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    Cost The price displayed for the product on PriceCheck is sourced directly from the merchant. The price of the product can be seen on PriceCheck. In total, 14 SNPs were identified which resulted in identification of six different promoter alleles. The allele A1 was found to be associated with low MBL in serum and it was found in inbred lines as well as in commercial lines. Using these approaches, many genes, genomic regions and signaling pathways associated with the host response to infection with pathogens such as E. Similarly, microRNAs and signaling pathways related to avian influenza virus infection in chickens have been identified using high-throughput technology including microarray and next-generation sequencing.

    R2 and R4 with serologically identical MHC recombinant haplotypes. DK established that different MHC haplotypes were associated with different amounts of antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus IBDV and lower disease severity after experimental infection of chickens. A similar association of MHC-haplotype with antibody levels and pathology was also found in Newcastle disease virus NDV infected chickens and for parasite egg burden after a challenge with Ascaridia galli.

    These studies offer new opportunity for characterization of genetic regulation of resistance and immunity to pathogens in poultry. Objective 2. The group has also made significant accomplishments regarding basic characterization of innate and adaptive immune functions and examination of the influence of genetic, environmental, nutritional and physiological factors on these processes.

    Avian Gut Function in Health and Disease Poultry Science Symposium Series

    For these studies, availability of genetic lines with optimal and suboptimal immune responses to an experimental antigen has been very helpful. Lines selected for high or low antibody responses to SRBC were shown by NH to exhibit differential bursal gene-expression profiles revealing biomarkers unique for high and low SRBC-Ab responders as early as day 15 of incubation.

    Embryonic testosterone propionate exposure, which results in bursal ablation, influenced distinct pathways in birds from the high and low SRBC-Ab responder lines. USDA-ADOL compared MDV-susceptible and resistant lines based on expression analysis with a panel of immune-related genes revealing a much more vigorous, especially T cell-mediated, immune response in line than line Additionally, transient paralysis could be observed in both lines with high pathogenic strains of MDV.

    CA-COH and CA-WU in collaboration with others have helped to elucidate mechanisms underlying the activation of natural killer cells, T lymphocyte responses and macrophages. Genetic lines prone to non-communicable diseases with immune system involvement e. Global gene-expression analysis of the target tissue feather before and throughout SL vitiligo development established a role of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as, cellular stress.

    Independent of serotype, MDV infection administered at hatch was reliably associated with vitiligo expression in susceptible SL chicks. Susceptibility to autoimmune SL vitiligo appears to be manifested in part in target cell melanocyte defects. Studies by NH using an atherosclerosis model also reports differentially-expressed genes and soluble proteins found in aortic smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau and atherosclerosis-resistant Show Racer pigeons. These studies yielded critical new knowledge regarding impact of physiological factors on aspects of disease susceptibility, disease progression, activities and interrelationships of innate and adaptive immune systems, virulence of pathogens, immunodominant epitopes, nature of effective or ineffective host responses and approaches for disease intervention and prevention.

    An eight year longitudinal survey of SPF flocks at NY infected with immunosuppressive chicken infectious anemia virus CIAV showed that antibody development to CIAV started in general on or after sexual maturity with significant differences in levels of seroconversion during this period. These findings suggest that the infection may remain latent and that reactivation is linked in part to sexual maturity. DE studied the effects of innate immune stimulants on the replication of MDV vaccine strains and overall vaccine efficacy.

    Inclusion of some select innate inducers e. PAMPs did not interfere with vaccine virus replication, despite potent induction of innate responses but did not have appreciable effects on cell-mediated immune function and MD protection.

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    Gene expression profiling by USDA-ADOL between rMd5 and rMd5Dmeq infected chickens revealed that Meq functions as an immunosuppressive oncogene that results in down-regulation of many immune-related genes and may be controlling the expression levels of p53 involved in regulating the cell cycle and tumor development. NC worked to characterize numerous circulating strains of the type-2 turkey astrovirus isolated from commercial turkeys across the U.

    The infected epithelial cells responded to infection by expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS , which likely plays a key role in eliminating the virus in the immunologically immature host. VA assessed the differential genetic resistance to clostridial toxins in select chicken lines and conducted serum protein profiling and identification of potential blood markers in Eimeria-infected chickens from commercial genetic stocks.

    AR and collaborators observed different vasoactive and cytokine responses to local pulmonary inflammatory activities induced by PAMPs or vascular occlusion in ascites-susceptible or -resistant broiler lines. ON developed a probiotic formulation that possesses immune stimulatory activities, which they plan to test in commercial settings in the near future.

    VA is evaluating the effects of antibiotic alternatives in commercial chickens e. Immunomodulatory effects of concurrent administration of model-antigens and PAMPs typically present in the air of poultry houses were observed by NL particularly in young broiler and layer chickens. Adaptive systemic immune responses were also shown to be affected by the absence of microflora in the gut following antibiotic treatment as well as by administration of probiotics.

    Through these studies, the period of weeks of age was identified as a critical time in the development of mucosal immunity. Investigations into the role of nutrition in the immune responses of poultry by CA-D established that nutrients that have primarily regulatory functions vitamins A and D, and essential fatty acids had greater effects on development of the immune system than nutrients that serve as anabolic precursors amino acids, energy, minerals.

    Vitamin A deficiency during development diminished B lymphocyte maturation and the breadth of the antibody repertoire. The entire cost of the adaptive immune response specific antibodies and lymphocytes was easily fueled by the decay of the acute phase proteins produced during the innate response, suggesting that adaptive immunity has no net nutritional cost.

    NC demonstrated that changes in the intestinal microflora of poultry alter the amount of energy consumed by the immune response. PEI characterized local and systemic innate immunity in poultry during nutritional intervention using yeast derivate carbohydrates YDC. DK conducted studies to characterize and examine the function of mannose-binding-lectin MBL, innate immunity in susceptibility of poultry to different pathogens. Using chickens selectively bred for a high or a low serum concentration of MBL, low circulating levels of MBL were associated with reduced ability of poultry to respond to pathogens such as IBV, E.

    These results confirm that MBL, as shown in mammals, plays a major role in the outcome of various infections in chickens and may emerge as a biomarker for disease susceptibility. Similarly, investigations into natural antibodies NAb and health in poultry by NL showed that high levels of NAb, especially of the IgM isotype, correlate with lower mortality during a lay period.

    NAb levels were found to be very heritable 0. Whether NAb originate from introduction of the intestinal microbiota or reflect homeostatic auto-antibodies is subject of future studies. Their studies also showed that NAb binding to protein extracts from chicken organs may provide a fingerprint for measuring the health status of individuals. Objective 3. Efforts by the group resulted in development of a variety of tools and basic data for continued research on the genetic bases of resistance and immunity to avian diseases.

    AL generated a better understanding of the mucosal immune system in chickens induced by IBV vaccines or Ad5 vaccine vectors expressing the avian influenza HA gene. AL found the head-associated lymphoid system, i. CALT generated more of a cell-mediated immune response and after priming seemed to contain cytotoxic effector memory T cells, while the HDGL generated more of a B cell response. The spleen played a minor role after mucosal IBV priming, but generated the highest IFN-gamma response after boosting, indicating induction of a central memory T cell response.

    Advances made by the group to facilitate the study of immunity include development of chicken whole genome 44K gene expression array CA-D that has been widely used in the poultry community; increased availability of genetic information to conduct targeted qPCR expression analyses of cytokine and other genes; and, B-cell spectratyping including IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes. Western blotting was optimized to measure post translational polymorphism of NAb and auto-antibody fingerprints. A minimally invasive procedure to monitor cellular immune responses in vivo using the growing feather as an in vivo test-tube was developed by AR.

    Based on analyses of antibody responses using a peptide array, AL reported that mutations in the S1 protein of IBV contributed to immune escape. VA identified innate immune markers correlating with disease resistance to coccidiosis. NC developed reagents for use in the study of turkey immunity, including polyclonal antibodies to the turkey iNOS protein. NY developed an antigen-antibody complex vaccine that does not cause damage in chickens lacking maternal antibodies to CIAV and protected against replication of a challenge virus.

    Studies with these MDV mutations focused on their effects on transactivation, target gene expression, cell shape and mobility, immune evasion and pathogenesis and the immune response. Use of these mutated MDV viruses has already provided insight into the impact of viral genes on tumor composition, mechanisms by which MDV regulates immune-associated genes, virulence, viral T cell epitopes presented, and effects on the early patterning of immune responses. While transgenic approaches to study the function of genes is not yet readily available for avian species, virus vectors approaches have been employed by members of the group.

    ON developed a prototype virus-vectored system for down-regulation the expression of IFN-gamma, a system that can be modified for down-regulation the expression of other cytokines in the future. WI has created a generation 3 self-inactivating lentiviral expression vectors for in ovo administration in preparation for expression of the Mx transcript from the highly pathogenic AI virus resistant Blue-winged Teal in chickens under control of an inducible promoter. Identify and characterize genes that regulate or affect innate and adaptive immunity and determine their relationships to disease resistance in poultry.

    Identify, characterize, and modulate environmental and physiologic factors that regulate or affect immune system development, optimal immune function and disease resistance in poultry. Increase poultry production efficiency and disease resistance by developing and evaluating methods and reagents, including specialized genetic stocks, to assess or modulate immune system development, patterning and function.

    Industry stakeholders are invited to and frequently attend the annual project meetings. Their attendance provides an opportunity for information exchange. For example, representatives of breeder organizations can learn of the latest genetic advances in disease resistance from the project scientists. Technical Committee members gain knowledge of emerging field problems that the project can address through experiments. The combined efforts of the NE stations will generate new scientific data. Project investigators have made significant scientific contributions to the improvement of poultry immune responses as well as the genetics of disease resistance.

    Cooperation among project members and with other researchers will remain a hallmark of NE This cooperative effort will include sharing scientific expertise and genetic resources held at numerous project stations. The addition of several international members has expanded the research scope and global dissemination of research findings. The planning and supervision of the Multistate Research project shall be the responsibility of the Multistate Technical Committee.

    The voting membership shall consist of the Technical Committee Representatives. The Technical Committee shall be responsible for review and acceptance of contributing projects, preparation of reviews, modification of the multistate project proposal, and preparation of an annual report for transmittal by the Administrative Advisor upon approval to NIFA. Annual written reports will be prepared by each technical committee member and distributed at the annual meeting.

    A limited number of the compiled annual reports will be available upon request from the Administrative Advisor. The Technical Committee will meet yearly and elect a secretary, who will serve the year after election and as the chairperson the following year. An Executive Committee will be formed to conduct all business of the Technical Committee between annual meetings. The chairperson may name other subcommittees as needed to perform specific assignments. They may include subcommittees to develop procedures, manuals, and phases of the multistate project, to review work assignments; to develop research methods, to prepare publications, and to write proposals.

    Other agencies and institutions may participate and vote at the invitation of the Administrative Advisor. Minimum expectations for Technical Committee members are submission of a written annual report every year, and attendance at an annual meeting including presentation of research results at least one year out of two. Collaborators may include emeritus members with an interest in attending annual meetings, scientists who wish to contribute by virtue of having special expertise or interest, and those who engage in research interactions with an individual Technical Committee member.

    Collaborators should submit a written report every year, and present their progress when attending the annual meeting. Guests who attend an annual meeting through special connection to the Technical Committee i. Abasht, B. Kaiser, J. Genetic lines differ in Toll-like receptor gene expression in spleen of chicks inoculated with Salmonella enterica Serovar. Abdul-Careem, M. Javaheri-Vayeghan, S. Shanmuganathan, H. Haghighi, L. Read, K. Haq, D. Hunter, K. Schat, M. Heidari, and S. Establishment of an aerosol-based Marek's disease virus infection model.

    Avian Dis. Hunter, A. Sarson, P. Parvizi, H. Read, M. Host responses are induced in feathers of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Virology Hunter, L. Lee, J. Fairbrother, H. Read, P. Parvizi, M. Host responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens infected with virulent Marek's disease virus. Hunter, S.

    Cellular and cytokine responses in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Marek's disease. Haq, S. Shanmuganathan, L. Induction of innate host responses in the lungs of chickens following infection with a very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus. Parvizi, N. Thanthrige-Don, and S. Marek's disease virus-induced expression of cytokine genes in feathers of genetically defined chickens. Addison, B. Ricklefs, and K. Do maternally derived antibodies and early immune experience shape the adult immune response? Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.

    Nieuwland, R. Pieters, H. Huber, R. Hoogenboom, H. Parmentier, and H. Sensitivity of humoral immune parameters of poultry to minor macro- and micronutrient differences in two nutritionally complete layer feeds. Sensitivity of innate and adaptive cellular immune parameters of poultry to minor macro- and micronutrient differences in two nutritionally complete layer feeds.

    Anderson, J. Taylor, Jr. Smith, W. Thomas, and S. Differentially expressed genes in aortic smooth muscle cells from atherosclerosis-susceptible and atherosclerosis-resistant pigeons. Smith, and R. Atherosclerosis-susceptible and atherosclerosis-resistant pigeon aortic smooth muscle cells express different genes and proteins in vitro. In: Current Trends in Atherogenesis. Rezzani, ed. InTech, Inc. Ardia, D. Parmentier, and L. The role of constraints and limitation in driving individual variation in immune response.

    Arumugaswami, V. Kumar, V. Konjufca, R. Dienglewicz, S. Reddy, and M. I: uptake and structure of the latent MDV genome. II: expression of the latent MDV genome. Berghof, T. De Vries Reilingh, M. Nieuwland, and H. Effect of aging and repeated Intratracheal challenge on levels of cryptic and overt natural antibodies in poultry. Bergstra, T. Smeets, M. In vivo and in vitro post translational polymorphism of chicken natural auto-antibodies. Berres, M. A direct method for genotyping anonymous markers in AFLP fingerprints. A male restricted migration-recruitment-dominance process is responsible for the genetic structure observed in White-bearded Manakins Manacus manacus.

    Biscarini, F. Bovenhuis, J. Parmentier, A. Jungerius, and J. Across-line SNP association study of innate and adaptive immune response in laying hens. Blatchford, R. Klasing, H. Shivaprasad, P. Wakenell, G. Archer, and J. The effect of light intensity on the behavior, eye and leg health, and immune function of broiler chickens.

    NE Genetic Bases for Resistance and Immunity to Avian Diseases – NIMSS

    Brisbin J. Parvizi, and S. Differential cytokine expression in T-cell subsets of chicken caecal tonsils co-cultured with three species of Lactobacillus. Brisbin, J. Gong, P. Effects of lactobacilli on cytokine expression by chicken spleen and cecal tonsil cells. Vaccine Immunol. Gong, S. Orouji, J. Esufali, A. Mallick, P. Parvizi, P. Shewen, and S. Oral treatment of chickens with lactobacilli influences elicitation of immune responses. Burks, T. Genetic control of Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumor growth in chickens: Role of the major histocompatibility B complex.

    Animal Science Image Gallery. Swennen, F. Vandemaele, K. Klasing, T. Niewold, M. Baumgartner, and B. Dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation influences performance differently after immunization in broiler chickens. Berl Casterlow, S. Li, E. Gilbert, R. Dalloul, A. McElroy, D. Emmerson, and E. An antimicrobial peptide is downregulated in the small intestine of Eimeria maxima infected chickens. Chang, S. Dunn, M. Heidari, L. Lee, C. Ernst, J. Song, and H.

    Vaccine Song, C. Ernst, Z. Ding, L. Bacon, and H. Chazara, O. Juul-Madsen, C. Chang, M. Tixier-Boichard, and B. Correlation in chicken between the marker LEI alleles and major histocompatibility complex sequences. BMC Proc. Cheng, H. Kaiser, and S. Integrated genomic approaches to enhance genetic resistance in chickens. Biosciences accepted Chuammitri, P. Andreasen, S. Redmond, S. Lamont, and D. Chicken heterophil extracellular traps HETs : novel defense mechanism of chicken heterophils.

    Chuammitri, P. Redmond, K. Kimura, C. Heterophil functional responses to dietary immunomodulators vary in genetically distinct chicken lines. Cina, D. Patel, C. Bethune, J. Thoma, J. Holmes, C. Hoff, and P. Peritoneal morphological and functional changes associated with platelet-derived growth factor B. Ciraci, C. Tuggle, M. Wannemuehler, D. Nettleton, and S. Unique genome-wide transcription profiles of chicken macrophages exposed to Salmonella-derived endotoxin. BMC Genomics Coble, D. Redmond, B. Hale, and S. Distinct lines of chickens express different splenic cytokine profiles in response to Salmonella enteritidis challenge.

    Collisson, E. Drechsler, and S. Evolving vaccine choices for the continuously evolving avian influenza virus. Cox, C. Beta-glucans in poultry: use and potential applications. Avian Biol. Stuard, S. Kim, A. McElroy, M. Bedford, and R. Performance and immune responses to dietary beta-glucan in broiler chicks. Croom, J. Chichlowski, M. Froetschel, B. McBride, R. Qui, and M. The effects of direct-fed microbial, Primalac, or salinomycin supplementation on intestinal lactate Isomers and cecal volatile fatty acid concentrations in broilers. Crucillo, K. Schat, Y. Schukken, A. Brown, and P.

    Cushing, T. Schat, S. States, J. Grodio, P. Characterization of the host response and possible lymphoid neoplasia in systemic Isosporosis Atoxoplasmosis in a colony of captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis and house sparrows Passer domesticus. Dalloul, R. Long, A. Zimin, et al. Multi-platform Next Generation Sequencing of the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo : genome assembly and analysis.

    PLoS Biol. De Greeff, A. Huber, L. Swinkels, H. Parmentier, and J. Effect of organically and conventionally produced diets on jejunum physiology in chickens. Delany, M. Genetic stocks for immunological research Appendix I. In Avian Immunology editors: F. Davison, B. Kaspers and K. ISBN Robinson, R. Goto, and M. Heredity Cover art Delany, M. Drechsler, Y. Tkalcic, H. Shrivaprasad, D. Ajithdoss, M. Saggese, and E. A DNA vaccine expressing env and gag offers partial protection against reticulendotheliosis virus in the prairie chicken.

    Wildlife Dis. Rath, F. Clark, C. Coon, W. Huff, R. Okimoto, and G. Effects of high fat diet and prednisolone on femoral head separation in chickens. Erf, G. Animal models. Animal models of vitiligo. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. Farkas, T. Fey, E. Hargitt, 3rd, M. Parcells, B. Ladman, M. Murgia, and Y. Molecular detection of novel picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys. Virus Genes Gadde, U. Chapman, T. Rathinam, and G. Acquisition of immunity to the protozoan parasite Eimeria adenoeides in turkey poults and the peripheral blood leukocyte response to a primary infection.

    Cellular immune responses, chemokines and cytokine profiles in turkey poults following infection with the intestinal parasite Eimeria adenoeides. Ghebremichael, S. Hasenstein, and S. Association of interleukin cluster genes and Salmonella response in the chicken. Gilbert, E. Cox, P. Williams, A. McElroy, R. Dalloul, K. Ray, A. Barri, D. Eimeria species and genetic background influence the serum protein profile of broilers with coccidiosis. PLoS One. Goto, R. Wang, R. Wakenell, K. Hosomichi, T. Shiina, C.

    Blackmore, W. Briles, and M. BG1 has a major role in MHC-linked resistance to malignant lymphoma in the chicken. USA Grimes, J. Koci, C. Stark, D. Smith, P. Nighot, and T. Biological effect of naturally occurring mycotoxins fed to poults reared to 21 Days of age. Grodio, J. Hawley, E. Osnas, D. Ley, K. Dhondt, A. Dhondt, and K. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of three Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates in house finches Carpodacus mexicanus.

    Buckles, and K. Haghighi, H. Read, S. Haeryfar, S. Behboudi, and S. Identification of a dual-specific T cell epitope of the hemagglutinin antigen of an h5 avian influenza virus in chickens. PLoS One 4:e Hamal, K. Wideman, N. Anthony, and G. Differential gene expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in lungs of ascites-resistant and -susceptible broiler chickens following intravenous cellulose microparticle injection. Differential expression of vasoactive mediators in microparticle challenged lungs of chickens that differ in susceptibility to pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Haq, K. Brisbin, N. Thanthrige-Don, M. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of host responses to Marek's disease virus in chickens. Abdul-Careem, S. Shanmuganthan, N. Thanthrige-Don, L. Read, and S. Vaccine-induced host responses against very virulent Marek's disease virus infection in the lungs of chickens. Fear, A. Ibraheem, M. Abdul-Careem, and S. Hasenstein, J. Hassen, J.


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    5. Dekkers, and S. High resolution, advanced intercross mapping of host resistance to Salmonella colonization. In: Pinard M. Gay, P. Pastoret, and B. Dodet eds : Anim. Basel, Karger, vol Hee, C. Gao, B. Loll, M. Miller, B. Uchanska-Ziegler, O. Daumke, and A. Structure of a classical MHC class I molecule that binds "non-classical" ligands. PLoS Bio. Gao, M. Miller, R. Goto, A. Ziegler, O. Daumke, and B. Acta Crystallographica F Heidari, M. Sarson, M. Heubner, S. Sharif, D. Kireev, and H. Viral Immunol. Heinze, C.

      Hawkins, L. Gillies, X. Wu, R. Walzem, J. German and K. Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on red blood cell lipid composition, inflammation and plasma metabolites. Hermes, R.

      6 Common Chicken Problems You Can Eliminate with Quality Nutrients

      Manzanilla, S. Martin-Orue, J. Perez, and K. Influence of dietary ingredients on in vitro inflammatory response of intestinal epithelial cells challenged by an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Diseases 34 6 Hosomichi, K. Goto, Y. Wang, S. Suzuki, J. Kulski, M. Nishibori, H. Inoko, K. Hanzawa, and T. Contribution of mutation, recombination, and gene conversion to chicken MHC-B haplotype diversity. Huber, M. Parmentier, H. Savelkoul, L. Coulier, S.

      Wopereis, E. Verheij, J. Nierop, and R. Effect of organically and conventionally produced feed on biomarkers of health in a chicken model. Hunt, H. MHC allotypes regulate NK-like cell function. Juul-Madsen H. Norup, P. Handberg, E. Wattrang, and T. Crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune responses to Infectious bronchitis virus after vaccination and challenge in chickens varying in serum mannose-binding lectin concentration.

      Kaiser, M. Block, C. Ciraci, W. Fang, M. Sifri, and S. Kannan, L. Rath, R. Liyanage, and J. Lay, Jr. Liyanage, J. Evaluation of beta defensin 2 production by chicken heterophils using direct MALDI mass spectrometry. Effect of toll-like receptor activation on thymosin beta-4 production by chicken macrophages. Cell Biochem. Kim, D. Kim, S.

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      Lamont, C. Keeler, Jr. Gene expression profiles of two B-complex disparate, genetically inbred Fayoumi chicken lines that differ in susceptibility to Eimeria maxima. Miska, A. Jenkins, R. Fetterer, C. Cox, L. Stuard, and R. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin Miska, M.

      Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the avian macrophage migration inhibitory factor MIF. Faris, C. Sumners, M. Fetterer, K. Miska, and R. Molecular characterization and immunological roles of avian IL and its soluble receptor IL binding protein. Cytokine In press doi Minimizing amino acid catabolism decreases amino acid requirements. Kogut, M. Chiang, C.

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      Swaggerty, and H. Gene expression analysis of Toll-like receptor pathways in heterophils from genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis. Frontiers in Epigenomics in press. Kumar, P. Dong, D. Lenihan, S. Gaddamanugu, U. Katneni, S.