Plestiodon laticeps is the most phenotypically distinct of the three Plestiodon species examined in this study. Individuals of P. Furthermore, P. These values are consistent with published maximum sizes for each species. For example, P. These data are consistent with the much debated Hutchinsonian ratio, which is the body size ratio 1.
The ratio of P.
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Owing primarily to this difference in adult size, P. This could potentially explain the observation that P. However, the large amount of size overlap by P. Therefore, physiological differences associated with temperature change may play an important role in niche segregation between these two species. Considerable variation in resting mass-specific exists in scincid lizards Table 1 and S1 Table.
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Some of this variation may result from size differences, age differences and seasonal changes in metabolic rate. Additionally, prandial state has a major effect on metabolic rate as a result of specific dynamic action in many lizard species Additionally, and beyond scincid lizards, habitat has a notable effect on metabolic rate.
For example, desert geckos in the genus Rhoptropus have unusually low mass-specific metabolic rates, which may correlate with both their habitat and life style [ 23 ]. Resting in Plestiodon , ranging between 0. Moreover, even at higher or lower temperatures, of the three species showed similar rates of metabolism except for P. Scaling effects on metabolism have been studied in lizards. For example, a recent study on the agamid lizard Uromastyx philbyi [ 34 ] has shown profound effects of body mass and, of course, temperature on mass-specfic metabolic rate.
In the present study the very small size range between individuals within a species and even between species of Plestiodon precludes meaningful allometric analysis. Future studies should involve measurement of metabolic rate in a larger range of individuals e. However, closer examination of the metabolic temperature sensitivity reveals that there several factors affecting Q 10 , including season, nutritional state and proximity of the measurement temperature to the animals preferred body temperature.
Metabolic thermal sensitivity in Plestiodon , as reflected in the Q 10 for , ranged from approximately 3. These values are similar to those reported for the desert skink Scincus mitranus , whose Q 10 values ranged from 2. Q 10 s ranging from 1. Generally, the present values are within the high end of the normal published range of temperature sensitivity for resting metabolic rate exhibited by vertebrate poikilotherms [ 39 — 44 ]. Although the present study did not examine metabolic Q 10 over the entire range of tolerable temperatures for each species of Plestiodon , high Q 10 values at extreme temperatures for the species were evident in both P.
These metabolic temperature sensitivities are further supported by our personal observations that P. Similar data have been reported for the scincid lizard Scincella lateralis [ 37 ]. This laboratory finding would seem contradictory with the fact that body temperatures of basking P. This is also inconsistent with the findings for two nocturnal gecko species, Ptylodactylus hasselquistii and Bunopus tuberculatus , which exhibited a low metabolic thermal dependence at temperatures that approximate their preferred body temperatures [ 46 ].
Consequently, P. The closed canopy forest habitat of this species dictates that P. However, prolonged exposure to this temperature appears physiologically untenable, even as it is acutely beneficial. Plestiodon laticeps can be found in sympatry with P. This distribution could be explained, at least in part, by the metabolic thermal sensitivity of each species, as reflected in the metabolic Q 10 patterns presented in the current study.
Conversely, P. Established geographic distributions [ 2 , 7 ] suggest that the metabolic temperature sensitivity of these species strongly reflects the temperature characteristics of the local niche that each occupies, and may be an important mechanism underlying their distributions. Here, we extend this concept to include the occupation of metabolic niches of ectotherms based upon their metabolic responses to temperature. These findings support our hypotheses as all three species inhabit microhabitats that reflect their metabolic response to temperature and the two like-sized species show significantly different temperature responses that could limit their ability to co-exist.
Generally, metabolic rates are species-specific and, for ectothermic organisms, will vary across temperatures. The preferred temperature required to maintain a metabolic rate conducive to homeostasis therefore also varies among species. In the case of Plestiodon fasciatus and P. Although they exhibit morphological similarities that have historically caused them to be considered a single species, the current study demonstrates P.
These differences could explain a mechanism by which they may be segregated in time and space across the landscape, therefore maintaining an allopatric relationship at the microhabitat scale while remaining regionally sympatric. Therefore, P. Laura Gough and the Gough laboratory at UTexas-Arlington were particularly important to the completion of this project by providing funding and advice throughout this entire project.
Conceptualization: Watson and Burggren. Formal analysis: Watson. Funding acquisition: Burggren. Investigation: Watson. Methodology: Watson and Burggren. Resources: Burggren. Writing — original draft: Watson and Burggren. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.
Introduction Ecological physiologists have long questioned how species distribution is affected by local environment, phenotype and phylogenesis. Materials and Methods Animal Collection Lizards were collected during the spring and summer of and throughout the Southeastern United States from areas where all three species are regionally sympatric.
Animal Maintenance Individuals were maintained in the laboratory for a minimum of 1 month prior to the beginning of metabolic oxygen consumption measurements. Download: PPT. Fig 1.
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Protocol for temperature acclimation for oxygen consumption measurements in Plestiodon fasciatus , Plestiodon inexpectatus , and Plestiodon laticeps. Respirometry Resting values were measured via standard closed-system respirometry techniques described for terrestrial and aquatic animals [ 18 — 20 ].
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Data Analysis and Statistics Resting values were log-transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality. Fig 2. Size distribution, with individual regression lines for adult Plestiodon fasciatus , P. Fig 3. Fig 4. Q 10 values for resting oxygen consumption for the scincid lizards Plestiodon fasciatus , Plestiodon inexpectatus , and Plestiodon laticeps. Discussion Size Relationships Plestiodon laticeps is the most phenotypically distinct of the three Plestiodon species examined in this study.
Resting Oxygen Consumption Considerable variation in resting mass-specific exists in scincid lizards Table 1 and S1 Table. Supporting Information. S1 Table. Mass and mass-specific oxygen consumption rate for all specimens and trials. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Watson and Burggren. References 1.
The food of some lizards from Fort Benning, Georgia. View Article Google Scholar 2. Conant R, Collins JT. New York: Houghton Mifflin; Taylor EH. Eumeces inexpectatus : A new American lizard of the family Scincidae. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin. View Article Google Scholar 4. Eumeces laticeps : a neglected species of skink. View Article Google Scholar 5. A taxonomic study of the cosmopolitan scincoid lizards of the genus Eumeces with an account of the distribution and relationships of its species.
View Article Google Scholar 6. Davis D. A study of the variation in North American lizards of the fasciatus group of the genus Eumeces Scincidae : Duke University; Mount RH. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Fitch HS. Life history and ecology of the five-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus. View Article Google Scholar 9. Watson CM, Gough L. The role of temperature in determining distributions and coexistence of three species of Plestiodon.
J Therm Biol. View Article Google Scholar Jordan DS. The law of geminate species. Am Nat. A comparison of maximum sprint speed among the five-lined skinks Plestiodon of the Southeastern United States at ecologically relevant temperatures. Herp Conserv Biol. Michigan Turtles and Lizards. Influence of feeding on the metabolic rate of the lizard, Eulamprus tympanum. Specific dynamic action of ambystomatid salamanders and the impact of meal size, meal type, and body temperature.
Physiol Biochem Zool. Metabolic, ventilatory, and acid-base responses associated with specific dynamic action in the toad Bufo marinus. Physiol Zool. The effect of meal composition on specific dynamic action in burmese pythons Python molurus.
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Physiol Biochem Zoology. Determinants and repeatability of the specific dynamic response of the corn snake, Pantherophis guttatus. Comp Biochem Physiology A. Developmental changes in cardiac and metabolic physiology of the direct-developing tropical frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. J Exp Biol. Gore M, Burggren WW. Cardiac and metabolic physiology of early larval zebrafish Danio rerio reflects parental swimming stamina.
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Oxford: Oxford University Press; Vleck D. Measurement of O 2 consumption, CO 2 production, and water vapor production in a closed system. J Appl Physiol. Hutchinson GE. Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals. Low field metabolic rates for geckos of the genus Rhoptropus may not be surprising.
J Arid Environ. Measuring Metabolic Rates demystifies the field of metabolic rate measurement, explaining every common variation of the art, from century-old manometric methods through ingenious syringe-based techniques, direct calorimetry, aquatic respirometry, stable-isotope metabolic measurement, and every type of flow-through respirometry. Each variation is described in enough detail to allow it to be applied in practice. Special chapters are devoted to metabolic phenotyping and human metabolic measurement, including room calorimetry. Background information on different analyzer and equipment types allows Background information on different analyzer and equipment types allows users to choose the best instruments for their application.
Respirometry equations—normally a topic of terror and confusion to researchers—are derived and described in enough detail to make their selection and use effortless. Vital topics such as manual and automated baselining, implementing multi-animal systems, common pitfalls, and the correct analysis and presentation of metabolic data are covered in enough detail to turn a respirometry neophyte into a hardened metabolic warrior, ready to take on the task of publication in peer-reviewed journals with confidence.
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Keywords: metabolic measurement , metabolic rate , metabolic phenotyping , oxygen consumption , RQ , RER , energy expenditure , room calorimeter. John R. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0. University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in.