It's smaller than a virus and has no capsid. A viroid is a coiled, "naked" RNA molecule that can affect a cell.
Viroids and Prions
Its claim to fame is its ability to infect plant life. Although it has no protein of its own, a viroid's RNA affects a plant's ability to produce essential proteins. Discovered by scientists in the s, viroids affect crops like tomatoes, potatoes and fruit trees. They don't cause human disease, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of revenue for the agriculture industry each year [source: Microbe World ].
Viroids typically spread via seeds or pollen. An infected plant might rub up against an uninfected neighbor, an insect could feed on different plants and spread the viroid around, or farm tools might distribute the infection throughout an entire field. Not much is known about them, but we do know that a prion is an abnormal or mutated form of a usually harmless protein. When this normal protein becomes a prion, it becomes dangerous and can cause several mostly fatal neurodegenerative brain diseases.
The most well-known disease caused by prions is mad cow disease the human form is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Once prions enter the brain, they force the normal cellular proteins to begin folding into abnormal shapes. This destroys the neurons and eventually leads the brain to become riddled with holes. This spongelike brain consistency is where the medical name for mad cow disease comes from — bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE. Prions also cause the condition "scrapie," a degenerative disease affecting the nervous system, in sheep and goats. Prions can cause a few human diseases, although they're extremely rare.
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Subviral Pathogens of Plants and Animals: Viroids and Prions - Google книги
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- Subviral pathogens of plants and animals: viroids and prions.
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The chemically synthesized hammerhead ribozyme that is used in this experiment forms of two RNA strands that harbor the catalytic activity and a substrate RNA strand as shown in figure 1. In the presence of MgCl2, the ribozyme adopts its active conformation and cleaves substrate strand. In order to demonstrate the cleavage, the substrate strand is radioactively labeled with 32P at the 5' end by T4 polynucleotide kinase. Seller Inventory APC More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. About this Item: Paperback.
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Viroids, infectious agents that encode no proteins
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