Computadora de escritorio. Sinopsis In its third edition, this praised book demonstrates how the living systems modeling of aquatic ecosystems for ecological, biological and physiological research, and ecosystem restoration can produce answers to very complex ecological questions. Dynamic Aquaria further offers an understanding developed in 25 years of living ecosystem modeling and discusses how this knowledge has produced methods of efficiently solving many environmental problems.
Public education through this methodology is the additional key to Public education through this methodology is the additional key to the broader ecosystem understanding necessary to allow human society to pass through the next evolutionary bottleneck of our species.
Living systems modeling as a wide spectrum educational tool can provide a primary vehicle for that essential step. This third editon covers the many technological and biological developments in the eight plus years since the second edition, providing updated technological advice and describing many new example aquarium environments.
Escribe tu propio comentario. Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about aquaria. In its third edition, this praised book demonstrates how the living systems modeling of aquatic ecosystems for ecological, biological and physiological research, and ecosystem restoration can produce answers to very complex ecological Walter H. Adey, Karen Loveland, This early works on Freshwater Aquaria makes fascinating reading with descriptions of the most suitable water plants and live stock and how to keep them, the aquarian enthusiast will find much of the information still usefull and practical Gregory C.
Bateman, Using the information presented herein allows the engineer to design, fabricate and test numerous acrylic structures that will be safe, economical and long lasting.
This book is a necessary addition to the libraries of designers, fabricators Jerry D. Stachiw, Marine Technology Society, While on a school trip to Aquaria, one of Azureblue's moons, Zenda is separated from the group with her nemesis, Alexandra, and they must work together to reach safety while avoiding the monster born of their own doubt and fear.
Provides information on choosing the right aquarium inhabitants, tanks and equipment, foods and feeding, disease and treatment Scott B. Meyer, Taxonomic abundances are square root transformed. Each point represents one ecosystem observed at one time, and hotter colors are communities at higher temperatures. NMDS is an iterative search for positions of species, time, temperature, and food chain length on few dimensions axes that minimizes departure from monotonicity in the association between distance dissimilarity in the original data and ordination space.
See S3 Fig for comparisons of phytoplankton taxonomic composition versus temperature. NMDS, nonmetric multidimensional scaling plot. Differences among ecosystems were maintained by heaters of different power watts. Red colors indicate warmer ecosystems at higher wattage and blue colors indicate cooler ecosystems. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling plot NMDS of temporal phytoplankton taxonomic composition for all temperature treatments and trophic levels taxa listed in S1 Table. Each point represents one ecosystem observed at one time, and lighter colors are communities at higher temperatures.
See S2 Fig for comparisons of phytoplankton taxonomic composition versus week. Lines connect observations from the same ecosystem. We thank S. Pawar and his lab group, J. Bernhardt, R. Elahi, and P. Thompson for comments and feedback that improved this manuscript; W. Cheung and F. Ratcliffe for sampling assistance; and D. Song for assistance during zooplankton identification.
Abstract Aquatic ecosystems worldwide continue to experience unprecedented warming and ecological change. Introduction Temperature affects metabolic rates of all organisms, thereby affecting ecological patterns and processes across scales of organization—from individuals to ecosystems. Download: PPT. Hypotheses We drew on the MTE to frame our hypotheses and predictions for how temperature affects NEP and ER via per capita metabolic temperature dependence and indirect effects of temperature at the community scale. Following Barneche and colleagues [ 10 ], we capture direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem-scale metabolic rates in the following equation see Barneche and colleagues [ 10 ] for derivation : 2 The term captures the temperature dependence E R eV of ecosystem-level metabolic rate B R.
Hypothesis 1: The relationship between algal biomass and temperature is modified by the number of trophic levels Via strong trophic interactions, predators can change the standing biomass of primary producers in communities. Hypothesis 2: Increasing temperature strengthens the trophic cascade We estimated the strength of the trophic cascade as the log ratio of primary producer biomass in the presence of predators AGP versus in predator-free environments AG [ 42 ].
We can relate algal biomass among treatments using Eq 3 for primary producer biomass in the presence of predators AGP and grazers only AG , simplifying and taking the natural log to yield see Methods , Eqs 8 — 11 , for details 4 Numerous experiments have demonstrated that the strength of the trophic cascade log increases with an increase in temperature of a few degrees [ 29 , 44 , 45 ], and theoretical work suggests that strengthening of this interaction under warming is expected for a greater range of consumer-resource parameter values than would predict declines in the trophic cascade [ 15 ].
Hypothesis 3: Temperature dependence of NEP and respiration depends on the strength of the trophic cascade We test this by using Eq 2 to model ecosystem-scale NEP and ER, but we allow b o T C to vary not only with temperature but with trophic structure Z j. Results Hypothesis 1 As temperature increased across ecosystems, phytoplankton biomass, estimated as the concentration of chlorophyll a in the water column, declined Fig 2A. Fig 3. Table 1. Model selection results for LMMs of phytoplankton biomass.
Hypothesis 2 Consistent with our second hypothesis and the patterns observed for phytoplankton biomass Fig 2A , there was a strong trophic cascade in the warm ecosystems by the end of the experiment Fig 2B. Table 2. Model selection results for trophic cascade analysis. Table 4. Daphnia density: Results of model selection for Daphnia abundance in ecosystems with grazers and with grazers and predators. Table 5. Copepod density: Results of model selection for copepod spp.
Fig 6. Table 6. Table 7. Discussion Temperature affects the metabolic rates of all organisms, and per capita responses to temperature of many co-occurring individuals add up to nothing less than the biological component of ecosystem-scale carbon and oxygen flux. Plankton sampling and analysis We sampled phytoplankton, chlorophyll a , zooplankton, and oxygen concentrations weekly until August 28, Estimation of biomass and oxygen fluxes We estimated whole ecosystem oxygen fluxes using the dissolved oxygen DO change technique [ 63 ].
We modeled M B Eq 3 by including a term for trophic treatment Z j in the intercept term Eq 3 rearranged and log transformed : 8 We derived the expression for the trophic cascade by relating algal biomass in the AGP and AG treatments: 9 We then simplified and added temperature dependence of mass E m and normalization constants E b. Statistical analysis We tested our hypotheses about whether the effects of temperature on metabolism are modified at the ecosystem level by species interactions using a regression experimental design involving 30 independent ecosystems Fig 1.
Supporting information. S1 Table. Chlorophyll concentration ln[Chla] declined over time and varied with trophic treatment. S2 Table. S3 Table.
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Phytoplankton species composition and sampling methods. S1 Fig. Algal community composition in experimental ecosystems shifted over time. S2 Fig. Temperatures from data loggers in ecosystems illustrate a cooling trend over the course of the experiment, and variable temperatures from day to day. S3 Fig. Temperature did not clearly shift algal community composition in experimental ecosystems. S4 Fig. Phytoplankton abundance, estimated as ln[chlorophyll a], for each observation date over the course of the experiment.
Acknowledgments We thank S. References 1. Effects of Size and Temperature on Metabolic Rate. Linking the global carbon cycle to individual metabolism. Funct Ecol. View Article Google Scholar 3. Reconciling the temperature dependence of respiration across timescales and ecosystem types.
Scaling the metabolic balance of the oceans. View Article Google Scholar 5. Function and functional redundancy in microbial systems. Nat Ecol Evol. Temperature and the biogeography of algal stoichiometry. Global Ecol Biogeogr. View Article Google Scholar 7. The metabolic theory of ecology and algal bloom formation. Limnol Oceanogr. View Article Google Scholar 8.
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Effects of warming on predator—prey interactions—a resource—based approach and a theoretical synthesis. Temperature, predator—prey interaction strength and population stability. Glob Change Biol. A bioenergetic framework for the temperature dependence of trophic interactions. Warming shifts top—down and bottom—up control of pond food web structure and function.
Philos Trans R Soc B, ; — PLoS Biol. Unexpected changes in community size structure in a natural warming experiment.
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Nat Clim Chang. Does universal temperature dependence apply to communities? An experimental test using natural marine plankton assemblages. Metabolic compensation constrains the temperature dependence of gross primary production. Atkinson D. Adv Ecol Res. DeLong JP. Evol Ecol Res. Warming—induced reductions in body size are greater in aquatic than terrestrial species. Temperature dependence of the functional response. Prior heat accumulation reduces survival during subsequent experimental heat waves. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. The smell of change: warming affects species interactions mediated by chemical information.
Temperature—size responses alter food chain persistence across environmental gradients. Warming modifies trophic cascades and eutrophication in experimental freshwater communities.
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Predator—induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions. Nat Geosci. Influence of food web structure on carbon exchange between lakes and the atmosphere. When is a trophic cascade a trophic cascade? Trends Ecol Evol. Am Nat. Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth. Warming alters food web—driven changes in the CO 2 flux of experimental pond ecosystems. Biol Lett. Toward a Metabolic Theory of Ecology.
Testing the metabolic theory of ecology. Changes in the phytoplankton community and microbial food web of Blanes Bay Catalan Sea, NW Mediterranean under prolonged grazing pressure by doliolids Tunicata , cladocerans or copepods Crustacea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser.
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Aquat Bot. Food—chain length alters community responses to global change in aquatic systems. Metabolic mismatches and compensation in the thermal dependence of daily carbon flux in plants. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization. Rapid evolution of metabolic traits explains thermal adaptation in phytoplankton. Does N 2 fixation amplify the temperature dependence of ecosystem metabolism? Warming alters community size structure and ecosystem functioning. Proc R Soc B. Hastings A, Powell T. Chaos in a three—species food chain.
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Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl. Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phytoplankton—Methodik. Temperature and algal growth. New Phytol. Dynamic model of phytoplankton growth and acclimation: responses. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. Moore ML. NALMS management guide for lakes and reservoirs. North American Lake Management Society. Schoolfield RM.