HRIS allows us to respond more quickly to changes and to needs of decision-making. HRIS allows budget control, tracking and screening, skills matching, appraisals, feedback, manpower planning, succession planning, skills monitoring, training needs analysis, and global analysis [ 20 ]. The main issue is to define what are the real implications and the role of the information systems in HRM.
We will now discuss some examples of the application of information systems in the functional areas of HRM [ 20 ]. Strategic HRM is characterized by the adoption of a dynamic vision of the resources it manages. It covers not only the planning and implementation of actions, but also the control of results, which must be related to the strategy of the organization [ 22 ]. In HRIS, we can find information at these levels: Environmental scanning: monitoring internal and external environments for detecting opportunities and threats that may influence organizational plans;.
Quality and productivity improvements: analysis and development to certify the development of HR quality and productivity. HR planning of what the organization will need is of great importance to HR professionals, revealing different skills profiles, working schedules, enabling the organization to have the right people, in the right amount, at right time. It reflects the interests and perspectives of the organization as well as the aspirations of the candidates and collaborators [ 23 ].
The information that we can collect in this area from HRIS is, for example: Promotions, transfers, hiring, and termination rates: tracks data to analyze and make decisions about workforce planning and employment needs. Analysis and definition of work: allowing employees in geographically dispersed locations to work together. Recruitment and selection: ability to support processes by creating tools that are more agile and enable online work.
In addition to the need for work organization and decision-making, what will allow organizations to have increased levels of productivity will be the preparation of their staff and their motivation? In this sense, the development of HR will be a factor of competitiveness and even, in some cases, of survival. In these cases, the information that we can gather from HRIS is: Career development: analysis of careers, their evolution, development of career plans and the achievement of objectives outlined.
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Education, skills, and training programs: analysis and identification of competences, identification of training needs, access to training contents remotely. Evaluate employee performance: definition of performance goals, design of evaluation metrics, performance evaluation, and feedback of results. Reward systems consist of all material and immaterial counterparts, which employees can receive, depending on the quality of their performance, the contribution to the development of the business and its identification with the values of the organization [ 9 , 23 ].
HRIS allows us to identify the following information, regarding rewards: Salary information: salary processing, holiday management, absences and absences, automatic calculations of wage components. Retirement planning: identification of succession plans, pensions, streamlining of untying programs. Benefit administration: benefits attribution, attributed benefits analysis, cost-benefit analysis. The role of HR professionals in the social relations system is considerable.
HRIS can help us in different aspects of this area: Employee discipline records: access and management on disciplinary proceedings, disciplinary proceedings reports. Attitude, climate, culture, and commitment: possibility to automatically inquire the entire organization and perform the attitude, climate, culture and commitment analysis. Safety and working conditions improvement are areas with a profitability difficult to evaluate and considered as real investments for the company, being considered a specific domain of HRM. Thus, great consistency must be sought between the actions developed and the other areas of HRM [ 22 ].
HRIS can assist the risk management by analyzing the following points: Accident and illness: analysis of trend on accidents and illness; managing reports. Therefore, we can say that information systems have been a valuable tool for HR managers to facilitating HR processes and practices, as we have already seen. However, HR professionals have a special role in this path. Some employees staff and even management will resist changing and it is imperative that they are prepared to deal with the resistance.
HR professionals must support the change and facilitate the communication [ 20 ]. They need to: Recognize individuals may react negatively to change. We simply cannot forget that it will take some time before success is apparent. HR professional needs to remember that HRM was limited to employee record keeping and was provided as a service to the organization [ 17 ]. The human resource function has undergone dramatic change. With global competitive success relying upon the application of knowledge, information and technology, HR professionals are now committed to engage more significant and strategic roles, improving efficiency.
They become strategic business partners relying on the usage of HRIS in their job [ 17 ].
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Note the need to be attentive to the particularities of each context. However, they draw attention to the fact that organizations that are most successful are those who are able to leverage the technology and link it to their HR strategy [ 21 ]. In this case, HR professionals need to understand that: the technology of the future will be both collaborative and connected;.
Increasingly, technology has a profound impact on HRM. As technology evolves, it will also force HRM to take on new contours in both its processes and its practices. HRIS emerged in response to the need for this change to be carried out in the most fruitful way possible, considering the improved accuracy, the quick access to information, the increased competitiveness and efficiency and the re engineer of the HR function.
It is true that there are still some limitations to its use and its results. However, its role in HRM allows us to respond more quickly to HRM changes and needs, for example, enabling to control budget, tracking and screening, skills matching, appraisals, feedback, manpower planning, succession planning, skills monitoring, training needs analysis and global analysis. By focusing on using technology to continuously improve the quality of the work. Technology can improve the information available to HR, facilitating HR processes, and making them faster and more effective.
However, we face several challenges are faced. HR professionals need to prepare themselves for the future by gearing up for new roles or find themselves outsourced. HR professionals needs to integrate an HRIS as a big project and as a major change for the organization, assuming its role as business partner, as a data analyst, as an internal consultant, focused on the strategic issues of HRM, necessary for the development of people, business and organizations.
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Management Information Systems (MIS): Definition and How It Works
The main goal for maintenance and control is to preserve operations over time through asset lifecycle management and control of changes to assets. This goal has three parts:. EIT risk management responsibilities include coordinating with disaster recovery planning, testing, and evaluation.
These responsibilities are especially important for EIT, because the business of the enterprise almost certainly cannot be conducted without EIT systems operation. Figure 1.
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Context Diagram for Maintenance and Control. Maintenance is defined as activities required to keep a system operational and responsive after it is accepted and placed into production. The maintenance of EIT systems includes preventive actions risk reduction and corrective actions fixes that preserve consistent operations. In EIT systems, maintenance can be performed on hardware, software, and data. As part of portfolio management, EIT and the enterprise are expected to set policies about support levels for operational systems. The support level for any given system is determined by weighing the value of the service provided against the cost to support it.
The goal is to not spend more on a system than its value to the enterprise. The capability to be maintainable must be designed into all systems. This includes the system's architecture, and by extension, its maintainability requirements. The ability to maintain a system is determined by the processes required a function of the system's design and the availability of resources to execute those processes. As part of system evaluations, maintenance tools and processes must be included.
As part of the package, systems should include expected maintenance activities much like regular oil changes on cars , tools to monitor system behavior, and possibly tools to perform maintenance activities. These measurements should be compared with the total cost of maintenance and support of the system, which includes:. When the cost becomes greater than the benefits, it is time to retire or replace the service. Maintenance activities almost always interfere with normal processing.
Components must be made unavailable or incur additional strain from both production and maintenance activities occurring simultaneously. Only in extreme situations should maintenance activities occur on online components. All systems must be designed to enable offline maintenance, even if infrequent, as that ability is also used in disaster Incident situations see  and Disaster Recovery. Maintenance activities occur as scheduled over time or occur due to an event.
Some components may recommend that maintenance activities occur both on a schedule and due to an event. Both may also be automated to automatically perform some maintenance activity based either on a time or an event. Almost all vendors provide suggested maintenance schedules or monitoring thresholds for the components they support. Schedules are in terms of activities to be performed per time period week, month, etc. Otherwise a list of events and suggested actions are provided.
In distributed failover or high-availability systems, maintenance on components may occur while the system is online even if the component is not , as other components take over processing from the ones undergoing maintenance. So maintenance activities may occur during business hours as an option. For systems without failover, plan the most intrusive maintenance activities to occur during non-peak times, and include options for taking components offline for a time to perform activities that may adversely affect business processing.
Most maintenance activities occur during times of lower business processing, such as overnight or on weekends, although with the advances in distributed systems and networks, these activities require less downtime and lower frequency. Maintenance processes should be designed to be simple, easy-to-perform, repeatable activities that occur based on a schedule or on an event, and ideally, can be automated as much as possible see above.
In many cases, those performing manual maintenance activities are not knowledgeable about the component or system; instead, those operators follow the instructions provided. Manual maintenance activities that are onerous, intricate, difficult, or not clearly documented so not understood by the operator are less likely to be performed correctly without monitoring. Design each task to be simple, including breaking up complex tasks into simpler parts, clearly document the activity, automate as much as possible, and train the operators on any manual tasks to increase success.
For example, one important maintenance activity is the ongoing standard purging of temp data areas, such as shared databases and standard cleanup of old files and logs. Over time, infrastructure resources such as storage, CPUs, network bandwidth, and data transfer rates grow. This capacity growth should be monitored and trends reported to help determine future capacity needs to the system.
Commonly, system capacity is designed to meet an initial workload, and to handle projected usage changes going forward. There are two main usage patterns:. Capacity limits affect availability because if a system begins to experience downtime due to inability to allocate storage areas or CPU power when needed, it influences the amount of resources that must be allocated to the system, to meet future business demands.
Inadequate capacity may result in more frequent system additions, which may also cost in reduced bulk discounts and more frequent maintenance events to add the capacity.
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Today's technologies are providing great advancements in on-demand capacity allocation in CPU processing compute capacity and storage capacity. This capability is available both for in-house delivered infrastructure, as well as with cloud computing. Requests to add functionality or to change the way existing functionality works are enhancement requests ERs. Acting on enhancement requests without sufficient analysis can be dangerous to the overall health of the system.
In fact, enhancement requests, done in isolation, contribute to the problem of spaghetti code often encountered in legacy systems. For that reason, the standard practice is now to recognize that enhancement activities evolve systems. In other words, evolution is not the same as simply maintaining a system. Enhancement requests should be collected and addressed in groups, within development projects. See Construction for tools and techniques. Vendors have their own internal systems for evaluating ERs, whether from customers or generated internally.
Thus, vendor-provided components evolve independently from any customer using those components. When vendors notify organizations of upgrades new versions or patches , the maintenance team must ensure that all changes to the component—and their potential impacts—are well understood before recommending installation of an upgrade, and going through the Transition process see Transition into Operation. If a component has been customized by the organization not just configured, but significantly changed from the off-the-shelf installed version , it can become increasingly difficult to retain those customizations in the component as new versions become available.
This leads to components falling behind, which increases technical debt both in opportunity cost from the inability to take advantage of functional improvements for example, security improvements , and in increasing the eventual cost when an upgrade is unavoidable. Often, local modifications of a third-party system make it difficult to accept new versions, because so much work would be required to carry those modifications forward to the new version, and the vendor may not be inclined without significant cost to include the customizations in their base product.
Evolution is a continuous change from a lesser, simpler, or worse state to a higher or better state. However, acting on vendor notifications without sufficient analysis can be dangerous to the overall health of the system. No organization only has components provided by a single vendor, so evaluation of the entire environment must be made to assess the impact an upgrade to a component may have on other systems ripple effect.
Some upgrades may require other systems to change how they interface or connect to the component being upgraded adaptive maintenance. It is also often the case where one component may have an upgrade available, but other connected components may not be compatible with the upgrade until a later time. Careful evaluation of the entire component inventory is essential to prevent an upgrade causing an incident in another system, disrupting business, and requiring remediation, such as blackout see Transition into Operation.
Both EIT management and the business product owners have a responsibility to ensure that a solution does not fall behind in both service currency i. A system lapsing from supportability by vendors is negligence on the organization's part, unless the component is placed in "sunset status" with a defined retirement date. In this case, there may be little point in upgrading to the latest version. Keeping a system around only to be used for historical reference is a waste of resources—convert the data to a currently readable archive and disconnect the system. The maintenance function has the responsibility for establishing change control mechanisms for any and all types of changes requested for installed systems.
While operations and support use the change management system for recording and tracking, the maintenance function ensures the orderly progression of requests through to resolution. A change management CM system is a set of processes that defines, at a high level, how subsystems can be introduced or changed. The CM tracking system includes a change request process and a defect handling process. These processes are generic across all component types.
For example, a change request to add new hardware is treated exactly the same as a change request to enhance functionality i. In order for this process to work effectively, a number of change management mechanisms must be established and consistently used. First and foremost, a change control authority a change control board CCB or change advisory board CAB has to be defined and established. It is typically chaired by the maintenance function, and includes representatives of all stakeholders: product owners, developers, testers, users, operations, and support. In addition, for some types of requests, specialists such as enterprise architects and the original business analysts may be called in.
In order to support and facilitate the functioning of the board, specific mechanisms need to be in place. These include things such as:. Configuration management CM is the foundation of a software project. It is the management of change to components and systems.
Without it, no matter how talented the staff, how large the budget, how robust the development and test processes, or how technically superior the development tools, project discipline will collapse and success will be left to chance. When a change request CR is assigned and approved, its "owner" manages the necessary change via the defined CM process. Procedures may differ depending on the type of change. For example, a developer may be required to apply an operating system patch. An operating system patch will be applied differently than a system release.
At various stages of the configuration control process, the owner can to identify where the change is in the high-level CM process. When the patch has been successfully tested, the CR should be marked Tested. The CM process and its supporting mechanisms should provides a clear, documented trail of change requests, their disposition, and changes introduced into the system, enabling better team communication, and collection of meaningful project metrics. The request itself, the requestor, the approvers, and all actions taken in response to the CR should be available through the CM process and tools to everyone on the project.
The generic approval flow defines a generic CR. The CR may be used to represent and track defects, enhancements, greenfield development, documentation, etc.