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Try Independent Premium free for 1 month to access this feature. Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile. Subscribe Now Subscribe Now. Final Say. Long reads. Lib Dems. US Politics. Theresa May. Jeremy Corbyn. Robert Fisk. Mark Steel. Janet Street-Porter.

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Our view. Sign the petition. Spread the word. Steve Coogan. Rugby union. Motor racing. US sports. Rugby League. Movers List. Geoffrey Macnab. Tech news. Tech culture. News videos. Aristotle could not have anticipated the germ theory of disease, or the role infection avoidance might unconsciously play, but his fundamental insight about the animal side of our politics remains prescient. Meet pint-size future grand masters at the Elementary Chess Championships. A year ago, the year-old Swedish climate activist began striking from school each Friday to protest climate inaction; last Friday, she gave a speech to hundreds of thousands of people in New York, at the Global Climate Strike, which was inspired by her protest.

It is always at least a little unfortunate to see a young person become an icon—it robs them of the privacy of growing up.

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But Thunberg is an especially flummoxing figure. She looks younger than her years, yet her speeches take a shaming, authoritative tone that is, at the very least, unusual for a child. Usually the drama of an investigation lies in finding out what happened, but the drama of this investigation lies in what happens next. By the end of last week, rumors were swirling about what President Donald Trump might or might not have done to elicit a whistle-blower complaint about his conversations with a foreign leader. The president was refusing to answer questions.

It was largely corruption—all of the corruption taking place. Neither Ukraine nor Trump has produced any evidence to support that claim about the Bidens. Trump once again implicitly admitted pressuring Ukraine during remarks at the United Nations Monday. The Israeli leader has long marketed himself as an essential diplomatic asset. That pitch is wearing thin.

Enacting Experimental Alternative Spaces

Netanyahu is in a different league , the ads read. But then I did. Pro football can look past allegations of predatory behavior toward women, but making the NFL look bad is a different story. Hours before week three of the NFL season got under way, the recently unemployed wide receiver Antonio Brown took to Twitter, unloading a series of self-destructive tweets that may finally dissuade teams from taking him on. They are, for lack of a more specific term, readers. That why is consequential—leisure reading has been linked to a range of good academic and professional outcomes—as well as difficult to fully explain.

But a chief factor seems to be the household one is born into, and the culture of reading that parents create within it. To be a parent is to be compromised. The organized pathologies of adults, including yours—sometimes known as politics—find a way to infect the world of children. Only they can save themselves. Our son underwent his first school interview soon after turning 2.

An admissions officer at a private school with brand-new, beautifully and sustainably constructed art and dance studios gave him a piece of paper and crayons. While she questioned my wife and me about our work, our son drew a yellow circle over a green squiggle. The president of the United States reportedly sought the help of a foreign government against an American citizen who might challenge him for his office. This is the single most important revelation in a scoop by The Wall Street Journal , and if it is true, then President Donald Trump should be impeached and removed from office immediately.

Until now, there was room for reasonable disagreement over impeachment as both a matter of politics and a matter of tactics. The Mueller report revealed despicably unpatriotic behavior by Trump and his minions, but it did not trigger a political judgment with a majority of Americans that it warranted impeachment. The Democrats, for their part, remained unwilling to risk their new majority in Congress on a move destined to fail in a Republican-controlled Senate. I gripped the hull, shivering in the early-spring air, and watched our progress toward the rose-shaped metal platform floating on the surface of Lake Stechlin, one of the deepest lakes in northern Germany.

After a few minutes of rowing, we bumped against the side of the rosette. Bauchrowitz and I secured the boat and climbed out. Beneath the blue sky and puffy clouds, beneath the shiny platform and the dark, choppy waves, is another world—invisible in daylight and, more important, in darkness. We stood on a floating plastic pontoon anchored among 24 aluminum cylinders, each protruding a few inches above the surface so that they resembled connected rings, like the petals of a flower.

Each is a miniature ecosystem. They are, essentially, giant test tubes, each the size of a grain silo, nestled in Lake Stechlin. In this system of artificial lakes, scientists at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries can test their hypotheses in a natural environment. Physical-education programs were designed to encourage health and fitness, but they may be counterproductive. The U. Liberals and Conservatives React in Wildly Different Ways to Repulsive Pictures To a surprising degree, our political beliefs may derive from a specific aspect of our biological makeup: our propensity to feel physical revulsion.

Share Tweet. Emily Buder Sep 23, Most Popular Presented by. Only the fear of consequences restrains the president. And then on Sunday, Trump helpfully put an end to the speculation: Of course he did it. A lot rides on how parents present the activity to their kids.

Laing, : During World War II, Lucie was called up and therefore spent some time outside of the family confines, but during this time it appeared that she did not find any more freedom than she had under the reigns of her parents. Lucie was still curtailed through internalizing the social realities that were mediated to her by her family, and it was through this lens that she experienced and construed to experience everything. Laing insisted that certain acts such as disconfirmation often put individuals in an untenable position, in an existential sense, with acute social implications from which it is very difficult ever to break.

For Laing and Esterson, the Blairs were consistently tying one another in knots that caused considerable constraint and confusion for all involved, but for the most part they appeared completely unaware of what was happening. The research compiled in Sanity, Madness and the Family was never intended to sit as a singular entity. One aspect of this method was to create an audio-visual record of the families, for they were as interested in what they could see as what they could hear p. The men were acutely aware that, in order to gaze into the inner sanctum of the home, they needed to capture not only the words and actions of its members but also what was often hidden behind the layers of family history and among the gaps and silences.

The tape-recorder memory of the past would be replaced with flickering images capturing movements, bodily connections and gestures, all lost to the magnetic strip on the cassette. Negative criticism of this work failed to fade over time, and in an interview from Laing was still defending the work:. The point is still misunderstood and argued with on the wicket that I said that parents cause schizophrenia by their terribly peculiar mental conduct to their children. The families whose identities are disguised through careful narrative reconstruction, but whose most intimate life moments are printed, never reportedly asked to be taken out of the second edition.

However, the criticism proved to have significant consequences for the careers of both Laing and Esterson, with Laing eventually moving away from a career at the Tavistock, and Esterson leaving his clinical career that was the foundation of the research conducted. Szasz , Esterson revealed:.


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I might point out that my appointment at West Hospital was terminated explicitly because of this work [ Sanity, Madness and the Family ]. I was told by a Regional Hospital Board committee that while they had the highest regard for what I was doing they felt it would be in my own interests if I sought a research appointment rather than a clinical one. New paths lay ahead for the men, built upon the foundations of the family research. This diverse mix of psychiatrists, therapists, medical staff and artists all believed in the need for a change to the way that mental illness was being seen and treated in society.

The distinctly different nature of each household was formed not only by the physical location and structure of the building itself, but also by the range of people who occupied these spaces. The vision of The PA was deeply embedded within the need for a physical space that could embody all the conceptions of asylum for which the Association stood, and to put them into practice. The homes themselves were visualized as a key entity in the therapeutic process for those who lived within their confines. One former resident noted:. Laing, Redler and Zeal, — The previous studies conducted on families, coupled to the experience of working with patients in different mental institutions, had left the founders of The PA acutely aware of the need to think fully about the environment to be created for their own project.

For Esterson, the barrier between patients and doctors was one that had to be disintegrated in order for healing to occur, and the setting had to incorporate this aim into its foundations. In Cooper had created Villa 21, a ward at Shenley Hospital near London for young schizophrenics Schatzman, : ; see Wall, One resident, Francis, called himself a refugee from the Sixth Dimension; another Helen, would consistently cover her face in white make-up, gliding around the house like its ghost p. Referrals could come from a variety of sources.

For many of these people, Kingsley Hall really was their last chance to attempt to be understood. For some of the residents, it was the ability to find a space permitting them a freedom away from the conventions of society that allowed them to feel more comfortable in expressing themselves without the fear of being misunderstood. For others, it was a place of terror and despair where they were unable to find peace from their ongoing internal struggles Harris, Kingsley Hall, however, fell into difficulty because in many ways it began to fulfil its own prophecy A Laing, : Alongside the enormous popularity that Kingsley Hall was gaining within the artistic community, it was becoming increasingly clear that Kingsley Hall, and indeed the name R.

Adrian Laing : noted that:. There was a feeling of revolution about Kingsley Hall. It was all terribly exciting.

Thought experiment

The excitement that was attached to Kingsley Hall, as a revolutionary experiment that might cause a social revolution, could only be sustained for so long, however, as it became clear that the different ideologies present at the beginning of the project continued to play and clash through its happening. Kingsley Hall was officially boarded up by The PA in the summer of For many, it was the end of an era, since for them Kingsley Hall was their whole world while for others it was a relief finally to see the end of such a troublesome experiment.

However, as one former resident poignantly reflected:. It stands silent, peopled by real ghosts; so silent that, given time, given luck, they may hear their own hearts beat and elucidate the rhythm. The PA is still operational in the present day, with many community households continuing to produce spaces where people can come together and attempt to live with others in times of difficulty Philadelphia Association, For Laing and Esterson the creation of such places was an integral part of their attempts to understand the worlds of individuals experiencing mental health problems, and the continuation of their existence is, for many, a true testament to their legacy.

The schizophrenic is part of a social jigsaw. When the whole jigsaw is put together, then we find his disturbance fits into place within his or her particular social subsystem just as naturally, — comprehensibly — intelligibly, as the psychiatrist fits the network he operates within. Laing, : 2. Their specific focus on investigating the micro-geographies of families and family homes, in conjunction with their desire to create facilities in which individuals experiencing mental health problems could go outside the traditional hospital setting, led to the emergence of a series of experimental projects — both imaginatively and as physical sites on the landscape — that have yet to receive significant critical attention in the historical literature.

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For Laing, the puzzles presented to him through the stories of individuals, such as Anne and Lucie, were ones that haunted his thoughts throughout his professional career and profoundly influenced how he imagined and implemented forms of mental health care. Research for this paper was made possible under the doctoral award funded by the Economic and Social Research Council Award Number Thanks also to Sarah Hepworth and the Special Collections at the University of Glasgow, for their help in locating the archival materials used in this piece, and to the Laing Estate for permission to access the R.

Laing Collection. For further information about the particularities about this experiment, see Cameron, Laing and McGhie, ; Andrews, Details of this film are taken from a range of 51 films collected in Nichtenhauser et al. Esterson was born in Glasgow in and, after being demobilised from the Royal Navy, entered Glasgow University where he graduated as a Doctor of Medicine in He worked in general practice until taking up psychiatry in , and between then and he held a number of appointments in British mental hospitals and psychiatric units. Esterson became disenchanted with the practice of therapy in the National Health Service and he entered private practice in as an existential psychoanalyst and family therapist.

He died, at the age of 75, in Although both Laing and Esterson wished to conduct the interviews in the home, the majority of the interviews actually took place within the institutions themselves, demonstrating the acute practical difficulties associated with such experimental mental health research. The original language has been retained in all quotes.

This is a critical question that permeates throughout text, Interpersonal Perception , co-authored by Laing, Phillipson and Lee.

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Every care was taken to protect the anonymity of the families involved in this research and therefore all names are pseudonyms. Laing and Esterson : 55 noted that they were aware of the inferences to which these observations point in relation to psychoanalytic theory — such as that Mr Blair struggles with his unconscious incestuous feelings towards his daughter — but this is an approach that they chose not to take.

He also would not allow Mrs Blair to see the child. This is not to suggest that this was in any way a simple act, for it would have undoubtedly caused immense emotional difficulty for those involved. However, it does highlight that this was the only way in which this particular system of mental health care dealt with such individuals at the time. It is important to note here that families, as well as asylum and psychiatric care more generally, were the focus of anti-psychiatric critique.

Esterson followed up one of the case studies, the Danzig family, in a book entitled The Leaves of Spring: Schizophrenia, Family and Sacrifice This work attempted to pick up from where the previous study had left off and to show a much more detailed picture of the different family structures that appeared to the researchers.

This material is dated — as it consists of a diverse collection of fragmented pieces put together in the archive under the particular project of Kingsley Hall.


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During this time, in Europe and North America, a varied scepticism towards conventional psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and care was developing; see Miller, Adrian Laing : —10 discusses the connection to these feelings of revolution that Kingsley Hall appeared to inspire and the mind-altering substances, the most popular being LSD, that were being experimented with by the household. Kingsley Hall was reportedly left in a state of disrepair by The PA, and many individuals were demanding their presence be removed from the community; see Harris, National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

History of Psychiatry.