Buy this article in print. Journal RSS feed. Sign up for new issue notifications. Two configurations that are designed for laboratory investigations of dusty-plasma equilibria are being prepared for operation. The first configuration has a vertical magnetic field that confines horizontally a vertically oriented, 6.
The dust grains will be injected to form a small number of horizontal dusty-plasma layers levitated electrostatically above the plasma sheath. The advantage of using a Q-machine plasma source is the insensitivity of its plasma production to the background pressure of neutral particles. The plan is to study the competition between neutral-particle cooling and streaming-ion energization in dusty-plasma crystallization and decrystallization i.
The advantage of producing a large-volume, dusty plasma in a strong magnetic field is the ability to meet the criterion that the dust gyroradius is much smaller than the dusty-plasma-column diameter. The plan is to study third-component effects in microinstabilities and the influence of size distribution on magnetized dusty-plasma equilibrium and stability. Crossref Google Scholar. Crossref PubMed Google Scholar.
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E 54 46 Crossref Google Scholar. E 54 Crossref Google Scholar. Varma R K Instabilities of inhomogeneous plasmas streaming relative to inhomogeneous dust distributions J. Plasma Phys.
NDL India: Dusty and Dirty Plasmas, Noise, and Chaos in Space and in the Laboratory
Plasmas 7 Crossref Google Scholar. Havnes O A streaming instability interaction between the solar wind and cometary dust Astron. Non-adiabatic dust charge variation is concerned with the propagation of monotonic dust acoustic shock waves which do not loose monotonicity even when a number of suprathermal particles are very large. An almost electron free plasma state is realized in negative ion containing plasmas which often appears in plasma processing such as deposition and etching etc. Behavior of such electron free positive ion-negative ion plasma differs from usual electron-ion plasma as the mass ratio in this case does not differ much like electron-ion plasma.
Such plasma of heavy charged particles can make an ion source of bipolar type and can be extended to dusty plasmas. A Japanese rocket  at a winter pre-dawn ionosphere detected a negative ion rich state negative ion to positive ion ratio 0. Amemiya and Nakamura  in Japan performed another experiment using a Faraday cup showing the extension of negative-ion layer from about 60 km toward the height near 90 km.
Negative ions in plasma are formed by different mechanisms like electron attachment, dissociative attachment, charge transfer and clustering reactions. They are frequently observed in afterglow when source of ionization is removed. Thus lower part of the ionosphere is a rich source of negative ions where solar radiation does not reach at night.
Dusty and Dirty Plasmas, Noise, and Chaos in Space and in the Laboratory
In such plasmas electrons can be completely escaped after finite time and ion-ion plasma is produced  . This D-layer of the ionosphere may contain dust or dust grains may be artificially injected there from outside. Electron irregularities were observed due to growth of a plasma instability driven by inhomogeneities in the boundary between the background plasma and the expanding charged dust layer . Formation of nanoparticles or droplets during melting and vaporization of solids may give rise to many new interesting phenomena like ball lightning and anomalous conductivity  .
Effect of negative ions on charging of dust grains was investigated by Kim and Merlino in laboratory experiment . They analyzed the excitations of ion-acoustic and dust acoustic waves by an electric field. The same mechanism of dust charging is also applicable in electron free space plasmas. Space and astrophysical plasmas consist of suprathermal charge particles whose existence was proved by space craft observation  .
Charge particle in such plasmas follow the generalized kappa velocity distribution  and is known as Lorentzian plasmas. In ionosphere radio wave interact with charge particles. These charge particles in resonance condition accelerate with high velocity. Such high velocity particles are suprathermal in nature and follow generalized kappa velocity distribution.
Suprathermal positive and negative ions can be achieved in the D layer of the ionosphere when radio waves in the low frequency range interact with positive and negative ions. Such suprathermal positive and negative ions along with dust grains form a Lorentzian dusty plasma where the dust grains become positively charged by the above mentioned mechanism. Presence of negative ions produces many nonlinear phenomena in space plasmas e.
Nonlinear low frequency wave propagation in electronegative dusty plasma with adiabatic dust charge variation in presence of magnetic field with Maxwellian charge particles was earlier reported .
Shahmansouri and other scientist have studied dust acoustic solitary waves in electron depleted superthermal dusty plasmas considering the influence of dust charge variation    . In this paper we shall investigate the characteristics of nonlinear wave propagation in an electron free Lorentzian dusty plasma with both adiabatic and non adiabatic dust charge variation.
To study the non linear propagation of dust acoustic waves in electron free dusty plasma we have considered positively charged cold, inertial dust grains and Kappa distributed inertia less positive and negative ions. Both adiabatic and non adiabatic fluctuation of grain charge has been considered. Since frequency of the dust acoustic wave is very low, its phase velocity is very small compared to positive and negative ion thermal velocities.
Consequently positive and negative ions will not respond much to such very low frequency wave. Hence their inertia can be neglected, only dust inertia in this case is important. OML theory  has been used to calculate the positive ion and negative current flowing to the dust grains. In the plasma medium under our consideration equilibrium charge neutrality condition reads as. For one-dimensional low-frequency dust acoustic wave motion the number density n d and average velocity u d of the cold dust fluid satisfies the particle and momentum conservation equations. Number densities n n and n i of inertia less Kappa distributed negative and positive ions are,.
Above equations have been non-dimensionalized in the following way.
Negative ion, positive ion and dust number densities n n , n i , n d are normalized by corresponding unperturbed number densities n n o , n i o and n d o. The dust charge number z d is normalized by its equilibrium value z d 0.
The space coordinates x, time t, grain charge q d , electrostatic potential f and average dust velocity u d are respectively normalized by the Debye length. In the following two subsections we shall investigate the two cases of adiabatic and non adiabatic dust charge variation. In equilibrium substitution of the expressions of I n and I i from Equation 15 and 16 in the current balance equation provides the positive ion-negative. For the study of small-amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic waves in the presence of self-consistent adiabatic dust-charge variation, we employ reductive perturbation technique to the Equations 10 - 14 using stretched coordinates.
The variables N d , V d , F, and Q are then expanded as. Substituting these expansions into Equations 10 - 14 and 18 and comparing coefficient of e we have,. The above set of equations is common to both adiabatic and nonadiabatic dust charge variation. But the reductive perturbation in the grain charging Equation 13 will be different in these two different cases. We shall now consider the Equation 13 separately for adiabatic and non-adiabatic dust charge variation.
For adiabatic dust charge variation, dust charging time is very small and hence dust charging frequency is very high compared to dust plasma frequency which. Equating from both sides the terms containing e and e 2 , we get Q d 1 and Q d 2 in the following form. Here M is the Mach number which is the ratio of the wave velocity and the velocity of sound. Nature of this soliton whether compressive or rarefactive will be determined from numerical computation.
On the other hand nonadiabaticity of dust charge fluctuation provides an alternate physical mechanism causing dissipation.