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Klemens on 2 August free style into many diplomatic game. Italy is graced with being the birthplay of Renaissance.

Ullrich Langer

Princes and churchmen fostered and protected all the arts. The great number of writers who appeared in this period either began new genres or amply and originally developed elements sketched by the foregoing men of letters.


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In this line, for example, Jacopo Sannazaro wrote his Arcadia , grounding himself on Theocritus born c. In the domain of the treatise we must mention Baldassare di Castiglione He wrote Il cortegiano , a conduct-book in which he presents the ideal of the perfect Renaissance gentleman —elegant, cultured, exquisite, besides a good soldier— in opposition to the medieval hero. Here he takes as a model the political attitude of Cesar Borgia and holds that the political behaviour of a statesman should be subordinated to political success, introducing thus the justification of the reason of state.

Another important development of European dimension in Italy is the emergence of learned epic poetry. Trying to follow the steps of Homer and Virgil, several Italian poets undertook the task of composing long epic poems, whose matter is that of the old medieval epic made more fantastic through the fifteenth-century fashion of the books of chivalry and highly sophisticated and refined now at the hands of such famous poets as Matteo Maria Boiardo with his poem Orlando innamorato , in which Roland is turned now into an errand knight who performs astounding deeds; Ludovico Ariosto and his Orlando furioso , a continuation of the former work but much better and widely influential in Europe; and Torcuato Tasso , as important as Ariosto, with his Gerusalemme liberata , on the capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade by Godfrey of Bouillon.

Italy must also be brought about when dealing with the development of the narrative genre. Boccaccio had already set the fashion, as we now, with his Decameron ; but his example of short narratives or novelle was followed well into the seventeenth century by succeeding prose writers, whose stories served as matter for many English and Spanish plays.

Masuccio de Salerno wrote tales following the steps of Boccaccio, but of a cruder nature; Franco Sachetti wrote some novelle ; and more or less the same number wrote the two most important novelle writers of the period: Mateo Bandello with his Novelle , Giambattista Giraldi, also known as Cinthio, with his Hecathommithi. In this way the French got into contact with the new Italian culture and fashion: social refinement, cult of the art and love of the Greek and Latin antiquity.

He received a painstaking education, professed as a monk and, having renounced de clerical vows, studied medicine; kept correspondence with Erasmus and published Pantagruel The Horrible and Terrifying Deeds and Words of the Renowned Pantagruel, King of the Dipsodes in It is the joyful story of a fantastical giant travelling in France and exposing satirically the many contemporary social and cultural shortcomings of the country. In Gargantua La vie inestimable du grand Gargantua , he narrates the adventures of Pantagruel's supposed father, focussing now on the pedagogical and dialectical methods of La Sorbonne.

Both books received several additions and caused a great deal of scandal. In them he endeavours to destroy the medieval ideology and the construction of a cultural system on Renaissance bases.

The Cambridge Companion to Montaigne

Another fundamental prose-writer is Michel de Montaigne , of European dimension for his famous Essais Essays , in which his humanist and stoic ideals stand out. In poetry we must cite Clement Marot , secretary to Marguerite of Navarre authoress of The Heptameron , who made him realize the importance of the Italian Renaissance.

Influenced by the Reformation, he was compelled to go into exile. He was one of the first French poets to attempt the Petrarchan sonnet form and to create new or to improve existing lyrical forms, composing "chansons" and "cantiques" and originating the blazon , a satiric verse describing, as a rule, some aspect of the female body in minute detail.

The influence of Marot was evident in England among the Elizabethans, notably Edmund Spenser, and was revived in France in the 17th century. They took their name from that given by the ancient Alexandrian critics to seven tragic poets of the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus BC.

As a poet, we must mention Du Bellay Pierre Ronsard is, however, the genius of the French Renaissance lyric. Steeped in the tradition of the classics of Greece and Rome, he rejected soon any kind of ambition in order to devote himself to poetry. He also wrote La Franciade , which he intended to be the French counterpoint of The Aeneid , but was left incomplete. Ronsard is an extraordinary poet when he keeps to the thrust of sincere feeling, but dwindle when he sticks too much to classical models or exhibits unnecessary erudition.

In Spain the Renaissance came relatively early by reason of the ample contact held with Italy through the kingdom of Arragon, which kept under its dominion part of the Italian peninsula and the isle of Sicily. Other facts to be taken into account concerning the spreading of the Renaissance through Spain are the invention and regular use of the printing press and the transformation of Spain into the main basis of Charles V's Empire, which comprised the Low Countries, Germany and extensive territories in Italy. Accordingly two main periods can be distinguished in the adaptation of the Renaissance in Spain:.

It is during Charles V's reign when the a definite Petrarchan school can be seen in Spain: out of the contact with Italy the hendecasyllable is adopted as well as the love and the pastoral themes. This one is, as everybody knows the most Renaissance poet in Spain with only thirty-eight sonnets, five songs, three eclogues, two elegies and one epistle. In the times of Philip II, the most important figure representing the Petrarchan tradition is Fernando de Herrera In Portugal we can only mention, for lack of space, Saa de Miranda , a friend of Garcilaso and the adaptator of the new style, and Luis de Camoes who shares many traits of it, too.

In Germany the best poet of the Renaissance is Hans Sach The Renaissance in England shows two main characteristics: it affected literature relatively late, when in France and Italy it was already dying out, and it was mixed up with the Reformation. During the fifteenth century several English intellectuals went to Italy to learn from the exiled scholars from Constantinople which had been captured by the Turks in These men returned to England as teachers and scholars and established so sound a teaching of Greek at Oxford that even Erasmus came to England to learn it.

Among those scholars, we must mention William Grocyn ? Thomas More , disciple of the aforesaid and friend of Erasmus was the first Humanist to possess a creative gift for Literature. Although he wrote his Utopia in Latin, he wrote in English as well poems, translations, tracts and The History of King Richard the Thirde and is therefore important to the development of prose.

Later humanists are the so-called Educationists, teachers and scholars of the generation following More, some of them protestant and all exerting a strong influence in the cultural life of the time. Among them, we can count: Sir Thomas Elyot ? As for the other translations, suffice it to say that the Elizabethan age was extremely prolific in writing and publishing the Short Title Catalogue of the Bibliographical society lists 26, items published between and many of the works were translations. Before, we only have the last descendants of the School of Chaucer, Stephen Hawes ? Though Wyatt and Surrey lived in the 1st half of the 16th century and their works had surely circulated in the form of manuscripts, their verse was not published till , when the printer Richard Tottel published the Songes and Sonnettes, written by the ryght honorable Lorde Henry Haward late Earl of Surrey and other, commonly known as Tottel's Miscellany.

It was greatly popular, since the work ran to 9 editions between and During the second part of the sixteenth century 80's and 90's , the Italianate forms are naturalized and the full potentialities of English verse arise at the hands of England's best poets of the time and practitioners of the sonnet form : Sir Philip Sidney , Edmund Spenser and William Shakespeare The Renaissance in Italy was not an abrupt break with the past, although there it started much earlier and in many aspects achieved its greatest moments.

However, it only occasionally broke with religious orthodoxy. In the northern countries the religious breach is apparent and characteristic, although, in the end, this is one more of many medieval characteristics of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In Italy itself the proto-Renaissance of the 14 th and 15 th centuries is either entirely medieval Dante 13 th century or two-faced that is, looking both to the Middle Ages and to the oncoming Renaissance. This is the case of Petrarch and Boccaccio, who, although being humanists in their interest and command of classical text in Latin, history and philology especially Petrarch , evince clear medieval traits they underwent more or less sudden religious crisis and had their own kinds of retractations for their profane works and interests.

But even part of the complex poetical system called Petrarchism, as it arose at the hands of Petrarch, owes a lot to the medieval tradition: the provenzal lyrics of the troubadours, who, during the 13 th century, and following the defeat of Provenze in the battle of Muret , were scattered over Italy. There, in Sicily, at the court of Frederick II, they helped to shape the Italian lyric in the so-called Sicilian school, which, in turn was going to be instrumental in the emergence of dolce stil nuovo of Florence, which already connects with Dante and possesses several of the most characteristic marks of the Petrarchan poetry.

So, the sonnet is not a Florentine creation, though it was there that it was developed at the hands of the stilnovist, but a Sicilian invention the first poet Sicilian poet in using this stanza is Giacomo de Lentini between In the other countries the medieval elements appeared often mixed with Renaissance traits in diverse degrees of quantity and tempo. Petrarch has been aptly defined as the last of the great medieval spirit and the first of the Renaissance.

On the one hand he maintains the mystic idealism of the Middle Ages; on the other hand, he breaths into the ambience of the forthcoming Renaissance in his imitation and interest for the classics, and, above all, in the discovery of the modern personal subjective experience of love.

What Petrarch really gave to the succeeding poets is a series of core conventions and formal traits, which modified and enlarged with due accretions was going to be loosely called afterwards the Petrarchist tradition, highly influential during the centuries sealed by the spirit of the Renaissance 15 th to 18 th. If we attempt a short summary of Petrarchism we should note:. The love relationship is understood in terms of vassalage: the lover attempts to raise himself over the limitations of reality after the ideal of the beloved. This vassalage may go without the return of the love by the mistress.

Petrarchism insists on the unique character of the sentimental vicissitude.