Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Nouno La Charmante. Dolly Joshy. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Motivating Students To Learn 1. James Middleton, Joan Littlefield, and Rich Lehrer have proposed the following model of intrinsic academic motivation. The challenge, then, is to provide teaching and learning activities that are both stimulating and offer students a degree of personal control.
Source: James A. When encouraging students to find your subject matter interesting, use cues to show students the appeal of the subject matter. Students who are intrinsically motivated might say things like the following. Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivators include parental expectations, expectations of other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study, and grades which keep scholarships coming.
Students who are extrinsically motivated might say things like the following.
Effects of Motivation on Learning Styles Deep learners respond well to the challenge of mastering a difficult and complex subject. These are intrinsically motivated students who are often a joy to teach! Strategic learners are motivated primarily by rewards. They react well to competition and the opportunity to best others.
Handle strategic learners by avoiding appeals to competition. Appeal to their intrinsic interest in the subject at hand. Design your assignments tests, papers, projects, etc. Do so by requiring students to apply, synthesize, or evaluate material instead of merely comprehending or memorizing material. Surface learners are often motivated by a desire to avoid failure.
What motivates students to learn?
They typically avoid deep learning because it they see it as inherently risky behavior. Handle surface learners by helping them gain confidence in their abilities to learn and perform. If so, the student engages in the activity. If the student perceives the activity as stimulating and controllable, then the student tentatively labels the activity as interesting and engages in it.
If either condition becomes insufficient, then the student disengages from the activity—unless some extrinsic motivator influences the student to continue. If the activity is repeatedly deemed stimulating and controllable, then the student may deem the activity interesting. Then the student will be more likely to engage in the activity in the future. What are their wants or needs?
By avoiding work in which students will be criticized or punished, the students' intrinsic motivation will be ignited. When possible, let students have some say in choosing what will be studied. Give students options on term papers or other assignments but not on tests. Let students decide between two locations for the field trip, or have them select which topics to explore in greater depth.
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If possible, include optional or alternative units in the course. Get to know your students. Whenever possible, share something about yourself with your students. Look for opportunities to let them know who you are and what you stand for. Vary your teaching methods. Variety reawakens students' involvement in the course and their motivation.
Motivating Students to Learn
Break the routine by incorporating a variety of teaching activities and methods in your course: role playing, debates, brainstorming, discussion, demonstrations, case studies, audiovisual presentations, guest speakers, or small group work. De-emphasizing Grades Emphasize mastery and learning rather than grades Ames and Ames report on two secondary school math teachers. One teacher graded every homework assignment and counted homework as 30 percent of a student's final grade.
The second teacher told students to spend a fixed amount of time on their homework thirty minutes a night and to bring questions to class about problems they could not complete.
This teacher graded homework as satisfactory or unsatisfactory, gave students the opportunity to redo their assignments, and counted homework as 10 percent of their final grade. Although homework was a smaller part of the course grade, this second teacher was more successful in motivating students to turn in their homework. In the first class, some students gave up rather than risk low evaluations of their abilities. In the second class, students were not risking their self-worth each time they did their homework but rather were attempting to learn. Mistakes were viewed as acceptable and something to learn from.
Researchers recommend de-emphasizing grading by eliminating systems of credit points; they also advise against trying to use grades to control nonacademic behavior for example, lowering grades for missed classes. Instead, assign ungraded written work, stress the personal satisfaction of doing assignments, and help students measure their progress. Design tests that encourage the kind of learning you want students to achieve.
Many students will learn whatever is necessary to get the grades they desire. If you base your tests on memorizing details, students will focus on memorizing facts.
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If your tests stress the synthesis and evaluation of information, students will be motivated to practice those skills when they study. Avoid using grades as threats. As McKeachie points out, the threat of low grades may prompt some students to work hard, but other students resort to academic dishonesty, excuses for late work, and other counterproductive behavior. Return tests and papers promptly, and reward success publicly and immediately. Give students some indication of how well they have done and how to improve.
Rewards can be as simple as saying a student's response was good, with an indication of why it was good, or mention the names of contributors. Reward success. Both positive and negative comments influence motivation, but research consistently indicates that students are more affected by positive feedback and success. Praise builds students' self-confidence, competence, and self-esteem. Recognize sincere efforts even if the product is less than stellar. If a student's performance is weak, let the student know that you believe he or she can improve and succeed over time.
Give students specific information about how their work will be graded.
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Let them know what should be included in work of the highest quality. If possible, give examples on the good work of other students from past years. If students know what is expected of their work and have in mind what high quality work looks like, they will be more motivated to try their best. Be specific when giving negative feedback.