Queen, who had worked in historic preservation, has rehabilitated or built about homes in the historic corridor just east of downtown Raleigh, starting with a house that he and his wife lived in and renovated on the edge of South Park a decade ago. Queen was his own market: He rejected long car commutes and cul-de-sacs. This part of the city was more affordable than anywhere else near downtown.
And he wanted diversity. Queen, who is white. But cities across the country have changed as much as preferences like Mr. Crime plummeted in the years preceding all this redevelopment. Public housing projects were demolished for mixed-income housing. Cities reinvested in neglected downtowns. The run-up in home prices in the early s also left middle-class households searching for affordable housing. By then, many working-class white neighborhoods in good locations had already gentrified.
Predominantly African-American and Hispanic neighborhoods were what remained. The old housing stock close to the center of many cities was also approaching the end of its life. Older homes are more likely to be replaced. And in the American housing market, newly built or renovated housing invariably goes to higher-income households. South Park was primed in all these ways to become much wealthier: Many houses had lost nearly all their value, as the land underneath them grew more valuable. Then in the aftermath of the housing bust, mortgage lending tightened, particularly for African-Americans and Hispanics.
White buyers got a head start in places like South Park just as they were becoming newly desirable.
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By the time more lending returned for minorities, these neighborhoods were increasingly priced out of reach. The people who have bought Mr.
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Andrew and Kelly Hudgins, a white couple, purchased one of those homes in in South Park. They looked at a racial dot map of Raleigh when they first moved to the area. Hudgins, 29, who works for two faith-based nonprofits. Hudgins said. And perhaps that other couple would value more what South Park could become than what it is now, or what it has been historically. Their home was also built on a long-vacant lot, so they felt no one had been pushed out to make way for them. He wants to show them what the church has built, and invite them to use the gym.
But the joggers tend to have earphones in and to look away. So far, he has been unsuccessful attracting any of them inside. Here, integration is not going very well. I wish that could stay. Eight blocks away, Mr. Queen recently opened his largest project yet, a food hall that will eventually have a full-service grocery store next door. This, too, faces uncertain prospects. The development was designed to make viable the grocery store the community wanted, Mr. Queen said. But some residents are waiting to see the prices. In so many ways, good intentions are insufficient to manage this change; they often wind up contributing to it.
The food hall will make the area still more desirable. More fly-by-night flippers and property scouts will come. People used to debate whether the city was delivering equal parks or transit service in all neighborhoods. South Park is unlikely to remain as it is today, with its mix of newly built houses, boarded-up properties and longtime churches.
Keomanyvanh, the community development specialist at Burlington's Community and Economic Development Office, was already doing work with My Brother's Keeper, a national challenge rolled out by President Barack Obama for cities to put resources into supporting youth of color. Burlington accepted the challenge in Rutanhira and Keomanyvanh put on the first professionals of color networking event in May at the Vermont Comedy Club, and about 70 people showed up.
Their second event will be held on Thursday, Sept. Rutanhira said a big part of the network is to let professionals of color know they're not alone.
So I think part of what this organization is meant to do is to get these very disparate groups together. Keomanyvanh said because of Vermont's lack of racial diversity, professionals of color often find they are the only person of color in a room or at a whole conference.
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While the professionals of color network is starting out in the Burlington area, both Rutanhira and Keomanyvanh hope it can eventually go statewide. It's something to recognize. Listen to the full interview above to hear more about the mentoring, networking and role-model building that motivated Tino and Phet to start Professionals of Color. Staff openly question your ability to pay.
Indeed, there is enough anecdotal and factual evidence to suggest that a dangerous color-based bias is baked into the American healthcare system, affecting even well-educated, upper-middle-class patients—the type you might expect to be immune from such inequity. Several years ago, I was one of those patients. In June , at age 29, I underwent genetic counseling and testing and learned I had a BRCA2 gene mutation, an inherited condition that elevates the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.
It turns out I was fortunate even to have access to this screening: A Journal of Clinical Oncology study found that black women, regardless of their risk level, are less likely than white women to undergo genetic testing—in large part because physicians are less likely to recommend it to them. When I opted for a preventive mastectomy later that year black women who test BRCA-positive are also less likely to undergo risk reduction surgeries like this , I had a number of advantages. At the time, I was a litigation attorney at a midsize law firm, and my employer offered excellent health insurance that covered the full cost of my pre-op appointments and surgery.
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My main advantage, though, was a strong social network. My college roommate happened to be married to a cancer researcher, who had given me a list of questions to bring to appointments. Once I received my diagnosis, she helped me identify, and schedule appointments with, a respected breast surgeon and plastic surgeon. This kind of access, I would come to learn, is a rarity among black women. Many of the white patients I meet in BRCA support groups got referrals through family friends or business or social connections; at one support-group meeting, the white daughter of a hedge fund manager recounted interviewing several leading oncologists from across the country before making her choice.
When I woke up after surgery, I was groggy from the anesthesia and slightly disoriented from the weight of my new breast implants. The walk from my bed to the bathroom felt like a marathon. I asked my mother to call a friend who could accompany us home in case we needed help getting up the stairs to my second-floor apartment. More pressing was the matter of my surgical drains, installed postmastectomy on both sides of my chest to collect blood and lymphatic fluids. I was nervous because my mother had suffered through an infected drain during her own mastectomy seven years prior; it had even been written in my chart during early-morning rounds that my left breast was slightly red.
But the nurse refused to contact the surgeon.
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Again, I requested that someone call my surgeon. Instead, a second nurse, also a white woman, was brought in to explain that there was no time—I needed to be out of the room. Which seemed strange for a highly regarded facility known for its patient-centered care. After a five-minute fix, I was on my way with two functioning drains. And it is markedly different from what I see on Facebook support groups for those dealing with BRCA mutations—an overwhelmingly white cohort.
I plan to track down the nurse who was there for me the first day after my mastectomy I want to send her flowers. In fact, from cradle to grave, a black woman in the U. Black women have worse health, period.
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More likely to live with major depression. Do genetics, income, and education level play a role in these stark differences? Of course. Does it matter that black women are less likely than white women to have health insurance? Without a doubt. But consider that even these factors are highly influenced and compounded by and in some cases due to racial injustices. And consider that black women fare worse not just when it comes to a few particular diseases or disorders, but across a wide spectrum. Then consider that the mortality rate for babies born to black women with a doctorate or professional degree is higher than the rate for babies born to white women who never finished high school.
A picture begins to emerge of forces at once bigger, deeper, and more insidious at play. To be clear: Getting the best results out of the American healthcare system can be difficult for anyone. Between byzantine insurance rules, the profits-over-people M. And even that might not be enough. Chan School of Public Health, has found an association between Jim Crow laws and premature mortality rates for African Americans born under those laws.