Guide The State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review

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Romania has experienced serious and large measles outbreaks and may also tighten vaccine legislation [ 18 ]. Our concern is that the rising NMEs linked to the antivaccine movement in the US will stimulate other countries to follow a similar path. It would be especially worrisome if the very large low- and middle-income countries—such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China the BRIC nations , or Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan—reduce their vaccine coverage.

In such a case, we could experience massive epidemics of childhood infections that may threaten achievement of United Nations global goals [ 19 ]. Funding: There was no specific funding provided for this article. Summary points A social movement of public health vaccine opposition has been growing in the United States in recent years; subsequently, measles outbreaks have also increased. Our findings indicate that new foci of antivaccine activities are being established in major metropolitan areas, rendering select cities vulnerable for vaccination-preventable diseases. As noted by the recent experience in Anaheim, California, low vaccination rates resulted in a measles outbreak.

Download: PPT. Fig 1. Increasing nationwide trend in kindergarten NME rates from to Going granular: Vulnerable communities identified by high NME rates at the county level Beyond the statewide data, many county-level NME rates were publicly available from state health departments for the school year to Table 1.

Ranking of the 10 leading counties by NME rates per kindergarten population. Fig 3. Table 2. Are high NME rates associated with preventable and costly disease outbreaks? Fig 4. Negative relationship between state percentage of kindergarten MMR vaccine uptake and NME rate in the to school year. Discussion Our analysis reveals that, since , NMEs have risen in 12 of the 18 states that currently allow philosophical-belief exemptions. Supporting information. S1 Table. State policies influencing NME rates. References 1. National Conference of State Legislatures. Accessed 29 April Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Accessed 13 Oct Health consequences of religious and philosophical exemptions from immunization laws: individual and societal risk of measles. JAMA ; 1 — Robison SG, Liko J. J Pediatr ;— How too much freedom of choice endangers public health: the effect of nonmedical exemptions from school-entry vaccinations in Texas.

Open Forum Infect Dis ;ofx Hotez PJ. Texas and Its Measles Epidemics. PLoS Med. Substandard vaccination compliance and the measles outbreak. JAMA Pediatr ; 5 —5. California Legislative Information. Senate Bill No. Kindergarten School Reporting Data. Vaccination policies and rates of exemption from immunization, — N Engl J Med ; 12 —1.

Pediatrics ; 6 — Achieving an Optimal Childhood Vaccine Policy. JAMA Pediatr ; 9 —6. Forester K.


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France to make vaccination mandatory from as it is unacceptable children are still dying of measles. Independent UK. Accessed 27 Jan Figueroa D. Italy: Vaccinations for Children Made Mandatory.

Correction

Library of Congress. Belluz J. Ilie L. Sci Am, View Article Google Scholar. All communities are entitled to a fair share of the benefits of conservancies and natural lands. The solution is not to pit one community against another, but to distribute the benefits fairly for all. Times, Jan. The City Project recently asked the city why Ascot Hills Park is still not open after four years, and received the following responses under the Public Records Act on April 23, Any reason why open, green space in Ascot Hills is gated and locked to the public with No Trespassing signs posted.

Any reason why the public cannot use the open, green space in Ascot Hills that is gated and locked. Any comments from the public or public officials regarding the operation of Ascot Hills park as a passive park, which would require little maintenance. Any reason why Ascot Hills, or parts of Ascot Hills, cannot operate as a passive park now? Against a backdrop of smiling children, cheering officials and rolling grasslands, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa savored a groundbreaking ceremony on Nov.

State park

Today, the property tucked in the working-class communities of Lincoln Heights and Hillside Village stands as an emblem of what has not been accomplished. Scant areas of the acre park are open to the public. The park was scheduled to be completed by June , according to an analysis of park documents conducted by the City Project, a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating more public open space.


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Joe Edmiston, executive director of the Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority, a joint powers authority under contract to design and manage the park, would not go that far. Click on the image above for more pictures of Ascot Hills. Until recently, the site has been used by the DWP to train pole climbers and repairmen.

The State Park Movement in America A Critical Review

Private firms have filed a complaint to preserve public access to the trails in historic Millard Canyon that begins in the Angeles National Forest and ends at the Arroyo Seco in Altadena. The trails have been used by the public for millennia, beginning with the Native Americans who traveled seasonally through the canyon from the mountains to the plains along the Arroyo Seco and the Los Angeles River. Robert Owens, a slave who bought his freedom and moved to Millard Canyon around , used local trails to get firewood and building materials down to the U.

Army post near the Los Angeles harbor. Owen Brown was buried on a peak overlooking Millard Canyon. Plaintiffs Marietta Kruells and Karina Macias are members of the public and taxpaying residents of the County concerned with the obstruction of their right to access, use and travel on the open space and trails.

The suit seeks to keep the trails open for all, and to preserve the rich historical and cultural legacy of Millard Canyon and the beauty of the site. Los Angeles is park poor. The trails are needed for hiking and horse back riding, to improve human health through recreation, to promote spiritual and environmental values of stewardship of the earth, and for equal access to public resources, whether or not one can afford to live in a secluded gated enclave. The County of Los Angeles also filed a suit on July 21, Private developers and wealthy homeowners seek to block access to the Westridge Canyon Back Wilderness Park in the Santa Monica Mountains, one of the most precious natural resources in Southern California.

The roads and trails must remain open for all. Thanks to tremendous public opposition, we stopped construction of the Canyonback Gate — temporarily.

Learning from Alaska: Sustainability and the Conservation Movement, Part Two - WRNS Studio

A new development is being planned along Canyonback Ridge, to the south of Canyonback Road. The developer wants to privatize the area, including Canyonback Trail. If the City approves, the public will be forced to beg access from residents of the planned private gated enclave. While the developer promises that it will provide pedestrian access, future residents could restrict or prohibit public access. The developer must circulate an EIR that analyzes these impacts and how to maintain public access.

This two-mile bypass trail would be carved into the steep, unstable, landslide-ridden slopes that would be impossible to maintain, thereby degrading public access. The bypass trail would destabilize the hillsides, placing lives and property at risk in the canyon below. Meanwhile, the latest chapter in the fight for open space is being written a few miles away in East Los Angeles. Here, acres of undeveloped, rolling hills owned by the Department of Water and Power recently has been designated as Ascot Hills park.

The conversion required just a few minutes of discussion with the key players.


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The earlier battle over the Alameda space began in the mids when the city bought the land through eminent domain from its owner, Ralph Horowitz, developer of Home Depot on Figueroa Street and the Los Angeles River Center. But the community successfully fought to stop the incinerator. In Suing that park allocation is discriminatory. You should be able to make Ascot Hills into a park. Garcia figured that the same approach he had used against the MTA — arguing for equal access to public resources — could be used to argue for parks as well.

Comps Notes: State, Provincial, and Historic Parks

But before he could test this theory with Ascot Hills, Majestic Realty, the huge commercial developer that built the Staples Center, proposed buying and developing the Cornfields, a acre abandoned rail yard east of Chinatown in The Cornfields had been owned by Union Pacific for a hundred years but unused for the last Garcia saw this as an opportunity to suggest to the city the development of a park on the parcel. So Garcia developed a strategy that was political and legal.

Political pressure came through the formation of the Chinatown Alliance. His legal theory blended civil rights, environmental law and historic preservation. The complaints proposed a park as an alternative and argued Majestic had failed to do a comprehensive environmental impact report. In response to the complaint, HUD withheld any funding, pending the completion of an environmental impact report considering both the development and park alternatives.

He said legal strategies based on civil rights or environmental protection were irrelevant. But Delvak negotiated with the Center for Law in the Public Interest and came up with an agreement that if the center could find funding to buy the land for a park, Majestic would pull out. If it could not find funding, the center would withdraw its opposition to the development. Majestic pulled out. Although it will take another several years to secure the funding to develop the Cornfields into a full-fledged park, Garcia saw this as a vindication of his strategy.

The Center for Law in the Public Interest has used a similar legal rationale and strategy to secure the Taylor yards adjacent to the Cornfields and land in Baldwin Hills for open space. They hatched a plan to propose the land, which had been owned by the Department of Water and Power for the last 80 years, be turned into a passive park an open area without playgrounds or sports equipment. They organized community support and took their plan to Councilman Antonio Villaraigosa, who had a good record on environmental and minority issues.

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Within 15 minutes he said we could make it happen. It will restore native vegetation and maintain a park ranger at Ascot Hills. Garcia considers it a success for the Urban Park Movement and the evolution of his legal and political strategy. Larry Kaplan, the L. While this has been a long-used strategy in rural areas, it is relatively new in urban settings. The use of urban land trusts has grown as part of the Urban Park Movement. In a similar fashion, the L. Neighborhood Land Trust has helped raise public funding, known as conservation financing, to buy up open spaces in the last year and a half.

Tsilah Burman, executive director of the L. But Garcia is optimistic that with the current mayor, the bureaucracy is open to open-space proposals. Ascot Hills is now the largest open space in east Los Angeles, a claim that previously went to Evergreen Cemetery. The failure of the negotiations over infrastructure bonds in Sacramento is bad for urban parks, for revitalizing communities, and for the children of California, but the struggle is not over.

We can and will continue to build diverse alliances to fight for urban park funds to be distributed fairly among all communities. We urge the Governor and legislative leadership to put together a similar package for the November ballot.