like Brown, Mullin points out This content downloaded from The destabilizing, transnational character of obscenity under- mines the claim to a pure Irishness at the same time that it calls into question the exclusive right to sexual impurity so often imputed to England.

Vincent J.


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Cheng addresses a similar dynamic of destabiliza- tion and subversion in the binary constituted by the local and the cos- mopolitan. Though Joyce represents the interpenetration of the two terms in all of his works, the example of Kevin Egan, who turns up in the "Proteus" episode of Ulysses, highlights the irony of a situation in which "a Fenian espousing the discourse of Irish nationalism and authenticity" should be stranded in Paris, "the center of international- ism and cosmopolitanism" Joyce's amhbivalent attitude towards English and Irish national- ity finds a corollary in the impact of English educational reforms in Ireland.

According to Gibson, the first chapter of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man oscillates between a "dominant formation" of education and a "counterformation" signified by the "Pamellite drive to unify a nation against the dominant power" 88, He argues that there was little "significant opposition" 93 to the Intermediate Education Ireland Act of , save from nationalists like Patrick Pearse; further, he adds, the competitive system of examinations that were its main result left precious little room for quality teaching and learning.

Stephen's challenge to Father Conmee at the chapter's conclusion, caught up in oscillating formations, is not the subversive gesture that it might appear to be, for his "victory" smacks altogether too much of "British boarding-school pluck" Synchronicity as an alternative to the Causality Principle, an idea which has even influenced modern physicists. Spirituality as a cure for alcoholism Jung's influence can sometimes be found in more unexpected quarters.

For example, Jung once treated an American patient Rowland H. After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience. Jung noted that occasionally such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics where all else had failed. Rowland took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal spiritual experience.

He returned home to the United States and joined a Christian evangelical movement known as the Oxford Group. He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. Thacher told Wilson about Jung's ideas. Wilson, who was finding it impossible to maintain sobriety, was impressed and sought out his own spiritual experience. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original step program , and from there into the whole step recovery movement, although AA as a whole is not Jungian and Jung had no role in the formation of that approach or the 12 steps.

Joyce Jung The Four Stages of Eroticism in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Read Online

The above claims are documented in the letters of Carl Jung and Bill W. Although the detail of this story is disputed by some historians, Jung himself made reference to its substance -- including the Oxford Group participation of the individual in question -- in a talk that was issued privately in as a transcript from shorthand taken by an attendee Jung reportedly approved the transcript , later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life "For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group.

I can't do it better than Jesus. Literature Jung had a year long friendship with the author Laurens van der Post from which a number of books and a film were created about Jung's life. Joseph Lang. This began for Hesse a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis , through which he came to know Jung personally.

The book also ridicules Jung's analytical psychology and Freud's psychoanalysis by referring to "psoakoonaloose". Jung had been unable to help Joyce's daughter, Lucia , who Joyce claimed was a girl "yung and easily freudened". Lucia was diagnosed as schizophrenic and was eventually permanently institutionalized. Jung's differentiation of the psychological functions of sensation, intuition, thinking and feeling inspired the categorization of two of the four delineating factors in the Myers-Briggs MBTI personality test.

These are the "N" intuition vs. Jung's influence on noted Canadian novelist Robertson Davies is apparent in many of Davies' fictional works, in particular The Cornish Trilogy and his novel The Manticore base their designs on Jungian concepts. He appears as the therapist of Tashi, the novel's protagonist. He is usually called "Mzee" but is identified by Alice Walker in the afterword. In the novel " Pilgrim ", by Timothy Findley , Jung has a fictional main role where he is treating a suicide who believes he has lived many lifetimes.

Archetypal images crept into his work as he moved from representational forms to his classic "drip paintings. Jung's influence here helps us to understand transpersonal art. With references of the Anima Archetype, the symbology of water, which is often used to represent the Unconscious, and the notion of transformation through the flushing of detritus all speak to the influence of Jungian thought.

Television and film Dr. Niles Crane on the popular television sitcom Frasier is a devoted Jungian psychiatrist, while his brother Dr. Frasier Crane is a Freudian psychiatrist. This is mentioned a number of times in the series, and from time to time forms a point of argument between the two brothers.

One memorable scene had Niles filling in for Frasier on Frasier's call-in radio program, in which Niles introduces himself as the temporary substitute saying, " Jung even makes an appearance in one of the character's dreams. An episode of the popular cartoon series Martin Mystery takes Carl Jung's interpretation of The Shadow as an explanation for what a doppelganger is. The movie Batman Begins features The Scarecrow, a psychologist with a morbid interest in psychopharmacology and fear. Facing questions raised by a victim repeating his criminal name, he replies "Patients suffering delusional episodes often focus their paranoia on an external tormentor An episode from season 8 of Charmed was named 'Jung and the Restless' within the episode, the charmed ones go inside their dreams to find their true desires.

Music An opera, The Dream Healer, based on the book Pilgrim by Timothy Findley , centres on Jung's efforts to bridge the known and unknown aspects of the human mind. Jung appears on the cover of The Beatles ' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Peter Gabriel 's song "Rhythm Of The Heat" Security , , tells about Jung's visit to Africa, during which he joined a group of tribal drummers and dancers and became overwhelmed by the fear of losing control of himself.

At the time Jung was exploring the concept of the collective unconscious and was afraid he would come under control of the music as the drummers and dancers let the music control them in fulfillment of their ritual objectives. In the song Gabriel tries to capture the powerful feelings the African tribal music evoked in Jung by means of intense use of tribal drumbeats.

The original song title was Jung in Africa. Further reading There is much literature on Jungian thought. For a good, short and easily accessible introduction to Jung's thought: Chapter 1 of Man and His Symbols , conceived and edited by Jung. Jung, ISBN He offers short, lucid summaries of all of Jung's major ideas and suggests readings from Jung's and others' work that best present that idea. Edward C.

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Good texts in various areas of Jungian thought: Robert Aziz, C. ISBN Becker, ed. Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, Edward F. A good explanation of Jung's foray into the symbolism of alchemy as it relates to individuation and individual religious experience.

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Many of the alchemical symbols recur in contemporary dreams with creative additions from the unconscious e. A brief, well structured overview of the use of dreams in therapy. Covers Jung, Adler, and Freud and their various contributions to understanding the soul. The recovery of feminine values in women and men. There are many examples of clients' dreams, by an experienced analyst. Cursus, Paris.

Difficult, but useful. For the Jung-Freud relationship: Kerr, John. Knopf Critique of the above works by Noll. A comprehensive study of the origins of Jung's psychology which places it in a historical and philosophical context. The author calls this a "Cubist history".

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Critique of Jung biographies. Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, Jung bibliography Works arranged by original publication date if known: Jung, C. Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. Jung Vol. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. From here on, this work will be referred to as E. From here on, this work will be referred to as AC followed by the page number.

Subsequent references FW are to this edition. The latter more particularly accounts for the noble bashfulness which is supposed to have dictated the behaviour of the two unfortunate lovers. She was the daughter of the king of Ireland. Both maidens were wooed by Tristan who actually married the latter. For the whole legend, see Lupack, op. Cripsi and S. Slote eds. Not to mention the transformation of the very early first drafts into their subsequent versions.

Both drafts have been dated August The whole segment helps consider that long prepared kiss as both a metaphor and a metonymy of the sexual intercourse which is supposed to have been nobly eschewed by Tristan and Isolde. Bromwich ed. Several idioms in various European languages use the image though. As far as the ear is concerned, things read differently: in African mythology for example, the ear symbolizes animality; among the Dogons and the Bambaras — two African peoples from the Western part of the continent — its symbolism is twofold: the auricle stands for the penis and the auditory canal represents the vagina.

Incidentally, this sexual symbolism is related to a legend dating from the early ages of Christianity which has the Virgin Mary conceive through the ear. Presumably Joyce was aware of some, at least, of these details. Joyce had read the book of course, most probably studied it. It has often been argued that Joyce was drawing a parallel between the Roman and the British empires, particularly in Finnegans Wake.


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  8. FW, The reader is led to infer that the list is not exhaustive. See L. Crispi and S. Sloti, op. Both words point to the law. Cf supra.