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Citreoviridin is also produced by P.

CDC in Action: Foodborne Outbreaks

Its importance in the present context lies not so much in the production of a mycotoxin of particular human significance, but in its ubiquity, so that any toxins produced can be expected to be very widely distributed in food and feed supplies. Fusarium species are responsible for wilts, blights, root rots and cankers in legumes, coffee, pine trees, wheat, corn, carnations and grasses. The importance of Fusarium species in the current context is that infection may sometimes occur in developing seeds, especially in cereals, and also in maturing fruits and vegetables.

An immediate potential for toxin production in foods is apparent. Bioinformatics Centre. Mucor circinelloides. Click for Details. Mucor is saprophytic fungus and grows on dead organic material. Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus. Aspergillus parasiticus.

Food Associated Pathogens | Taylor & Francis Group

Aspergillus parasiticus is a mold, known to produce alfatoxin which is a potent liver carcinogen. Aspergillus ochraceus. Aspergillus ochraceus is a mold species in the genus Aspergillus known to produce the toxin ochratoxinA, one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, and citrinin. Aspergillus versicolor. Aspergillus versicolor is a slow-growing filamentous fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus. It is a thermophile with a temperature range for growth of between 10 and 55 C and an optimum between 40 and 42 C.

Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus terreus occurs commonly in soil and foods particularly stored cereals and cereal products,beans, pulses and nuts. Aspergillus clavatus. It is found in soil and decomposing plant materials and is easily recognizable by its large blue-green club-shaped heads. It is especially common in malting barley. All Eurotium species are xerphilic. Both dried herbs and teas are consumed globally and traded internationally. Dried herbs have been associated with numerous salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide, and dried teas have recently been associated with several recalls due to Salmonella contamination and a salmonellosis outbreak.

Both dried herbs and teas are derived from agricultural products and can be contaminated with bacterial pathogens during primary production, processing, storage and packaging. Once contaminated, bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella can survive for extended periods of time in these low-moisture products. Depending on the end use, for example if dried herbs are added to ready-to-eat RTE foods that undergo no further heat treatment, or dried teas are cold-brewed, the presence of bacterial pathogens creates a potential risk for foodborne illnesses.

Considering the factors mentioned above and their relevance to Canadians, dried herbs and dried teas were selected for targeted surveys. The purpose of this survey was to generate baseline information on the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria of concern in dried herb and tea products on the Canadian market. Over the course of this study April 1, to March 31, , a total of dried herb samples and dried tea samples were collected from retail locations in 11 cities across Canada.

A portion of the dried herb samples and all of the dried tea samples were also tested for the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus S. Generic E.

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In this study, over Presumptive B. Salmonella spp. In dried herb and tea products, the presence of elevated levels B. The Salmonella contaminated herb and tea samples resulted in product recalls. The two herb samples where high levels of generic E. There were no known reported illnesses associated with any of the contaminated herb or tea products. Overall, our survey results indicate that most of the dried herbs and dried teas sampled appear to have been produced under sanitary conditions.

However, contamination by bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella can occur occasionally, and a loss of sanitation controls along the food production chain can occur as well. Consequently, as with all foods, safe handling practices are recommended for producers, retailers and consumers. Targeted surveys are used by the CFIA to focus its surveillance activities on areas of highest health risk. The information gained from these surveys provides support for the allocation and prioritization of the Agency's activities to areas of greater concern.

Targeted surveys are a valuable tool for generating information on certain hazards in foods, identifying and characterizing new and emerging hazards, informing trend analysis, prompting and refining health risk assessments, highlighting potential contamination issues, as well as assessing and promoting compliance with Canadian regulations. Food safety is a shared responsibility. The CFIA works with federal, provincial, territorial and municipal governments and provides regulatory oversight of the food industry to promote safe handling of foods throughout the food production chain.

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