This actually means a large joint effect owing to both schools and home background…little that is unique to schools or homes. Subsequent research has demonstrated that smaller class sizes in the early grades have particular benefit for disadvantaged children. Although some policymakers have drawn exaggerated conclusions from this research, claiming that smaller class sizes are always beneficial, few dispute that smaller class sizes benefit disadvantaged students in the early grades. For a summary of the debate, see Mishel and Rothstein NAEP collected background information on whether the household received a newspaper.
Today, as newspaper circulation has fallen while newspaper reading on-line has increased, newspapers in homes is probably no longer as valid a measure of family literacy. Not shown in Table 3 is that black family poverty experienced by NAEP test takers continued to decline from to , but then rose rapidly after The phrase was coined by William Julius Wilson, in his book by that name. Charlotte-Mecklenberg is a county-wide school district that includes both suburban areas and the city of Charlotte. The share of college graduates working at jobs that do not require a college degree was increasing before the recession, and has accelerated since.
For to year-olds, the share increased from 30 percent to 34 percent to 39 percent from to to For to year-olds the increase was from 24 percent to 26 percent to 30 percent Mishel et al. Unpaid internships for college students have increased Perlin , Evidence regarding college graduates having to accept poorly paid internships is anecdotal but sufficiently commonplace to be persuasive. A plausible explanation for the growth of unpaid or poorly paid student internships is that internship experience has become a helpful qualification for college graduates hoping to find their first jobs following graduation, a condition related to increased competition for a limited number of job opportunities.
Otherwise equivalent job applicants with white-sounding names get called for interviews more frequently than otherwise equivalent applicants with black-sounding names Bertrand and Mullainathan White job applicants with criminal records get called for interviews more frequently than otherwise equivalent black applicants without criminal records Pager For an illustration of how impractical it would be to integrate schools in the Detroit metropolitan area with its current segregated residential patterns, see Rothstein and Santow b.
The report also compares the benefits of integration with those of increased compensatory education funding for disadvantaged students in schools with less integration, and finds the former to be a more powerful intervention. Alexander, Michelle. New York: New Press. Alonso, Juan Diego, and Richard Rothstein. Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper Austin, Algernon. The Unfinished March: An Overview. Economic Policy Institute Report. Berends, Mark, and Roberto V. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Bryk, Anthony S. Organizing Schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Household Data. Table A Last modified date June 07, Campbell, Jay R. NCES Department of Education. Casey The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Chay, Kenneth Y. Duncan Arne. Ferguson, Ronald F. The Civil Rights Project. Gates, Bill. Grant, Gerald. Grissmer, David, Sophie M. Aiyer, William M.
Murrah, Kevin J. Grimm, and Joel S. Grissmer, David, and Elizabeth Eiseman. Grissmer, David W. Student Achievement and the Changing American Family. Santa Monica, Calif. Guryan, Jonathan. Johnson, Rucker C. King, Martin Luther, Jr. Ladd, Helen F. Magnuson, Katherine, Dan T. Rosenbaum, and Jane Waldfogel. Magnuson, Katherine, and Jane Waldfogel, eds.
- World War II German Police Units.
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Massey, Douglas S. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, Mass. Mishel, Lawrence. Economic Policy Institute Issue Brief The State of Working America. An Economic Policy Institute book. Ithaca, N. Mishel, Lawrence, and Richard Rothstein, eds. The Class Size Debate. Washington, D. Mosteller, Frederick, and Daniel P. Moynihan, eds. New York: Random House. Digest of Education Statistics Nixon, Richard M. The American Presidency Project.
Orfield, Gary. Public School Desegregation in the United States, Pager, Devah. Perlin, Ross. Brooklyn, N. Rampall, Catherine. Jobs That Newly Require B. Reardon, Sean F. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane, eds. New York, N. Rothstein, Richard. Grading Education: Getting Accountability Right. Rothstein, Richard, and Mark Santow. Economic Policy Institute Working Paper. Schwartz, Heather. Century Foundation. Sharkey, Patrick. Chicago, Ill. Sherman, Arloc. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Census Bureau a. Census Bureau b.
Data obtained from website August 16, Vigdor, Jacob L. Wallace, George C. Weiner, David A. Lutz, and Jens Ludwig. Wething, Hilary. Estimates of parent-child ratios from U. Economic Policy Institute. Windham, Ben. Wyatt, Edward. Appendix Table 1. Appendix Table 2a. Appendix Table 2b. Districts ranked by size of difference, district African American average vs. Appendix Table 3. Segregation and poverty in elementary school of typical black student, , for cities participating in NAEP District Assessment, See more work by Richard Rothstein.
Download PDF Press release. Table 1. Share on Facebook Tweet this chart. Comprehensive and ground-breaking,What Is Curriculum Theory? Language: English Copyright: The authors of this book join a growing number of voices calling for teachers in diverse, inclusive schools to move In this innovative book, four prominent philosophers of education introduce readers to the central debates about the role of gender What is the relationship of gender to the micropolitics of school reform?
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The American people have a right to buy and own guns, but I also have a right to be able to go to school and not worry about dying. My right to live outweighs any gun rights. How many more people have to die before something is done? Every day that we sit around and do nothing about the shootings and guns, we are killing more innocent people. The U. We have to make our voices heard and strive for change. Is a gun worth more than my life?
The media in general provides a liberal stance on the gun debate. Weapons come in many different forms, and a common misconception in our country is that we would be safer without guns. Even though improvements to gun policy could prove to be beneficial, they will never end the violence that has come to play a part in our education system. However, we do need to do something to help the mentally ill instead of arbitrarily restricting already existing gun regulations. Nikolas Cruz had a well-known history of firearm obsession. Cruz was even evaluated by behavioral health experts, yet he was not hospitalized or detained.
We could have helped him before this tragedy unfolded in front of our eyes. After listening to a story on NPR, I encountered a fact by a neuroscientist about brain development for the average year-old. The prefrontal cortex of teenagers is not yet fully developed. This is the part of the brain that helps you to control impulses and make smart decisions in times of stress. If 18 is the legal age to buy a gun, then I see a huge problem with this.
I believe we should adjust the legal age requirement for someone to own a gun. Practically, there is not a solution. Based on inevitable mathematical probability, someone somewhere with gun access will carry out a school shooting. Theoretically, the only surefire way to prevent a school shooting is to prevent guns from getting into civilian hands whether illegal or legal firearms. What needs to happen instead is education. We need to educate the public about guns in order to prevent firearm ignorance. We should have mandatory gun safety classes in school and teach young people what a firearm is, the tools and parts of the gun and what purposes they serve.
Even with one gun in public circulation, there will be a potential but very slim chance of a shooting. School shootings give responsible gun owners and guns a bad name. Gun restrictions will not get rid of school shootings, even if every single student in school had the discipline of a soldier and proper training.
The problems our society is experiencing right now have more to do with how we treat each other than gun control. We judge people based on their looks, especially if they look sketchy or just different. We see someone who is quiet or a kid who is always getting into trouble, and we judge them without know what they have been through. Society makes fun of those type of people. As teenagers, we constantly pick on someone until they are down on the ground. You see all of these shows about criminals, and some of them are about murders, and it intrigues us. The real problem is us. The right to bear arms is a fundamental freedom enjoyed in the United States.
Without laws, we are faced with the problem of unashamed maniacs and domestic terrorists. The simplest solution to this complex issue seems to be tighter restrictions and more cohesive background and mental state checks. Or at least make it harder to. The same lawmakers are aware of the hundreds and thousands of dollars they receive from the NRA National Rifle Association. Some may wonder how such people came into power.
I have grown up in a house full of firearms and hunting bows. I have had my hunting license since I was in fifth grade. However, many people my age struggle with mental health. Some take it to extreme levels, like taking guns from their home to school and shooting innocent people. As a country, we also need to make it harder to buy firearms. Only certain guns should allowed to be sold to the average joe. Not only should we add more regulations, but we should add a tax when buying a firearm, like we do for cigarettes and alcohol — items that may bring harm to ourselves or others.
There are several measures that could have been taken to prevent the Parkland, Florida school shooting, like taking threats, including social media posts, more seriously. Guns themselves are not evil and do not murder individuals. They are safe in the possession of a majority of Americans and will never be used to kill children. With that said, a revisit to gun laws is reasonable, including extensive background checks and mental evaluations for those looking to purchase any firearm.
Realistically, there will not be an end to school shootings any time soon. Therefore, public schools needs to heighten security now in order to protect those inside. In some cases, hospitals and banks have security systems that will lock doors; this isolates the shooter and would prevent their travel throughout the premise. Some individuals favor solutions that place armed guards in a defense perimeter around schools. Others want to arm teachers. The truth about the Parkland shooting is that it opened eyes and it opened doors. The debate has shifted from petty Twitter fights to actual debates on gun control policy.
A wave of voices has emerged and teens are demanding reform. Efforts to normalize gun violence by those in power and the news media have been shaken by our awareness that this violent American plague is anything but normal. School shootings cannot be blamed on problems of the big city. Parkland is no bigger than my hometown in the Midwest.
I think the country is finally starting to notice that it can happen to any of our schools. Most teenagers today remember the heartbreak after Sandy Hook but have become increasingly desensitized to such events as they occur more frequently. The individuals who commit such heinous acts are given the power — easy access to weapons — to instill fear into school-aged children. They are dubbed as people who are mentally-ill instead of as terrorists.
While they are successful in breaking the spirit of many, they will never take away my voice. My tears are quickly replaced with anger. But nobody can take away my voice. I will never stop speaking out against the deep injustice of school shootings and a system which has failed its citizens too many times.
Public Schools in the Crosshairs: Far-Right Propaganda and the Common Core State Standards
In the aftermath of the most recent school shooting in Parkland, Florida, adults tell us not to live in fear and to go on with our daily lives. Yet, over the last two decades since the mass shooting at Columbine High School, nothing has been done to prevent more school shootings. In fact, access to assault-style weapons has only gotten easier. This unfettered access to weapons has caused us to lose future Olympians, mathematicians, teachers, writers, doctors, astronauts and all those individuals who would one day make up our communities.
Our generation will not forget that our elected leaders have let us down over and over again. It should be harder to get guns or certain attachments. They should be required to take a class to make sure they know how to handle guns. People just need to grow up and deal with the fact that some folks may not be stable or knowledgeable enough to own a gun. The world is safer that way. Plan B would involve improving security at schools and passing stricter gun laws. We can start by preventing anyone under the age of 25 from owning a gun.
At 25, people are coming out of their adolescence phase and becoming responsible adults. Under Plan B, we get our government to step up and find a way to take of the issue. I was 12 years old at the time of the Sandy Hook shooting. Hopelessly idealistic and a little naive, I believed that the government, who had to be equally sickened and shocked as I was at the massacre of elementary school children, would immediately scramble to prevent such tragedies from reoccurring.
But nothing changed. And then, another school shooting happened. Then another. And here we are now, a nation reeling from the deaths of 17 more students and teachers in Florida, wondering what went wrong again. Our inaction as a nation is — and was — inexcusable. When the National Rifle Association has donated millions to our representatives, it is no wonder that the many attempts to pass gun safety legislation have been repeatedly blocked.
We have allowed greed to overpower our humanity; we cannot have the people who represent us value profit over lives. When politics have become increasingly polarized, it is no wonder that we have not had effective dialogue regarding gun control. Progress cannot be made without communication and compromise; effective gun control and the Second Amendment truly can coexist.
I believe that the best solution to this problem is to increase the level of background checks regarding gun sales and make it harder for those suffering from certain mental illnesses to acquire guns. If a person is viewed as a danger to society, then they should not be allowed to own a gun under any circumstances. I also believe that those with violent criminal history should face much higher restrictions when owning and purchasing guns.
However, I do not in any way support creating more total gun-free zones. The idea of total gun-free zones sounds like a good solution, but how likely is it for a potential shooter to follow a sign warning of a total gun-free zone? Schools should have at least one police officer. They should be able to do whatever they want about not letting in armed visitors, but they should definitely have some protection within the school to stop a potential shooter.
I hope and pray that tragedies like this will cease to occur and the lives of American children will be protected. I also believe this recent shooting will lead to changes in gun laws. After the Florida school shooting my friends and I were having a conversation at our lunch table. We were saying how if four shooters came in at that moment, blocking all exits, what would we do. We should be more concerned with a pop quiz in history than a mass murderer popping through the doors. An AR can fire dozens of rounds a minute. A legally converted AR can fire a minute. In , about four out of every 10 Americans said they owned a gun or live in a home with guns.
Now am I saying we should ban all firearms? No, not at all. In most cases, semi-automatic weapons that mimic those used by our military on the battlefield. Why would you ever use such a gun for hunting? Parkland is different. My generation has grown up living through nonstop violence, and now many of us are of voting age. We will organize school walkouts and speak to our administration. We will work with school boards and lobby local leaders. We will challenge the National Rifle Association and our elected officials. And in November, we will vote.
As it is now, we are vulnerable and defenseless. We can only run and hide. I am demanding that we take action on this issue as a nation. I like that we have a right to bear arms. However, I do care about preventing the wrong people, including those with certain mental health issues, getting ahold of guns. Authorities should look for specific signs. I believe that every school should be well secured with metal detectors no matter how much they cost. If you go to school in a nice suburban area, there will probably not be any metal detectors in sight. But just about every year, there is a school shooting in a town unknown to most Americans.
The people who carry out mass shootings are predominantly white and live not far from the schools. It looks like metal detectors need to be everywhere now, not just in the hood. As a high school student myself in the modern world, it is quite honestly absurd that the issue of massacring children is even something that needs to be argued. I find it terrifying that Nikolas Cruz was able to pass a background check to obtain his guns.
Being suspended from his high school for violent behavior should have been enough of a red flag. Guns are designed to kill. Whether they are used to kill animals or people, they are weapons of death. I believe that the solution is stricter background checks and outlawing bump stocks and military grade weapons.
No one needs an AR rifle to hunt, nor do they need bump stocks. Students are required to spend roughly 5, hours every year in school. We demand to feel safe. Our culture is aware of the danger of guns, but the news and entertainment media have helped to rob the public of their true dangers. By educating people more about guns, we are more likely to become aware of their power. The problem with school shootings is that with time they do pass and over time the media moves on to a new topic. Instead of hoping and praying for change, we need to take responsibility and advocate for the changes we want to see in our country.
We have drills at school for natural disasters such as fires or tornadoes or earthquakes. School shootings are not a problem in the African American community. There has rarely been an incident where a black child has shot up a school. When a black person commits a crime, the media digs for dirt on them. But when a white person does it, the media makes excuses for them. We were all alert as we frantically walked outside not knowing what to expect. Sirens blared around as we continued to hear the fire alarm ringing inside. There was a faulty smoke alarm.
We were safe, but it had been bad timing. The following Monday, three minutes before dismissal, the fire alarm went off again. I remember my blood turning cold as students protested my teacher, telling her that they would not leave. Eventually, we were told that we must go outside and obeyed. Later, another one of my friends told me how she teared up.
The chatter around me was fearful and angry. Luckily, yet another smoke detector had malfunctioned, and we were safely released from school afterwards. Were we next? I think schools districts should have mandatory security equipment in all schools to keep students and staff safe. There should also be more high-tech security for social media monitoring. Staff should be highly trained for events in order to protect students and themselves.
The federal government should take responsibility and fund what is needed to keep schools safe. I think if everyone came together and took a stand, we could solve the problem, and schools could become places of learning once again.
I remember the first time I saw one of my classmates with a handgun. I was walking home from my middle school in seventh grade. He was sitting in the woods, showing it off to his friends. We live in an affluent county in Pennsylvania. I know few, if any, of these young men who have ever gone hunting. There is another young man at my high school that sends dozens of his peers videos of him unloading and reloading guns at least twice a week.
He is brooding, about twice my size and his excuse is that he wants to join the army. Get us stronger security systems. Get us more school counselors who can help those students who never really fit, who get made fun of by other kids, who eat alone at lunch and whose families struggle. There is so much we can do. As a high school student who witnessed a shooting just off campus , I strongly believe that legislative action must be taken. For instance, Connecticut passed legislation that banned assault weapons, outlawed magazines exceeding 10 rounds and began requiring background checks for all gun sales.
Since then, gun-related deaths have dropped from in to in For too long we have stood by and watched teachers and students get slaughtered by guns — guns that are legal for merely recreational purposes. Our voices will no longer be drowned out by older, polarized generations. We need action. Gun control works. For many teens, witnessing the mobilization of student activists against gun violence in the wake of the Parkland shooting has been inspiring, but others remain skeptical.
Malala was a girl fighting for her education; the Taliban shot her in the forehead. Although our cultures are different, one thing connects America and Afghanistan: We both have kids who are frightened to go to school. And yet, the U. We are supposed to have our crap together. Instead, we are struggling to keep our children safe from assault riffles in their schools.
Can schools help Americans do a better job separating fact from fake news?
And government officials are too stubborn to realize that they often see eye to eye on several matters of gun control. The adults of this country no longer have the luxury to disagree. They must come together to save the lives of our children. Like a gunshot, panic broke out. Someone screamed. I looked around wildly for the teacher, waiting for her to start issuing orders to turn down the blinds and hide under the desks. But she was opening the door and herding people into the corridors.
Two things deeply disturbed me about the incident. Two, that it had provoked such mass hysteria. Being in close quarters with a guardian of the Second Amendment, my father, pro-gun rhetoric and its recycled arguments no longer held any persuasion for me. Congress and the President need to understand that their inaction is trading away the lives of the future.
But this time is different because we, the students, are the future and the future will not stand for it. We need to make sure that people who are known to be violent or mentally unstable are given the help they need and not easy access to assault weapons. Programs that create smaller communities within schools would allow students with mental health issues to be identified and helped. Finally, students must be part of the conversation. Our lives are worth more than guns. A student, Nikolas Cruz, became a school shooter. Much of the discussion that followed has centered on the need for gun control.
Few have even acknowledged the life of the shooter. Cruz was a troubled student. Everyone wants to blame him, and yes, I do believe that he should be punished for his actions. But the root causes of such actions should be examined, too. Why primarily argue about guns? Argue the fact that bullying is alive in all our hallways.
Argue the fact that depression can rise like a fire with no help in sight. We should teach students and faculty about gun safety, which includes how to shoot a gun, maintain a gun and how to disarm a gun at the bare minimum. Teachers and other faculty members should also have some sort of weapon available in the classroom. Whether or not it is a gun should be a decision left to the teacher to decide, but a weapon should be mandatory.
I also believe in mental health checks before purchasing a weapon at a gun show or store. In fact, I would propose mandatory mental health screens for everyone, both young and old. This way the government could keep a mental health database and consult it when necessary.
The Parkland shooting news alert popped up on my phone like many before it. But this one caught my eye…high school…shooter…fatalities. In shock, I blurted out the headline to a bus full of rowdy high schoolers headed to a soccer game. The response was heartbreaking. A couple of heads popped up from the lure of their phones but quickly looked back down. Only one person asked for details. We Americans have become desensitized to mass shootings.
As a year old born and raised in America, I have lived through too many national tragedies, more than enough for a lifetime. Mass shootings are now so frequent that many hardly bat an eyelash. Our pain has been desensitized. This is a problem. This is the problem. This is our problem. The recent Florida shooting has made me aware of how much I had been living in fear without even realizing it. The types of weapons used in mass shootings are insanely powerful and, if not stopped, have the capability to kill hundreds of people in minutes. As students, we are the ones who are affected by this, yet it seems like no one will take our voices seriously.
One suggestion has been to put our teachers in the role of first responder, concealing metal and lead somewhere between their barely functioning technologies and dull dry erase markers. Instead, I wish they would arm our teachers with the tools they need to provide us with knowledge. If teachers wanted to be police officers, then it seems to me that they would have taken that oath.
Free Thought Lives
This country, in all of its greatness, and it is already great, needs to get tougher on gun laws. Why do civilians need to own a weapon that the military uses during war to create mass casualties? How can I be sure that it will not be me getting caught in the thought of a was. How can I be sure that it will not be my family pleading on their worn battle knees, bleeding and crying out for answers, because their child no longer is but was. Do not act like prevention was a joke. A rehearsal that people knew would not work. A rehearsal that did not work for them.
Tough school? War, illiteracy and hope in Afghanistan
If you have a platform to speak and people to listen, use it. Speak up about gun violence and start making a change. If you see a sign, how could you ignore it? Do not leave an abandoned mission to collect dust. Why not try to help? We cannot read minds, but we can read posts. Just so in case there is a school shooting, I can go out the window and easily run to my car, fill it up with as many people as possible and get away. The other day at school I was sitting in the cafeteria and some kid dropped his binder and it made a big sound throughout the cafeteria, it sounded somewhat like a gunshot, and immediately I started crying.
When I moved to Mexico my sophomore year, I went to Acapulco for a week to visit some distant family. My family came back a week later to a cross sitting on our front door. Our neighbors told us that someone had been shot and killed next to our home. I found out that a boy my age had gotten into an argument and shot someone with a gun that he had gained easy access to.
What really rattled me was later that night, when we got home, and saw all the children playing outside like nothing had happened. I have lived in both the United States and Mexico. Methods for taking down an active shooter need to be explored. Schools should create a team of non-lethal weapon carriers. There are many who protest the idea of faculty and staff in schools carrying weapons, but what if these weapons could bring down a shooter without ever posing a threat or causing a fatality? Pellet and bean bag guns have been developed for crowd control.
It is not a stretch to ask and receive training to operate a non-lethal weapon. After these problems are addressed and changes are made, maybe then we could come together and heal some of the wounds that this country has endured over the last few years. The students also need to take some of the blame. The teens that create these massacres have to have a reason for doing all this.
Maybe if one kid had said hello to him that day, he might not feel the need to go over the edge. But maybe, just maybe, some of the teens that were killed, maybe they would still be alive if someone noticed the weird kid, who sits alone at lunch. We need to have some restrictions and make it a little harder to get guns. One of the first restrictions we need is definitely a mental health screening. With a more comprehensive system for reporting mental health issues and conducting background checks, we can avoid putting guns in the hands of people who pose threats to themselves or others.
Another thing that we need to have, and this goes for inside as well as outside of schools, is an armed guard. I personally think we should hire unemployed veterans. We should make the job of protecting our schools available to these men and women. Stronger implementation of background checks when trying to purchase a gun is essential. Active-shooter drills should take place in every school. Threats to schools need to be taken more seriously by school administrators. I hear about too many threats being easily dismissed. Students should have weekly locker checks and doors around the building should be locked at all times.
Many say that the immediate solution is gun control. However, in the face of slow legislative change and deepening cultural trends, what we need is a social shift. By fostering acceptance and fighting intolerance in school, we can take action instantaneously, focusing on the problem rather than political parties, and positively influencing social culture as a whole. Teachers are our role models. All it takes is one conversation and one teacher to set off the spark.
A teacher could walk into their class tomorrow and start a discussion about a difficult, divisive issue that students face and adults shy away from. This is how to save the future today. I think there are a lot of hints posted on social media about future events that the individual is planning. I also believe that parents could help keep their kids safe by monitoring their social media accounts for hints of dangerous or unhealthy behavior.
However, students are afraid to go to school personnel if they suspect such a thing. I think this mindset also needs to change. Students need to talk with guidance counselors more often. Besides putting more restrictions on guns, we could end or lower school shootings by having more psychologists in schools. These mental health experts could randomly rotate and observe students in their natural settings, like classrooms, lunches and gyms.
They could spot students who may be prone to self-harm. It could possibly help save people from not only ending their lives but ending the lives of others.
Aeon for Friends
Plus, having more mental health professionals in schools could raise awareness for the amazing science and role of psychology. Lastly, this could put an end to bullying because the psychologists could pinpoint the bullies, and help the school find out why they are acting out. I go to school every day, and knowing anybody could walk in and do the same thing all over, is not right. Given the prevalence of mass shootings, a higher level of security is needed at each and every school. Each and every part of the school should be monitored, and everyone who comes in should be checked from top to bottom.
No child who attends school in order to learn should be hurt. Plus, not allowing easy access to guns would make it harder for the people who want to commit these shootings to get ahold of these weapons. While there is the argument that if they want to kill or harm people, they will find a way no matter what, something I agree with myself, at least we can reduce the chances of this happening. The issue is a person who never should have been allowed to purchase a gun was able to use that gun against innocent people.
People who were just going to school. School, a place every child in America is required by law to attend. School, a place where people are free to expand their knowledge and embrace creativity. School, the place where I am writing this from and talking about gun control. How was this man able to buy this gun in the first place? What is the government doing to protect these children?