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Special Relativity: From Einstein to Strings [With CDROM] -

Remember me. Facebook Twitter Google. Schwarz Publisher: -- Category: Physics Date: It aims to teach special relativity and related topics to people who are interested in mathematics and have already passed a first year of physics with calculus. It is important because it teaches special relativity in a comprehensive manner as a theory of spacetime geometry, using the most up to date formalism.

Special Relativity - Lecture 1

It differs from the competition in that it includes advanced topics such as higher dimensions, supersymmetry and string theory, and makes them accessible to the undergaduate physicist or engineer. Review This well-written book will be extremely helpful for physics students who wish to go beyond what is most commonly taught and to delve more deeply into special relativity, for its own sake or as a starting point for understanding general relativity and gravitation.

The authors treat many modern topics in addition to the classical material. You can use this book to look up commonly asked questions, browse questions on a particular topic, but all is not as it seems in this thrilling futuristic tale with a twist that will make you want to read it all over again.

Why String Theory Still Offers Hope We Can Unify Physics

This was the exact opposite of what other physicists seemed to be doing. Instead of assuming the theory was correct and that the experiments failed, he assumed that the experiments were correct and the theory had failed. In the latter part of the 19th century, physicists were searching for the mysterious thing called ether — the medium they believed existed for light waves to wave through.

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Einstein just removed the ether entirely and assumed that the laws of physics, including the speed of light , worked the same regardless of how you were moving — exactly as experiments and mathematics showed them to be! This 4-dimensional space is referred to as the space-time continuum.

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If you move fast enough through space, the observations that you make about space and time differ somewhat from the observations of other people, who are moving at different speeds. You can picture this for yourself by understanding the thought experiment depicted in this figure. The light beam then comes back down and strikes a detector. However, the spaceship is traveling at a constant speed of half the speed of light 0.

However, if astronaut Amber were spying on you, as in the bottom of the figure, it would be a different story. Amber would see your beam of light travel upward along a diagonal path, strike the mirror, and then travel downward along a diagonal path before striking the detector.

This means that the time the beam takes to go from the laser to the mirror to the detector must also be different for you and Amber so that you both agree on the speed of light. This phenomenon is known as time dilation, where the time on a ship moving very quickly appears to pass slower than on Earth.


If you apply Lorentz transformation equations, they work out so that the speed of light is perfectly consistent for both observers. In a nutshell, Einstein found that as an object approached the speed of light, c, the mass of the object increased. The object goes faster, but it also gets heavier. Until Einstein, the concepts of mass and energy were viewed as completely separate.

He proved that the principles of conservation of mass and conservation of energy are part of the same larger, unified principle, conservation of mass-energy.

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Matter can be turned into energy and energy can be turned into matter because a fundamental connection exists between the two types of substance. Top You see a beam of light go up, bounce off the mirror, and come straight down.