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Phraseology and Culture in English

Search within my subject specializations: Select Medicine and health Music Names studies Performing arts Philosophy. Overview Pages. Subject Reference. Polylexemic structure: As polylexemic items, PUs consist of at least two constituents. The upper limit is defined with a whole sentence cf. Usually, constituents cannot be replaced or deleted without risking the phraseological meaning of the whole unit e. On the other hand, PUs also underlie mor- pho-syntactic restrictions. Transformations, such as passivization, pluralization, ortopi- calization are not always possible.

Aviation English 2

Moreover, for some PUs, only a particular tense might be appropriate cf. However, the criterion of stability has to be put into perspective. There are also lexical- ized variants of several PUs. In addition, the creative use of language is often applied see also chapter 2. In other words, the less transparent a PU is, the more unlikely are transformations cf.

The Russian Soul and the Origins of Idioms

Lexicalization: PUs are part of the collective memory of a language community. This means, that they are memorized holistically by the language users. Thus, this criterion is linked to the stability of PUs cf. Idiomaticity: Often, the phrasal meaning of a PU cannot be derived from the meaning of its individual constituents. Connotations: PUs are often used in order to express particularly the intention of the speaker or writer.

Stylistically, PUs can vary from informal to formal expressions. Finally, it is important to note, that individual PUs vary with regard to the degree of each ofthese characteristics cf. This means, that the conceptual knowledge of the connections between the source and the target domain enables the language user to understand partly the meaning of a metaphorical or metonymical PU, which themselves constitute the majority ofthe PUs cf.

LIU, However, motivation works mainly retrospectively. Furthermore, some PUs do not even contain any motivation, such as the well-worn PU to kick the bucket'2. In the context of the comparison of English and German PUs in chapter 4 see p. Although information on the characteristics of PUs in chapter 2. In the context of the creative use of language, many PUs are manipulated or transformed in different ways by the actual language user in order to adapt them to the communicative needs cf. This kind of marked use of the language raises difficulties in particular for non-native speakers, be it in the comprehension or in the production of such a creative usage of language see also chapter 3.

Addition: Language users may include additional elements into a PU. These additions sometimes refer fully to the figurative meaning of the PU.

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In other cases, an additional element is treated as if it were literal, but actually the figurative meaning is striven for cf. Deletion: Lexical elements may also be deleted.

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Some PUs, proverbs in particular, are well established and consequently are used in their truncated form, such as a rolling stone from a rolling stone gathers no moss [15] cf. Chapter 4.

  • Toys Come Home (Toys Go Out, Book 3).
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  • I International Congress of Phraseology and Translation in Latin America.
  • Furthermore, examples from corpus data will be examined regarding the type of possible underlying creative transformations of original PUs. Generally speaking,.

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    Thus, language can be looked upon as a crucial mechanism contributing to the formation of a collective cultural identity. Particularly, PUs can be influenced by several aspects of culture [16]. Furthermore, an influence of pre- scientific conception of the world, such as folk beliefs or superstitions, is possible e. Cultural symbols, as for instance symbols from mythology, religions, popular customs, and fine arts, represent another type of influencing factor.

    Moreover, aspects of material culture, embedded in everyday life in the past or in the present, play a role in the creation of PUs e. Some features of material culture are unique in a particular country, such as the concept of sauna and its influence on the Finnish phraseology.