The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics , whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board PCB , to create an electronic circuit with a particular function for example an amplifier , radio receiver , or oscillator.
Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Some common electronic components are capacitors , inductors , resistors , diodes , transistors , etc. Components are often categorized as active e.
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Vacuum tubes Thermionic valves were among the earliest electronic components. They played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the s. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers , cathode ray tubes , specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices. Thomas J. Watson Jr. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals.
However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications. Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: analog and digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits.
The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a 'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components. Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance.
This type of circuit is usually called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation. An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output.
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra , and are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms "digital circuit", "digital system" and "logic" are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits.
Most digital circuits use a binary system with two voltage levels labeled "0" and "1". Often logic "0" will be a lower voltage and referred to as "Low" while logic "1" is referred to as "High". However, some systems use the reverse definition "0" is "High" or are current based.
Quite often the logic designer may reverse these definitions from one circuit to the next as he sees fit to facilitate his design. The definition of the levels as "0" or "1" is arbitrary. Ternary with three states logic has been studied, and some prototype computers made.
Computers , electronic clocks , and programmable logic controllers used to control industrial processes are constructed of digital circuits. Digital signal processors are another example.
Heat generated by electronic circuitry must be dissipated to prevent immediate failure and improve long term reliability. Means to achieve greater dissipation include heat sinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as water cooling. These techniques use convection , conduction , and radiation of heat energy.
Electronic noise is defined  as unwanted disturbances superposed on a useful signal that tend to obscure its information content. Noise is not the same as signal distortion caused by a circuit. Noise is associated with all electronic circuits.
Noise may be electromagnetically or thermally generated, which can be decreased by lowering the operating temperature of the circuit. Other types of noise, such as shot noise cannot be removed as they are due to limitations in physical properties. Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics.
So, these are important and basic devices which you need to start with electronics. Each device has innumerable applications.
(PDF) Electronic-Devices-and-Circuits- David A Bell | Gisha CG - tyruvyvizo.cf
Tipalti makes mass payouts to global suppliers, partners, affiliates, publishers, and freelancers. Shunt DC Motors operate on direct current. As such, the field windings and armature are connected in a parallel combination, and in electrical terminology a parallel combination is known as a shunt. A built-in oscillator stage in the IC chip makes it truly versatile and applicable for numerous different applications.
As the name suggests, the IC is primarily used as a bistable for toggling the output stage of a particular circuit, and it is fundamentally incorporated in most electronic circuits. Building virtually any electronic circuit from these small signal transistors and their complementary pairs may be feasible. This goes to show just how versatile and important these devices can be. The article provides you with all the necessary details about this important electronic active component.
The article presents some very useful, assorted IC application circuits, which depict the two basic operating modes of the IC- the astable and the monostable modes- and how they may be exploited for various applications.
Electronic Devices and Circuits Interview Questions & Answers
The article relates the technical specifications of SCRs and their working principles through an easy to understand, step-wise explanation. The article also offers a few interesting SCR projects that can be easily built and used for the relevant purposes. The car owner just locked and armed his vehicle by activating a remote control system. A cheap cassette player constructible design is discussed in this article.
An interesting home electronic project for all those electronic enthusiasts who still believe and appreciate the versatility of these outstanding audio recording and reproducing devices. The article describes a few simple oscillator circuits which are suitably dimensioned as different types of tone generators resembling the sounds of birds. The circuits are able to imitate bird sounds like that of a parrot, sparrow, and woodpecker.