On the other side of the spectrum, De Graauw shows how local organizations, particularly nonprofits, engaged in advocacy work can achieve success in enacting pro-immigrant policies. De Graauw, Els. In contrast to the case study presented by Longazel, in which local-level politicians worked to exclude immigrants, De Graauw presents an outlier case on the other end of the spectrum, describing the efforts to make San Francisco an immigrant-friendly community.
Her work examines three local policy arenas relevant for immigrants: language access, labor rights, and municipal ID cards. She demonstrates how nonprofits can achieve success through a tripartite model of administrative advocacy, collaboration efforts, and strategic issue framing. Gulasekaram, Pratheepan, and S.
The New Immigration Federalism. Gulasekaram and Ramakrishnan present a new way to understand the evolution of state and local laws dealing with unauthorized immigrants, which connects state and national policies in a process of immigration federalism. Hopkins, Daniel J. Hopkins presents an updated, nuanced view of the racial threat theory, which suggests that individuals feel politically and economically threatened in areas with a growing, large immigrant population, and thus hold negative attitudes. Drawing on data from multiple surveys and local anti-immigrant policies, Hopkins shows that hostile reactions to immigrants occur in politicized places, communities that experience a sudden influx of immigrants during salient national political debates.
Longazel, Jamie. In , Hazelton, Pennsylvania gained national notoriety as one of the leaders in the local restrictive policy movement aimed at immigrants. While Hopkins presents an overview of local-level anti-immigrant policies, Undocumented Fears presents a specific case study of one such policy, focusing on a high-profile example.
Varsanyi, Monica W. Cities and States. Utilizing case studies from across the United States, this interdisciplinary volume explores the recent explosion in state and local immigration policy activism. To help broaden our understanding of immigration devolution and federalism, the contributors examine the formation and implementation of policies that are both pro- and anti-immigrant. In a globalized world marred with conflicts, the number of refugees has increased dramatically. US refugee and asylum policy originally developed largely to protect individuals fleeing Communist and repressive regimes.
This act created the refugee resettlement program, through which the federal government collaborates with state and local governments and nonprofit organizations to help refugees become self-sufficient, supporting a range of programs, including English training and employment assistance. Chambers presents a contemporary view on the resettlement process, focusing on two Somali refugee communities to explore their differing political and social incorporation experiences.
Both Black and Hatton focus on international trends, including the causes and consequences of displaced peoples and policies governing refugees. In a reflection on the field of refugee studies, Black argues that scholars have failed to translate their findings into substantive policy changes but makes suggestions for avenues of future research. Hatton also examines policies in receiving countries and their effects on asylum applications.
As of , the United States admitted more refugees than any other nation, with caps on the number of refugees and asylum-seekers set annually by the president in consultation with Congress. Teitelbaum and Weiner and Espiritu emphasize foreign policy aspects of debates over refugee policy. Growing out of a conference aimed at policymakers, Teitelbaum and Weiner responds to a series of international migration crises in the s. This work assesses how best to handle the humanitarian challenges and national security threats for refugees and asylum seekers.
Writing from an ethnic studies perspective, Espiritu takes a far more critical view, arguing that refugee policies construct ideas about the types of political systems from which individuals should flee, and the types of systems in which they should seek refuge. Both Ramji-Nogales, et al. As scholars continue to develop research in this field, important methodological concerns also arise. Mackenzie, et al. Black, Richard. From a special issue on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, this article reviews the increase in scholarly work on refugees and looks at its impact on refugee policy.
This work is a useful starting place for scholars interested in better understanding the growing body of research on refuges. Bohmer, Carol, and Amy Shuman. Rejecting Refugees: Political Asylum in the 21st Century.
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Includes a useful overview of the asylum process in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The book also pays attention to the role of gender, and details the specific challenges faced by female asylum-seekers. Of particular interest to legal scholars as well as individuals interested in gendered differences among refugees.
Chambers, Stefanie. Chambers explores the process of political and social incorporation of Somali refugees in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, and Columbus, Ohio. This work expands the Immigrant Incorporation literature to focus on refugees, looking to explain how the Somali communities in the Twin Cities are doing better than those in Columbus.
Social Media's Impact On Self-Esteem
Espiritu, Yen Le. Focusing on the Vietnamese community in the United States, this book emphasizes that refugee policy cannot be detached from US foreign policy. Hatton, Timothy J. The article is a good introduction to existing research on the factors that cause people to seek asylum, particularly for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Ramji-Nogales, Jaya, Andrew I.
Schoenholtz, and Philip G. Refugee roulette: Disparities in asylum adjudication and proposals for reform. Clearly written and accessible, the authors present a helpful overview of the many steps in the adjudication process for asylum claims. They emphasize the ways in which decisions by specific individuals—from asylum officers to immigration judges to circuit courts—can significantly influence the chance of success for asylum claims at different points in this process.
Opens with a foreword by Senator Edward M. The authors propose a number of specific recommendations to this end in chapter 6. Teitelbaum, Michael S. New York: W. Norton, A number of distinguished scholars and policymakers contributed to this edited volume, which broadly addresses the multifaceted policy challenges of international migration involving refugees.
In contrast to Zucker and Chambers , which focus on the incorporation of refugees into the United States, this book studies refugees from an international perspective. Chapters emphasize the reciprocal relationship between domestic and foreign policy, including discussions of national security, humanitarian concerns, and border enforcement. Contains specific foreign policy recommendations, many of which share the goal of reducing the number of forced migrants. Zucker, Norman L. Discusses the historical development of federal resettlement policy, which emerged out of a series of ad hoc programs that developed during the Cold War era, and details the transformation of these policies into the Refugee Act of Zucker describes key provisions in the act, including the creation of the Office of the US Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and the Office of Refugee Resettlement, as well as other efforts, programs, and challenges toward creating a unified federal policy for refugees.
Broadly speaking, research on immigration and demographic trends focuses on questions related to where immigrants are settling and why. Portes and Rumbaut provides an impressive survey of these topics, incorporating a combination of data-driven research and descriptions of firsthand experiences in an engaging volume. Three excellent books focus specifically on the movement of immigrants into these new destinations. Marrow presents especially rich detail in an ethnographic account of the growth of the Latino population in two southern communities. A related work, Lay , examines responses to Latino immigrants in two rural new immigrant communities.
While much of the research on demographic trends focuses specifically on the Hispanic population, Junn and Haynie examines the ways in which shifting demographics influence identity politics in the United States both across and within racial and ethnic groups. Greer presents a different perspective, detailing the growth of Afro-Caribbean and African immigrants and their experiences.
Connecting to research on Immigrant Incorporation , Kasinitz, et al. Greer, Christina. New York: Oxford University Press, Greer examines the significance of race as it intersects with immigration. She provides new insight into the opinions and complex experiences of the increasing numbers of Afro-Caribbean and African migrants in the United States. Greer combines quantitative and qualitative methodologies to develop her theory of black elevated minority status, which suggests that black immigrants seek to attain an elevated status separate from their native-born black counterparts.
Junn, Jane, and Kerry L. Haynie, eds. This edited volume explores the changing demographics of the United States since the immigration reforms, and the ways in which this increasingly diverse population influences the shifting politics of race and ethnicity. Kasinitz, Philip, John H. Mollenkopf, Mary C. Waters, and Jennifer Holdaway, eds. Presents an in-depth study of the lives of second-generation immigrants in New York. Using a number of indicators, the authors find that the children of immigrants are doing better than their parents. Lay, J. Similar to Marrow and Massey , Lay studies a nontraditional destination for immigrants.
She uses a natural experiment, as two towns experienced an influx of immigrants and refugees from Asia and Latin America. She finds that young people in diverse communities have more favorable feelings toward immigrants and higher levels of civic engagement. Marrow, Helen. One of the first studies to explore Hispanic immigrant experiences in the new or nontraditional destinations of immigrants: the rural South. Her case study approach compliments the edited volume Massey Massey, Douglas S. Immigrant America: A Portrait. Extensive overview of demographic trends related to all aspects of contemporary immigration in the United States.
Text is comprehensive and approachable, particularly the first chapter, which provides nine portraits of immigrants that may help personalize immigration policy discussions for students. The questions of whether, how, and under what conditions immigrants incorporate into life in the United States are widely studied. Early research focused on the idea of assimilation, a now-controversial concept assuming that the incorporation of newcomers would happen naturally over time; in a process akin to a straight line, new immigrants would eventually lose the culture of their home country see also Dahl , under Historical Perspectives before Alba and Nee revisits the traditional assimilationist perspective, updating it to account for a diverse and multicultural America.
Challenging the traditional assimilation paradigm, Gans argues that incorporation should be understood as a bumpy line rather than a straight one. Portes and Zhou presents another alternative approach, introducing the concept of segmented assimilation theory, which emphasizes that the interaction of characteristics such as race, socioeconomic status, and linguistic abilities can lead to varied types of incorporation.
Brown and Bean presents an excellent overview of each of these approaches, synthesizing and contrasting the different theories. While much research about immigrant incorporation focuses on economic outcomes, a related stream of literature explores how immigrants see themselves. The excellent edited volume Gerstle and Mollenkopf describes a range of issues faced by immigrants as they incorporate into American life, comparing the incorporation of early European and contemporary immigrants.
Rogers presents an alternative perspective on immigrant incorporation through a focus on the Afro-Caribbean experience. Alba, Richard D.
Builds on earlier work by Alba and Nee to argue the utility of a revised version of assimilation theory in understanding the integration of contemporary immigrants into the United States. Brown, Susan K. This concise and accessible article presents a helpful overview of different models of immigrant assimilation in the United States. Brown and Bean explain the evolution of this literature, highlighting connections between Alba and Nee , Gans , Portes and Zhou , and other notable scholarship in line with these theoretical approaches.
Gans, Herbert J. Gans critiques the classic assimilationist paradigm, which envisions a straight line of incorporation by immigrants into the United States. Gerstle, Gary, and John Mollenkopf, eds. E Pluribus Unum? This interdisciplinary edited volume presents a historical perspective on immigrant incorporation, comparing contemporary experiences to those of European immigrants in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chapters cover a wide range of topics, from political machines to demographic trends to transnationalism in the lives of immigrants past and present.
Presents another alternative view to the classic assimilation model. Portes, Alejandro, and Min Zhou. Outlines the concept of segmented assimilation, detailing the ways that this concept challenges the traditional assimilation model. This article and subsequent books present an alternative perspective to that presented in Alba and Nee Rogers, Reuel Reuben. Explores the role of race in the incorporation process and political behavior of Afro-Caribbean immigrants in New York City.
Includes a clear presentation of different theories of political incorporation in the first chapter that would be useful for undergraduates and graduate students early in their career. Could also be used alongside Greer cited under Demographic Trends to focus specifically on the distinct experiences of Afro-Caribbean immigrants. Waters, Mary. Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. Countering the assimilationist idea that later-generation immigrants completely lose their cultural roots, Waters further develops the idea of selective, or optional, ethnicity.
Through a range of qualitative interviews with third- and fourth-generation white ethnics in California and Pennsylvania, she finds that later-generation immigrants choose whether and when to maintain connections to ethnic groups and symbols. Also connects to her co-authored work on second-generation immigrants see Kasinitz, et al. While research on immigrant incorporation focuses on the ways in which newcomers adapt to American life, a related body of literature specifically examines the political participation and partisanship of immigrants. Early accounts placed political parties and, in particular, political machines at the heart of efforts to incorporate certain groups of European immigrants and foster their political participation see Dahl , under Historical Perspectives before Leighley and Vedlitz , a notable article, tests different theories of political participation to see whether they apply across racial and ethnic groups, while Lee, et al.
Jones-Correa presents an ethnographic account to better understand low participation rates among Latinos in New York, with a particular focus on gendered differences. As an alternative to political parties, Wong focuses on the role of civic organizations to incorporate contemporary newcomers and mobilize them politically. The edited volume Ramakrishnan and Bloemraad builds on this emphasis, presenting comparative case studies that examine the work of a wide range of civic organizations mobilizing immigrants in varied contexts. The declining role of political parties in assisting newcomers is also associated with low levels of partisan identification, particularly among Asian Americans and Latinos.
While much literature on participation focuses on US citizens, Hayduk takes a different perspective, studying the question of voting rights of noncitizens. Erie, Steven P. Describes the role of political machines in promoting the participation of European immigrants, arguing that they operated unevenly across cities and ethnic groups. Erie contends that machines were primarily an Irish phenomenon, and did little to incorporate immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.
Hajnal, Zoltan, and Taeku Lee. Hajnal and Lee seek to understand variation in political partisanship by race and ethnicity. They theorize that partisan identification is a two-stage process, with individuals first deciding whether or not to identify with a party, and then deciding whether to choose between Democrats and Republicans.
They find that many Asian Americans and Latinos opt to be non-identifiers, explaining the low levels of political partisanship within these groups. Hayduk, Ronald. Hayduk presents a thorough history of noncitizen voting in the United States, advocating for the inclusion of noncitizens in the political process as an issue of fairness. Hayduk looks at jurisdictions where noncitizen voting is allowed, in places such as Maryland and Chicago, and details several modern campaigns to restore the right of immigrant noncitizens to vote.
Jones-Correa, Michael. Also explores gendered differences in political participation, making the book of particular interest to students and scholars interested in how Latinas participate politically. Lee, Taeku, S. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Focusing on immigrants arriving since , this edited volume includes contributions from scholars in political science and sociology, examining immigrant demographics, incorporation, mobilization, and political participation.
Explores a wide range of questions, including how immigrants are redefining the traditional black-white paradigm of racial relations in the United States the meaning and acquisition of citizenship and the cultural and political incorporation of Latino and Asian immigrants.
'An institute of community participation' - The Dulwich Centre
Provides a helpful introduction to these themes for undergraduate students. Leighley, Jan E. First article to test a range of theories about political participation across whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans. They also find limited support for a relationship between group consciousness and participation across groups.
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Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick, and Irene Bloemraad, eds. Expanding on the work of Wong , emphasizes variation based on a number of factors, including residential, political, and economic context; which ethnic groups are participating; and the type of civic organization involved. While case studies focus primarily on sub-national comparisons within the United States, several chapters also feature cross-national comparisons. Wong, Janelle S. As an alternative to the traditional work done by political parties to organize immigrants politically, Wong details the strengths and challenges of civic institutions, including labor unions, social service organizations, and religious institutions, which have increasingly taken on this role.
Research on public opinion about immigration policy and politics is expansive, with much of this research focusing on factors that influence attitudes within the majority white population. Scholarship incorporates interdisciplinary perspectives, including ideas from political economy and social psychology. Hainmueller and Hopkins is an excellent starting point for understanding these different theoretical approaches.
This review piece presents a detailed discussion of explanations focusing on both economic self-interest and cultural threat. With respect to economic self-interest, research asks two primary questions. First, at the individual level, will low-skilled workers feel a greater sense of threat from low-wage immigrants?
Second, to what extent do broader macroeconomic concerns such as social welfare spending shape attitudes toward immigration policy? With respect to methodology, much of this research uses large-scale survey data. Consistent with this approach, Scheve and Slaughter test the economic perspective, finding that low-wage workers are most likely to oppose immigration across contexts. Increasingly, experimental research is also being conducted to test these different theories.
Another school of thought argues that sociotropic cultural factors, such as those outlined in Huntington cited under Anti-immigrant Backlash , drive opposition to immigration. Support for these ideas are vast. Citrin, et al. Using experimental data, Brader, et al. Schildkraut and Masuoka and Junn both examine attitudes across groups, treating immigration policy as indicative of broader attitudes about inclusion and belonging in the United States. Brader, Ted, Nicholas A. Valentino, and Elizabeth Suhay.
Anxiety, Group Cues, and Immigration Threat. Focuses on the centrality of cultural threats and the role of the media in shaping immigration attitudes. The article describes two different experiments in which individuals were given fictional news stories about immigrants. Authors found that article tone and cues about ethnicity and skill-level can lead to negative emotional responses and anxiety. Citrin, Jack, Donald P.
Green, Christopher Muste, and Cara Wong. Citrin and colleagues use data from the and American National Election Survey. They find limited support for the importance of individual-level economic factors such as job competition. Instead, they argue that macrolevel economic factors and attitudes about Latinos and Asians drive immigration policy preferences.
They want to produce new culture. That is their self-defining role. Now, what are some flip sides to this? As Heather Dewey-Hagborg has pointed out, new media art is a community that combines the world of computer science and the art world, and unfortunately, it can, especially in its demographics, inherit the worst aspects of both. Put that together, and you start to see some of the pathologies that we are definitely feeling right now in media arts and emerging media. This is relatively reinforced by schools like mine.
Continuing these patterns might make the implicit bias effect of media become exponentially more dangerous. Even well-meaning people and institutions — seeking to further social justice and advocate for underrepresented communities by presenting images of them in crisis — inadvertently contribute to the pervasive and narrow set of deficit-based identity images that perpetuate about those communities. At foundations, program officers supporting media need to be aware of how always representing problems in narratives can deepen prejudices.
We see the same story with the same kind of people, replicated over and over again in media.
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Do a story about two people of color in love in the future. Those stories are not considered as valuable as a story about a poor kid in the ghetto overcoming poverty, because it makes people feel good to see that poor story. A few interviewees raised the point that, in addition to tech, gaming and film, the fine arts community has similar challenges in valuing women and people of color in an equitable manner. For example, they are far less likely to have large-scale, solo exhibitions as their white male counterparts, even when they have robust or innovative bodies of work. She produces one major work a year, but almost all of them are exhibited overseas Interviewees also raised concerns around patterns of regional exclusion.
Of course there is a longtime pattern in human history of developing regional market and industry hubs. However, considering the power of story to impact every aspect of our identity, regional diversity is valuable. Emerging media industries seem to be following the established patterns of traditional tech and media, which tend to ignore important regions such as the Global South.
There have also been robust calls for re-assessing how we include people with atypical human limitations, such as physical and intellectual disabilities. This is especially unfair when the technology itself can be a mechanism for further inclusion that was not possible even a generation ago. To combat this, the makers of an art project from Canada called for creative technologists to help create cyborg-like ways of overcoming disabilities by creating superhuman capabilities. For example, the subject of the project Upgrade Required — who only has the use of his eyes — imagined brainwave technology that would allow him to pilot nano-spacecraft.